The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends

Charles H. Dickens

The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of U.S. academic engineering research universities and several major trends affecting them. The paper provides summary descriptive text and an appendix with tabulations selected from a variety of data sources.

"Engineering research universities" are those institutions that reported research and development (R&D) expenditures for engineering or computer science in the 1991 National Science Foundation survey of R&D expenditures of universities and colleges. There are 219 such institutions.1 For the purposes of this paper, the term "engineering" includes computer science.

The paper is divided into four major sections and a data appendix. The first section describes the recent history and current status of the U.S. academic engineering research structure. Some major characteristics of the 219 engineering research universities are presented, including activities of organized engineering research centers and laboratories and federal programs that support engineering research centers. Characteristics of faculty and other engineers employed by academic institutions are described. Postdoctoral fellows are discussed in terms of their distribution by field, gender, and sources of support. Information on student enrollments is presented for undergraduate and graduate students by field, gender, and minority status. Trends in bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees awarded are presented by field and gender.

The second major section presents funding of academic engineering research. Government sources of support for academic research by field and category of research are described. Trends in research and development



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends Charles H. Dickens The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of U.S. academic engineering research universities and several major trends affecting them. The paper provides summary descriptive text and an appendix with tabulations selected from a variety of data sources. "Engineering research universities" are those institutions that reported research and development (R&D) expenditures for engineering or computer science in the 1991 National Science Foundation survey of R&D expenditures of universities and colleges. There are 219 such institutions.1 For the purposes of this paper, the term "engineering" includes computer science. The paper is divided into four major sections and a data appendix. The first section describes the recent history and current status of the U.S. academic engineering research structure. Some major characteristics of the 219 engineering research universities are presented, including activities of organized engineering research centers and laboratories and federal programs that support engineering research centers. Characteristics of faculty and other engineers employed by academic institutions are described. Postdoctoral fellows are discussed in terms of their distribution by field, gender, and sources of support. Information on student enrollments is presented for undergraduate and graduate students by field, gender, and minority status. Trends in bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees awarded are presented by field and gender. The second major section presents funding of academic engineering research. Government sources of support for academic research by field and category of research are described. Trends in research and development

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise expenditures at engineering research universities are presented by field and source of funds. Support sources for graduate students as research assistants and for postdoctoral appointees are described. Information is presented on the mission basis for government research support. Support for academic engineering research from industry, universities' own funds, and from foreign sources is described. The third section addresses the nature and scope of relationships between engineering research and education. Topics covered include participation in research by undergraduate students, graduate engineering students, and engineering faculty, postdoctorates, and other academic engineers. The fourth section includes definitions, limitations, and principal data sources used in this paper. Significant gaps in currently available data are discussed. RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE U.S. ACADEMIC RESEARCH STRUCTURE This section describes U.S. engineering research universities, organized engineering research units, and major human resources for engineering, including faculty and other engineering employees, postdoctoral appointments, student enrollments, and degrees awarded. Engineering Research Universities In 1991 there were 219 universities and colleges that reported research and development expenditures for engineering and computer science. (See Table 1, Dickens Appendix.) Of these institutions, 168 reported R&D expenditures for both engineering and computer science, 37 reported expenditures for engineering only, and 18 reported expenditures for computer science only. The majority of the 219 institutions were public (158), and 61 were private. Since these 219 institutions were selected on the basis of their R&D expenditures for engineering and computer science, they include a variety of universities and colleges when viewed in terms of other classification systems. For example, the 1994 Carnegie Classification for these 219 institutions is as follows: Research Universities I-83; Research Universities II - 36; Doctoral Universities I-30; Doctoral Universities II - 32; Master's Universities and Colleges I - 29; Baccalaureate Colleges I - 3; and Professional Schools and Specialized Institutions - 6. The Research I Universities accounted for 70 percent of the R&D expenditures for engineering and computer science in 1991.

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise The 1991 National Science Foundation survey of graduate enrollments reported 1,464 graduate engineering departments, of which 1,260, or 86 percent, were at doctorate-granting institutions. There were 274 computer science departments with graduate enrollments, with 187, or 68 percent, of these departments at doctorate-granting universities. Engineering Research Centers and Laboratories There is great variety in the internal organization of engineering research universities. In addition to departments, there are a large number of engineering research centers and laboratories, which may or may not be within departments or even within engineering colleges. In an NSF-funded study currently under way, Robert P. Morgan and his colleagues identified 1,030 organized, university-based engineering research units at 154 universities within the study population; there may be others. These research units were defined "very broadly to include units that either are totally within engineering schools or that may not be within engineering schools but involve engineering faculty and staff."2 Morgan and colleagues found that these organized research units were relatively recent organizations, with one-half being founded since 1983. Many of these units were created "to provide a focal point for certain research activities and to attract funding and facilities."3 The research activities of the units surveyed by Morgan and colleagues included a broad range of engineering disciplines. The overall distribution of research effort as described by the responding unit directors was about equally divided among basic research, applied research, and development. In addition, Morgan and coauthors reported that, when asked into which of six broad critical technology areas the work of the units fell, the directors indicated the following divisions: Materials 45% Energy and environment 42% Manufacturing 29% Information and communications 27% Aeronautics and surface transportation 17% Biotechnology and life sciences 13%4 Federally Sponsored University Center Programs. Six federal departments and independent agencies sponsor university research centers, many of which have an engineering focus. A 1993 report of the National Research Council's Transportation Research Board reported 281 centers being funded through nine federal programs:5

