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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Committee on Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise National Academy of Engineering NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. This publication has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Partial funding for this effort was provided by the National Science Foundation. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-69121 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05284-X Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic procedure, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher, except for the purpose of official use by the United States government. Printed in the United States of America
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise Preface On February 18, 19, and 20, 1994, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), convened a public symposium and workshop on the forces shaping academic engineering research in the early 1990s and beyond. The report that follows has been prepared by an NAE committee charged with organizing the symposium and workshop and reporting back to the NSF. The membership of the Committee on Forces Shaping the Academic Engineering Research Enterprise is listed on page v of this volume. In preparing this report, the committee drew heavily on the symposium presentations and workshop discussions. Nonetheless, the committee is the author of this report and is responsible for its arguments and findings. The papers presented at the public symposium as well as a background paper prepared for workshop participants follow the committee's report. It is important to note that this document makes no claim to be an exhaustive examination of the issues facing academic engineering research. For example, there is no focus in this report on the impact of changing demographics on engineering students or faculty, or on the effect of the military build down on the character of the national portfolio of engineering research. The intent was not to be comprehensive, and the committee was not asked or constituted to write the last word on the status and future of academic engineering research. On behalf of the National Academy of Engineering, I would like to thank the authors of the papers and the chairman and the members of the
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise committee for their insights and efforts on this project. In addition, I would like to thank Bruce Guile, Debbie Stine, and Jessica Blake for their excellent staff work on this project. Robert M. White President National Academy of Engineering
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise COMMITTEE ON FORCES SHAPING THE U.S. ACADEMIC ENGINEERING RESEARCH ENTERPRISE WILLIAM R. SCHOWALTER, Chairman, Dean, College of Engineering, University of Illinois DANIEL C. DRUCKER, Graduate Research Professor of Engineering Sciences, University of Florida ALEXANDER H. FLAX, Senior Fellow, National Academy of Engineering C. WILLIAM GEAR, President, NEC Research Institute, Inc. PAUL C. JENNINGS, Vice President and Provost, California Institute of Technology SIMON OSTRACH, NAE Home Secretary, Wilbert J. Austin Distinguished Professor of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University A. RICHARD SEEBASS, Professor of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado JOHN A. WHITE, JR., Dean, College of Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology NAE Staff BRUCE GUILE, Director, Program Office DEBORAH STINE, Project Director JESSICA BLAKE, Project Assistant
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise This page in the original is blank.
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise CONTENTS REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FORCES SHAPING THE U.S. ACADEMIC ENGINEERING RESEARCH ENTERPRISE Introduction 1 What Is Engineering Research and How Do Engineering and Science Interact? 3 What Has Engineering Research Done? 5 Why Is Academic Engineering Research at Risk and Why Should Its Health Be Preserved? 7 Responding to the Changed Environment for Academic Engineering Research 10 SYMPOSIUM PAPERS AND BACKGROUND PAPER Academic Engineering Research in a Changing World Neal F. Lane 15 A View from the Front Lines of Academic Engineering Research Simon Ostrach 23 Reengineering the Academic Engineering Enterprise Chang-Lin Tien 37 Defense Budgets and Academic Research Duane A. Adams 47
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Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise What Should Industry Expect from Academic Engineering Research? John A. Armstrong 59 Background Paper The Academic Engineering Research Enterprise: Status and Trends Charles H. Dickens 69 Biographical Information 133