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creativity and intellectual vigor that will be needed in the United States to address a growing variety of social and economic concerns.

The efficacy of our system originated in a series of policy decisions that were prompted by the major role that science and technology had in the outcome of World War II. Among those decisions were the following:

· The public, through a number of government agencies, would assume an important role in funding basic and applied research.

· Through public funding, researchers at universities throughout the country would become major contributors to the nation's scientific research expertise.

· The universities would conduct basic research and the graduate education of scientists and engineers as joint, synergistic activities.

The graduate-education enterprise in the United State is diverse and decentralized. Because of the diversity of missions and agencies participating in higher education, any important changes require cooperative efforts based on a shared understanding.

There are many independent participants including more than 600 public and private universities and colleges (which offer master’s or doctoral degrees in science and engineering), scientific and engineering societies (which help to define what scientists, and engineers should know and do), state government (which provide support for universities), the federal government (which supports research and education), philanthropic organizations, accreditation bodies, the Council of Graduate School, the Association of American Universities ,and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.

Box 1-1: The Graduate-Education Enterprise

The dual role of the graduate science and engineering enterprise was designed to benefit the nation by educating students through the active conduct of cutting-edge research. According to a report by the National Research Council in 1964, "graduate education can be of highest quality only if it is conducted as part of the research process itself" (NRC, 1964).

By educating students in the context of research, the American system of graduate education has set the world standard for preparing scientists and engineers for research careers in academe, government, and industry. And by attracting outstanding. Students and faculty members from throughout the world, it has benefited from an infusion of both talent and ideas.

The products of research have contributed abundantly to the health, defense, and well-being of the country, and American has generously supported the education of its scientists and engineers with both state and federal funds and with donations from industry, large nonprofit organizations, and the universities themselves.

States have the longest tradition of supporting graduate education. Beginning with the Morrill Act of 1862, states funded on-campus agricultural research to serve the public goal of bringing technology to the nation's farmers. Today, by subsidizing tuitions, they have ensured wide access to graduate education at low cost. The state universities and land-grant colleges

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