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise   No. of Centers U.S. Department of Transportation   University Transportation Centers Program 13 National Science Foundation   Engineering Research Centers Program 18 Science and Technology Centers Program 25 Materials Research Laboratories 10 Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers Program 50 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)   Manufacturing Technology Centers Program 7 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)   University Space Engineering Research Centers 8 Department of Defense   University Research Initiative 113 Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines   Mineral Institute Program 37 NSF-Funded Engineering Research Centers. In 1985 the National Science Foundation established the Engineering Research Centers (ERC) Program in accordance with a model envisioned by the National Academy of Engineering. The program was motivated by three major concerns: To restore U.S. industrial prowess in turning research discoveries into high-quality, competitive products; to give greater emphasis to the design of manufacturing processes and products; and to better prepare engineering graduates to meet the needs of U.S. industry. Each ERC is established as a three-way partnership involving academia, industry, and the National Science Foundation. Annual funding for an ERC ranges from $2.5 million to $8.0 million, with the NSF contribution ranging from $1.8 million to $3.3 million a year. The fiscal year 1995 budget requests $51.5 million for the ERC program. The distribution of the 18 current NSF ERCs by major technological area of focus is as follows:6 Design and manufacturing 5 Materials processing for manufacturing 3 Optoelectronics/microelectronics/telecommunications 4 Biotechnology/bioengineering 3 Energy and resource recovery 2 Infrastructure 1 Faculty and Other Engineers Employed by Academic Institutions The engineering R&D activities of research universities rely heavily on faculty, nonfaculty research staff, postdoctoral appointees, and graduate research assistants. Doctorate-holders employed by academic institutions. Over the period 1979 to 1989, the overall employment of doctoral engineers and computer

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise specialists increased by 72 percent. (See Table 2, Dickens Appendix, for data on academic employment of doctorates.) All fields experienced growth, ranging from 23 percent for materials engineering to 178 percent for computer science. The large percentage increase for computer specialists reflects the small number in the base year. The proportion of doctoral engineers and computer specialists who were active in research and development increased from 76 percent in 1979 to 79 percent in 1989. There were variations by field in the staff active in research and development. Increases were noted except for aerospace and civil engineers and computer specialists. The proportion of chemical engineers active in research and development had the largest gain, increasing from 73 percent in 1979 to 92 percent in 1989. Faculty and nonfaculty research staff. Compared with other aspects of the academic engineering research enterprise, there is sparse information on faculty in universities and colleges.7 In academic year 1992–93, there were more than 21,000 engineering faculty at U.S. universities and colleges.8 The U.S. Department of Education, with the cosponsorship of the National Science Foundation, is conducting the ''1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty." When completed, this study should provide substantially more information than has been available on the characteristics and activities of faculty in engineering, computer science, and other fields. The coverage of separate engineering fields, however, is limited to the following: general engineering; civil engineering; electrical, electronics, and communications engineering; mechanical engineering; chemical engineering; other engineering; and engineering-related technologies. According to a similar, but less-detailed, U.S. Department of Education survey for academic year 1987–88, the full-time regular instructional engineering faculty (including engineering-related technologies) in postsecondary education were predominately male (98 percent) and predominately white, non-Hispanic (87 percent). The majority (64 percent) of the engineering faculty held doctorates. The distributions of engineering faculty by age and academic rank were somewhat like those for the natural sciences, except that a higher proportion of engineers were in the oldest category and there was a higher proportion of assistant professors in engineering.9   Age Academic rank   Less than 40 60 and older Prof. Assoc. prof. Asst. prof. Engineering 23% 14% 41% 24% 23% Natural sciences 23% 9% 38% 23% 18% The numbers of engineering faculty have increased over the years since a 1980 NSF-sponsored survey found that there were 16,200 permanent, full-

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise time engineering faculty positions.10 According to a 1986 National Science Foundation survey of doctorate-level departments in six engineering fields—aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, and mechanical—there were approximately 9,800 full-time faculty in these departments. About 70 percent of these faculty were tenured. These departments also reported 615 nonfaculty doctoral personnel who were employed full-time as professional researchers.11 The engineering departments surveyed in 1986 by the National Science Foundation reported that the full-time faculty had submitted more than 14,200 research proposals during the previous year (defined as July 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985). In contrast, members of the nonfaculty doctoral research staff were much less likely than faculty members to submit research proposals on which they would be the principal investigator; for this group the number of proposals submitted was about 240.12 Postdoctorates. Postdoctoral fellows and associates form a substantial part of the research staff at doctorate-granting academic institutions. (See Table 3, Dickens Appendix, for data on postdoctorates by field, citizenship, and gender.) In 1991 there were 2,406 postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science departments, almost all of whom (2,394 or 99.5 percent) were at doctorate-granting universities. Over two-thirds (68 percent) of the postdoctorates were in four fields: Chemical engineering 25% Materials engineering 17% Mechanical engineering 14% Electrical engineering 13% Non-U.S. citizens held the majority of postdoctoral appointments in all fields of engineering. The overall proportion of non-U.S. citizens in 1991 was 70 percent; by field, this proportion ranged from 30 percent for computer science to 80 percent for materials engineering. The number of postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science departments grew dramatically between 1980 and 1991, increasing 136 percent. By field, the increases ranged from 52 percent in civil engineering to 285 percent in aerospace engineering. Chemical engineering, which had the largest number of postdoctoral appointees in 1991, had an increase of 215 percent over this period. Women increased their overall representation among postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science from 7 percent in 1980 to 11 percent in 1991. Chemical engineering had the largest share of the female postdoctorates in 1991, 35 percent. (Chemical engineering had 23 percent of the male postdoctorates in 1991. See Table 4, Dickens Appendix, for data on postdoctoral appointees by field and source of support.) The num-

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise ber of female postdoctorates in computer science departments grew from 2 in 1980 to 27 in 1991, but the large variations in their numbers over this period made it difficult to give a precise sense of their share of the total. In 1990, for example, 13 percent of the computer science postdoctorates were women, compared with 18 percent in 1989 and 17 percent in 1991. Overall, federal sources provided the support for two-thirds (67 percent) of the postdoctoral appointees in engineering and computer science departments at doctorate-granting universities in 1991. The principal mechanism of federal support was through research grants, which accounted for 94 percent of the federally supported postdoctorates. Except for industrial engineering, the majority of postdoctoral appointees were supported by federal sources. In industrial engineering departments, 17 of the 27 postdoctoral appointees (63 percent) were supported by nonfederal sources. Other nonfaculty research staff with doctorates. Engineering and computer science departments reported 731 nonfaculty research staff with doctorates in 1991, all but one of whom were at doctorate-granting institutions. Women represented 10 percent of these nonfaculty doctoral research staff. In general, there was less than one such staff member per engineering department at doctorate-granting institutions, the exception being departments of materials engineering. (See Table 5, Dickens Appendix, for the 1991 distribution of nonfaculty doctoral research staff.) Student Enrollments in Engineering Undergraduate students. One indicator of student awareness of career opportunities is changes in the preferences for majors and careers shown by first-year college students. According to data from an annual survey of incoming college students conducted since 1966, interest in engineering as a career has fluctuated, falling from 8.9 percent in 1966 to a low of 4.7 percent, then rising to a peak of 12.0 percent in 1982, followed by another decline to 8.1 percent in 1990. Women's interest in engineering careers rose from 0.2 percent in 1966 to a peak of 3.6 percent in 1982 then declined to 2.4 percent by 1990.13 The proportion of underrepresented minority students—African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics—intending to major in engineering increased strongly over the past 20 years, rising from 7.3 percent in 1972 to 17.7 percent in 1992.14 (See Table 6, Dickens Appendix, for data on career preferences of first-year college students.) According to the Engineering Workforce Commission, full-time undergraduate engineering enrollment in the fall of 1992 was 344,126, an increase of 1.4 percent over the fall of 1991. (See Table 7, Dickens Appendix, for data on undergraduate engineering enrollment.) The enrollment of part-time undergraduates decreased by more than 5.4 percent to 38,399.

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Total undergraduate engineering enrollment in 1992 was 382,525, an increase of more than 2,500 over 1991. Although the fall 1992 undergraduate enrollment in engineering was substantially below the fall 1983 level of 441,451, the mix of students was different. In 1983 there were 406,144 full-time students and 35,061 part-time students. For full-time students, the 1983 figure was the largest on record. For part-time students, however, the peak enrollment figure was the 41,445 recorded in the fall of 1990.15 The enrollment of women and underrepresented minorities continued to increase. In the fall of 1992, women represented over 19 percent of first-year students and over 17 percent of all full-time undergraduates. Underrepresented minorities (African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans) increased their representation among first-year students to 17 percent and among all full-time undergraduates to over 13 percent. The representation of women and these minorities in 1992 were historically high levels.16 Graduate students. There are three sources of information on graduate engineering enrollments—the American Society for Engineering Education, the Engineering Workforce Commission, and the National Science Foundation. The NSF data are used for this section because they also provide information on graduate enrollment in computer science departments. It should be noted, however, that the NSF data include all computer science departments, not just those within engineering colleges. In the fall of 1991, the NSF survey of graduate departments reported 149,135 graduate students in engineering and computer science, a record high level. (See Table 8, Dickens Appendix, for information on total graduate enrollment.) Between 1972 and 1991, total graduate enrollment in engineering departments increased by 171 percent. Departments in all fields experienced growth in graduate enrollment over this period, ranging from 65 percent for chemical engineering to 685 percent for computer science. In the 1970s, the growth of part-time graduate enrollment was 89 percent, compared with 31 percent for full-time enrollment. All fields except aerospace engineering experienced growth. The increases ranged from 25 percent for materials engineering to 164 percent for computer science. Enrollment in aerospace engineering decreased by 26 percent overall, with declines in both full-time and part-time graduate students. (NSF did not collect data on graduate enrollment by gender during most of the 1970s.) The graduate enrollment picture was different during the period 1980 to 1991. All fields experienced growth in enrollment, with increases of full-time students accounting for the larger part of the gain. Part-time graduate enrollment decreased, however, in chemical engineering departments over this period. Between 1980 and 1991, overall engineering graduate enrollment increased by a much greater percentage for women than for men, but in 1991

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise men still accounted for a substantial majority (84 percent) of engineering graduate students in all fields. The computer science departments had a somewhat different pattern of graduate enrollment growth over the 1980–1991 period. The overall increase in enrollment was 156 percent, with the growth in part-time enrollment exceeding that for full-time students. There was relatively little difference in the increase in full-time enrollments for women and men, but the increase in part-time enrollment for women was substantially greater than that for men. Over the 1980–1991 period, the proportion of graduate computer science enrollment represented by women increased slightly from 23 percent to 24 percent. (See Table 9, Dickens Appendix, for information on full-time and part-time graduate students.) Degrees Awarded in Engineering and Computer Science Bachelor's degrees. From 1966, when computer science degree data were first reported by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the numbers of baccalaureates awarded in engineering and computer science increased each year until 1986, growing from 35,904 to 119,015 (an increase of 231 percent). Much of this growth resulted from the rapid rise in degrees in computer science and from the strong increases in the numbers of engineering degrees awarded to women. After 1986, however, the numbers of baccalaureates awarded each year in both engineering and computer science declined, with computer science having the sharper decrease. When viewed by gender and field, the patterns were somewhat different. For women, engineering bachelor's degrees grew very rapidly until 1985, leveled off, and then began to decline. (Table 10, Dickens Appendix, presents data on bachelor's degrees by field and gender.) The peak year for engineering baccalaureates awarded to women was 1987 at 11,404, which was more than 78 times greater that the 146 degrees women earned in 1966. By 1990 baccalaureates awarded to women had decreased to 9,973, a decline of 13 percent from 1987. For men, there was a smaller overall rise, followed by a larger decline in the numbers of engineering bachelor's degrees. The growth in degrees awarded to men ended in 1985, two years earlier than for women. The 66,326 engineering baccalaureates awarded to men in 1985 was 86 percent above the figure for 1966. By 1990 the number of these degrees awarded to men had declined from the 1985 peak to 54,732, a decrease of 17 percent. For computer science, the numbers of bachelor's degrees awarded to both men and women increased rapidly from 1966. For men, baccalaureates in computer science rose from 76 in 1966 to a peak of 27,069 in 1986 and then declined to 19,321 in 1990, a drop of 29 percent. The growth in women's baccalaureates in computer science was also very large, rising

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise from 13 in 1966 to a peak of 15,126 in 1986. By 1990 the number of computer science bachelor's degrees awarded to women had dropped to 8,374, a decline of 45 percent from the 1986 figure. (Table 11, Dickens Appendix, presents data on master's degrees awarded by field and gender.) The 219 engineering research universities awarded almost two-thirds (65 percent) of the engineering baccalaureates in 1990. There was considerable difference in this proportion by field of engineering, ranging from 49 percent for aeronautical engineering to 74 for materials engineering. In contrast, the engineering research universities awarded only about one-third (32.0 percent) of the bachelor's degrees in computer science. (See Table 1.) Master's degrees. The number of master's degrees awarded in engineering and computer science fields grew dramatically over the 1966–1990 period, increasing from 13,916 to 33,638, a gain of 142 percent. The contribution of women to this increase is seen in their share of master's degrees, which rose from 0.7 percent in 1966 to 18 percent in 1990. Women earned 93 master's degrees in these fields in 1966 and 5,944 in 1990. For both men and women, the number of master's degrees awarded in these fields in 1990 was the largest over this period. During the 1970s, the number of master's degrees awarded in many engineering fields declined. There followed a period of growth in the 1980s. Civil and chemical engineering reached their maximum numbers in 1984 and 1985, respectively. From their mid-decade peaks, the number of master's degrees in these fields declined by 10 percent for civil engineering and 34 percent for chemical engineering. Mechanical and materials engineering had their largest number of master's degrees in 1989 and had small decreases in 1990. In contrast, the number of master's degrees awarded in computer science increased throughout the 1966–1990 period. Doctor's degrees. The 1966–1991 period may be divided into three distinct phases in terms of the number of doctorates awarded in engineering and computer science: (1) From 1966 to 1972 there was a large increase in these degrees, rising from 2,301 to 3,509; (2) between 1972 and 1978 a decline to 2,546 in the number of these doctorates erased most of the Phase One increase; and (3) from 1978 to 1991 there was a new period of growth, slow at first and then rapid after 1985. The total of 6,009 doctorates awarded in 1991 represents a new high record. The decline during the 1970s was accounted for by the drop in doctorates awarded to U.S. citizen and permanent resident males. Although their numbers continued to decline until 1982, the effect was offset by the strong growth in the number of doctorates awarded to foreign citizen males who were temporary residents of the United States. After 1982 doctorates awarded to U.S. citizen and permanent resident males began to increase again, helping fuel the growth in engineering and computer science degrees at this level. All fields of engineering shared

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise in the growth. (See Table 12, Dickens Appendix, for data on doctorates awarded in engineering and computer science by citizenship and gender.) Much of the growth in the number of engineering doctorates was accounted for by foreign students with temporary resident status; and, in 1991, for the first time, the number of doctorates awarded to temporary residents exceeded the number awarded to U.S. citizens and permanent residents. By field, the greatest increases in the number of doctorates awarded to temporary residents were in electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. In computer science, as well, foreign citizen temporary residents received an increasing share of doctor's degrees. In 1991 they received 42 percent of computer science doctorates, up from 20 percent in 1980. The increasing number of foreign citizens among recipients of engineering and computer science doctorates from U.S. universities is also reflected in the nationality of the baccalaureate-origin institutions. In a special analysis, the National Science Foundation compared U.S. with foreign baccalaureate-origin institutions for doctorate recipients during the period from 1985 to 1990. The data are presented in Table 2. Women were major contributors to the growth in doctorates in engineering and computer science between 1980 and 1991. The number of women receiving doctorates in engineering increased 402 percent from 1980 to 1991, with temporary residents gaining 813 percent, compared with 309 percent for U.S. citizens and permanent residents. As a result of this growth, the share of all engineering doctorates awarded to women increased from 4 percent in 1980 to 9 percent in 1991. By field, the largest number of doctorates awarded in 1991 to female temporary residents were in electrical engineering (30 or 22 percent); the leading fields for U.S. citizen and permanent resident females were other engineering (72 or 24 percent) and chemical engineering (60 or 20 percent). The number of computer science doctorates awarded to women grew by 452 percent between 1980 and 1991, compared with 242 percent for men. Women's share of computer science doctorates rose from 10 percent in 1980 to 15 percent in 1991. FUNDING OF ACADEMIC ENGINEERING RESEARCH Government Sources of Support for Academic Research by Field and Category of Research All fields. In 1991, U.S. academic institutions reported overall R&D expenditures of approximately $17.2 billion for all fields, including engineering and computer science. (See Table 1 for a listing of these 219 institutions in rank order by R&D expenditures for 1991.) The activity distribution for these expenditures was basic research, 65.5 percent, applied

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 Federal sources (Current dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 679,426 766,815 812,370 873,853 951,599 1,062,822 1,210,239 Engineering, subtotal 591,956 662,620 690,927 734,914 788,679 867,105 977,578 Aerospace 42,219 43,529 49,357 53,883 54,555 61,519 73,284 Chemical 39,158 57,467 55,294 57,093 59,953 64,619 73,284 Civil 53,270 61,639 59,647 63,710 72,421 78,834 88,372 Electrical 138,639 146,763 168,357 193,315 209,652 228,549 260,340 Mechanical 94,039 94,990 97,524 100,309 118,961 134,131 148,005 Materials 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other 224,631 258,232 260,748 266,604 273,137 299,453 334,906 Computer science 87,470 104,195 121,443 138,939 162,920 195,717 232,661   679,426 766,815 812,370 873,853 951,599 1,062,822 1,210,239 (Constant 1989 dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 1,001,365 1,030,250 1,025,979 1,062,306 1,115,983 1,210,366 1,343,218 Engineering, subtotal 872,448 890,259 872,603 893,404 924,920 987,479 1,084,992 Aerospace 62,224 58,483 62,335 65,503 63,979 70,059 80,656 Chemical 57,713 77,209 69,833 69,406 70,310 73,590 81,336 Civil 78,511 82,815 75,331 77,450 84,931 89,778 98,082 Electrical 204,332 197,183 212,626 235,005 245,868 260,277 288,946 Mechanical 138,598 127,623 123,167 121,941 139,511 152,751 164,267 Materials 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other 331,070 346,946 329,310 324,099 320,320 341,024 371,705 Computer science 128,917 139,991 153,376 168,902 191,064 222,887 258,225 Field 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991     All sources (Current dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 2,264,944 2,505,849 2,870,919 3,171,832 3,437,214     Engineering, subtotal 1,892,452 2,097,242 2,398,738 2,662,616 2,892,750     Aerospace 108,150 122,814 145,077 159,320 174,321     Chemical 148,362 162,559 194,060 214,887 238,553     Civil 190,873 225,265 246,509 285,113 315,134     Electrical 451,095 509,597 600,395 667,747 682,213     Mechanical 275,135 303,812 344,140 392,518 415,071     Materials 0 0 0 275,238 301,992     Other 718,837 773,195 868,557 667,793 765,466     Computer science 372,492 408,607 472,181 509,216 544,464     (Constant 1989 dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 2,436,734 2,609,172 2,870,919 3,046,323 3,427,211    

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Engineering, subtotal 2,035,989 2,183,717 2,398,738 2,557,257 2,892,747 Aerospace 116,353 127,878 145,077 153,016 174,321 Chemical 159,615 169,262 194,060 206,384 238,553 Civil 205,350 234,553 246,509 273,831 315,134 Electrical 485,309 530,609 600,395 641,324 682,212 Mechanical 296,003 316,339 344,140 376,986 415,071 Materials 0 0 0 264,347 301,992 Other 773,359 805,076 868,557 641,369 765,465 Computer science 400,744 425,455 472,181 489,066 544,463 Federal sources (Current dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 1,369,988 1,518,949 1,705,601 1,864,247 1,996,954 Engineering, subtotal 1,112,663 1,229,753 1,383,162 1,524,287 1,630,945 Aerospace 80,168 93,681 111,737 122,968 131,708 Chemical 76,652 85,506 101,187 107,682 114,310 Civil 89,711 103,144 101,688 116,000 122,874 Electrical 292,216 330,387 389,773 435,125 437,494 Mechanical 178,487 192,614 213,864 238,744 243,182 Materials 0 0 0 141,654 155,051 Other 395,429 424,421 464,913 362,114 426,326 Computer science 257,325 289,196 322,439 339,960 366,009   1,369,988 1,518,949 1,705,601 1,864,247 1,996,954 (Constant 1989 dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 1,473,898 1,581,580 1,705,601 1,790,479 1,996,952 Engineering, subtotal 1,197,055 1,280,459 1,383,162 1,463,971 1,630,943 Aerospace 86,249 97,544 111,737 118,102 131,708 Chemical 82,466 89,032 101,187 103,421 114,310 Civil 96,515 107,397 101,688 111,410 122,874 Electrical 314,380 344,010 389,773 417,907 437,494 Mechanical 192,025 200,556 213,864 229,297 243,182 Materials 0 0 0 136,049 155,051 Other 425,421 441,921 464,913 347,785 426,326 Computer science 276,842 301,120 322,439 326,508 366,009 Nonfederal sources (Current dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 894,956 986,900 1,165,318 1,307,585 1,440,260 Engineering, subtotal 779,789 867,489 1,015,576 1,138,329 1,261,805 Aerospace 27,982 29,133 33,340 36,352 42,613 Chemical 71,710 77,053 92,873 107,205 124,243 Civil 101,162 122,121 144,821 169,113 192,260 Electrical 158,879 179,210 210,622 232,622 244,719 Mechanical 96,648 111,198 130,276 153,774 171,889 Materials 0 0 0 133,584 146,941 Other 323,408 348,774 403,644 305,679 339,140 Computer science 115,167 119,411 149,742 169,256 178,455

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 (Constant 1989 dollars in thousands) Engineering and computer science 962,836 1,027,592 1,165,318 1,255,844 1,430,259 Engineering, subtotal 838,934 903,258 1,015,576 1,093,286 1,261,804 Aerospace 30,104 30,334 33,340 34,914 42,613 Chemical 77,149 80,230 92,873 102,963 124,243 Civil 108,835 127,156 114,821 162,421 192,260 Electrical 171,930 186,599 210,622 223,417 244,719 Mechanical 103,978 115,783 130,276 147,689 171,889 Materials 0 0 0 128,298 146,941 Other 347,938 363,155 403,644 293,583 339,140 Computer science 123,912 124,335 149,742 162,559 178,455 NOTE: Before 1980, NSF did not collect data by field of engineering. SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise TABLE 14 Full-Time Graduate Research Assistants by Field and Source of Support, 1972–1991 Field 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 All sources of support Engineering and computer science 10,369 11,033 11,850 11,733 12,059 12,543 0 13,634 Engineering, subtotal 9,731 10,380 11,103 10,987 11,328 11,819 0 12,817 Aerospace 598 544 534 512 484 497 0 503 Chemical 1,326 1,351 1,348 1,364 1,455 1,487 0 1,745 Civil 1,391 1,607 1,836 1,718 1,858 1,957 0 1,926 Electrical 2,093 2,203 2,187 2,183 2,153 2,435 0 2,596 Mechanical 1,200 1,556 1,696 1,636 1,778 1,762 0 1,967 Materials 1,000 987 1,018 1,070 1,105 1,150 0 1,320 Industrial 467 494 616 516 476 460 0 563 Other 1,656 1,638 1,868 1,988 2,019 2,071 0 2,197 Computer science 638 653 747 746 731 724 0 817 Federal sources, total Engineering and computer science 6,821 7,005 7,258 7,387 7,599 7,971 0 8,579 Engineering, subtotal 6,416 6,554 6,781 6,935 7,213 7,497 0 7,998 Aerospace 414 407 406 385 330 366 0 355 Chemical 777 779 707 817 863 899 0 950 Civil 789 855 962 902 1,019 1,025 0 1,094 Electrical 1,638 1,668 1,646 1,697 1,665 1,828 0 1,878 Mechanical 743 979 1,010 1,045 1,185 1,189 0 1,273 Materials 755 756 740 760 823 836 0 1,013 Industrial 260 198 266 220 172 212 0 230 Other 1,040 912 1,044 1,109 1,156 1,142 0 1,205 Computer science 405 451 477 452 386 474 0 581

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 National Science Foundation Engineering and computer science 2,207 2,390 2,325 2,364 2,284 2,314 0 2,368 Engineering, subtotal 2,002 2,174 2,134 2,173 2,138 2,094 0 2,128 Aerospace 58 60 59 75 48 45 0 21 Chemical 369 437 376 395 404 375 0 345 Civil 246 241 229 251 279 262 0 316 Electrical 494 549 535 556 513 493 0 552 Mechanical 217 319 344 320 311 329 0 300 Materials 245 243 239 274 274 291 0 351 Industrial 52 64 69 57 48 45 0 39 Other 321 261 283 245 261 254 0 204 Computer science 205 216 191 191 146 220 0 240 National Institutes of Health Engineering and computer science 381 334 350 424 472 387 0 367 Engineering, subtotal 356 299 314 385 430 348 0 327 Aerospace 3 7 6 5 6 4 0 1 Chemical 50 40 36 32 50 40 0 40 Civil 7 10 6 7 2 11 0 4 Electrical 118 75 106 111 125 111 0 93 Mechanical 49 50 34 60 66 45 0 52 Materials 31 37 28 32 36 24 0 27 Industrial 39 6 15 18 6 7 0 10 Other 59 74 83 120 139 106 0 100 Computer science 25 35 36 39 42 39 0 40

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Other HHS Engineering and computer science 102 97 116 109 73 73 0 106 Engineering, subtotal 101 93 108 98 66 66 0 105 Aerospace 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 Chemical 14 15 9 8 4 3 0 9 Civil 7 16 14 5 19 9 0 22 Electrical 25 4 16 18 14 7 0 13 Mechanical 27 29 19 18 12 21 0 6 Materials 6 2 12 10 2 5 0 10 Industrial 6 14 22 22 6 5 0 17 Other 15 13 16 15 9 16 0 26 Computer science 1 4 8 11 7 7 0 1 Department of Defense Engineering and computer science 1,726 1,558 1,650 1,627 1,632 1,705 0 1,777 Engineering, subtotal 1,609 1,424 1,464 1,470 1,474 1,538 0 1,569 Aerospace 185 143 160 138 133 141 0 154 Chemical 66 44 51 49 33 36 0 47 Civil 67 46 58 72 64 58 0 46 Electrical 622 628 574 641 635 712 0 723 Mechanical 145 201 180 186 208 218 0 205 Materials 181 183 158 165 186 174 0 182 Industrial 92 46 51 48 31 47 0 47 Other 251 133 232 171 184 152 0 165 Computer science 117 134 186 157 158 167 0 208

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Other federal agencies Engineering and computer science 2,405 2,626 2,817 2,863 3,138 3,492 0 3,961 Engineering, subtotal 2,348 2,564 2,761 2,809 3,105 3,451 0 3,869 Aerospace 167 197 181 165 143 176 0 177 Chemical 278 243 235 333 372 445 0 509 Civil 462 542 655 567 655 685 0 706 Electrical 379 412 415 371 378 505 0 497 Mechanical 305 380 433 461 588 576 0 710 Materials 292 291 303 279 325 342 0 443 Industrial 71 68 109 75 81 108 0 117 Other 394 431 430 558 563 614 0 710 Computer science 57 62 56 54 33 41 0 92 Nonfederal sources Engineering and computer science 3,548 4,028 4,592 4,346 4,460 4,572 0 5,055 Engineering, subtotal 3,315 3,826 4,322 4,052 4,115 4,322 0 4,819 Aerospace 184 137 128 127 154 131 0 148 Chemical 549 572 641 547 592 588 0 795 Civil 602 752 874 816 839 932 0 832 Electrical 455 535 541 486 488 607 0 718 Mechanical 457 577 686 591 593 573 0 694 Materials 245 231 278 310 282 314 0 307 Industrial 207 296 350 296 304 248 0 333 Other 616 726 824 879 863 929 0 992 Computer science 233 202 270 294 345 250 0 236

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 All sources of support Engineering and computer science 14,959 15,486 15,799 16,940 17,919 19,976 22,766 24,984 26,499 27,941 28,425 30,311 Engineering, subtotal 13,923 14,388 14,608 15,537 16,284 17.900 20,412 22,147 23,452 24,602 25,086 26,763 Aerospace 580 583 617 691 673 725 823 815 934 1,040 1,137 1,232 Chemical 1,949 2,136 2,199 2,413 2,487 2,605 2,741 2,970 3,007 3,026 3,017 3,180 Civil 2,121 2,111 2,027 2,245 2,440 2,417 2,786 2,908 3,072 3,042 3,095 3,562 Electrical 2,851 2,891 2,950 3,192 3,156 3,677 4,447 5,111 5,722 6,129 6,212 6,576 Mechanical 2,052 2,138 2,213 2,371 2,663 3,280 3,666 3,930 4,069 4,248 4,238 4,633 Materials 1,390 1,558 1,522 1,681 1,749 1,963 2,247 2,264 2,331 2,507 2,545 2,509 Industrial 591 542 552 433 563 585 716 944 1,049 1,167 1,130 1,270 Other 2,389 2,429 2,528 2,511 2,553 2,648 2,986 3,205 3,268 3,443 3,712 3,801 Computer science 1,036 1,098 1,191 1,403 1,635 2,076 2,354 2,837 3,047 3,339 3,339 3,548 Federal sources, total Engineering and computer science 9,212 9,240 9,325 9,838 9,646 9,499 10,704 11,868 12,617 13,042 12,941 13,865 Engineering, subtotal 8,534 8,525 8,562 8,995 8,675 8,426 9,556 10,361 10,971 11,259 11,153 11,910 Aerospace 375 399 469 541 524 478 558 567 634 623 651 741 Chemical 1,100 1,136 1,121 1,213 1,196 1,141 1,245 1,366 1,325 1,267 1,287 1,310 Civil 1,237 1,076 1,059 1,058 1,019 1,009 1,117 1,225 1,221 1,198 1,176 1,406 Electrical 1,982 1,971 2,061 2,124 1,829 1,694 2,027 2,332 2,750 2,752 2,719 2,933 Mechanical 1,240 1,283 1,278 1,423 1,469 1,585 1,709 1,926 2,061 2,136 2,044 2,158 Materials 1,017 1,132 1,067 1,139 1,111 1,146 1,323 1,240 1,288 1,411 1,327 1,235 Industrial 261 240 189 167 169 156 178 248 289 289 271 375 Other 1,322 1,288 1,318 1,330 1,268 1,217 1,399 1,457 1,403 1,583 1,678 1,752 Computer science 678 715 763 843 971 1,073 1,148 1,507 1,646 1,783 1,788 1,955

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 National Science Foundation Engineering and computer science 2,447 2,465 2,626 2,749 2,753 2,773 3,183 3,626 3,942 3,954 3,946 4,287 Engineering, subtotal 2,171 2,133 2,285 2,411 2,370 2,355 2,811 3,119 3,405 3,289 3,245 3,508 Aerospace 31 27 32 36 24 24 30 55 62 55 73 75 Chemical 355 421 452 509 518 512 552 587 590 550 542 534 Civil 326 310 373 361 357 336 377 442 390 349 392 443 Electrical 532 464 541 546 459 441 635 736 1,003 929 936 1,030 Mechanical 263 270 284 323 355 390 435 538 608 559 528 594 Materials 342 361 329 367 342 385 410 402 418 431 373 330 Industrial 35 41 30 40 54 38 76 94 110 118 116 164 Other 287 239 244 229 261 229 296 265 224 298 285 338 Computer science 276 332 341 338 383 418 372 507 537 665 701 779 National Institutes of Health Engineering and computer science 373 325 347 368 374 347 377 427 515 578 600 628 Engineering, subtotal 333 293 311 352 354 327 335 377 459 537 558 585 Aerospace 1 4 3 2 4 1 2 5 2 3 9 14 Chemical 30 34 35 37 56 44 60 58 78 75 76 72 Civil 19 8 17 16 7 8 16 7 3 13 9 29 Electrical 89 75 50 59 63 54 49 46 93 70 82 85 Mechanical 37 33 44 51 42 59 38 51 55 53 62 49 Materials 22 14 7 16 16 17 10 5 7 9 13 12 Industrial 8 5 10 10 9 8 4 6 5 16 21 15 Other 127 120 145 161 157 136 156 199 216 298 286 309 Computer science 40 32 36 16 20 20 42 50 56 41 42 43

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Other HHS Engineering and computer science 57 45 55 59 44 44 42 83 56 61 70 49 Engineering, subtotal 54 43 51 56 43 43 41 83 56 55 61 43 Aerospace 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 3 0 0 0 Chemical 5 1 8 5 7 1 2 8 4 0 2 2 Civil 21 20 6 10 0 9 2 4 2 2 3 4 Electrical 8 6 22 20 12 16 16 24 24 17 21 10 Mechanical 6 8 6 2 4 14 6 11 2 4 1 2 Materials 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 2 2 0 1 4 Industrial 11 6 4 1 0 0 8 5 7 12 4 13 Other 2 1 5 17 17 2 7 25 12 20 29 8 Computer science 3 2 4 3 1 1 1 0 0 6 9 6 Department of Defense Engineering and computer science 1,895 2,189 2,365 2,642 2,574 2,633 3,052 3,811 3,924 3,927 3,644 3,760 Engineering, subtotal 1,686 1,903 2,082 2,325 2,146 2,169 2,523 3,053 3,104 3,127 2,936 3,007 Aerospace 161 221 197 241 234 231 250 294 306 276 268 292 Chemical 64 50 66 87 83 79 88 132 123 111 79 113 Civil 54 44 60 74 97 104 149 189 192 194 153 175 Electrical 749 865 953 1,034 862 822 906 1,116 1,141 1,150 1,110 1,106 Mechanical 231 261 262 362 344 381 428 586 612 658 546 552 Materials 191 206 251 249 278 305 420 409 380 408 425 412 Industrial 60 58 48 42 30 44 36 56 65 52 49 50 Other 176 198 245 236 218 203 246 271 285 278 306 307 Computer science 209 286 283 317 428 464 529 758 820 800 708 753

OCR for page 69
Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Field 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Other federal agencies Engineering and computer science 4,440 4,216 3,932 4,020 3,901 3,702 4,050 3,921 4,180 4,522 4,681 5,141 Engineering, subtotal 4,290 4,153 3,833 3,851 3,762 3,532 3,846 3,729 3,947 4,251 4,353 4,767 Aerospace 182 147 237 262 262 221 276 209 261 289 301 360 Chemical 646 630 560 575 532 505 543 581 530 531 588 589 Civil 817 694 603 597 648 552 573 583 634 640 619 755 Electrical 604 561 495 465 433 361 421 410 489 586 570 702 Mechanical 703 711 682 685 724 741 802 741 784 862 907 961 Materials 461 550 480 506 472 439 483 422 481 563 515 477 Industrial 147 130 97 74 76 66 54 87 102 91 81 133 Other 730 730 679 687 615 647 694 697 666 689 772 790 Computer science 150 63 99 169 139 170 204 192 233 271 328 374 Nonfederal sources Engineering and computer science 5,747 6,246 6,474 7,102 8,273 10,477 12,062 13,116 13,882 14,899 15,484 16,446 Engineering, subtotal 5,389 5,863 6,046 6,542 7,609 9,474 10,856 11,786 12,481 13,343 13,933 14,853 Aerospace 205 184 148 150 149 247 265 248 300 417 486 491 Chemical 849 1,000 1,078 1,200 1,291 1,464 1,496 1,604 1,682 1,759 1,730 1,870 Civil 884 1,035 968 1,187 1,331 1,408 1,669 1,683 1,851 1,844 1,919 2,156 Electrical 869 920 889 1,068 1,327 1,983 2,420 2,779 2,972 3,377 3,493 3,643 Mechanical 812 855 935 948 1,194 1,695 1,957 2,004 2,008 2,112 2,194 2,475 Materials 373 426 455 542 638 817 924 1,024 1,043 1,096 1,218 1,274 Industrial 330 302 363 266 394 429 538 696 760 878 859 895 Other 1,067 1,141 1,210 1,181 1,285 1,431 1,587 1,748 1,865 1,860 2,034 2,049 Computer science 358 383 428 560 664 1,003 1,206 1,330 1,401 1,556 1,551 1,593 NOTE: Data were not collected in 1978. SOURCE: NSF CASPAR Database System.