Plasma Science

From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications

Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology

Plasma Science Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1995



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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Plasma Science From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology Plasma Science Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This project was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG05-88ER53279, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-9100105, and the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N00014-J-1728. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 94-69693 International Standard Book No. 0-309-05231-9 Cover: A snapshot of the electron density distribution in a magnetized, pure-electron plasma. These plasmas are nearly ideal, inviscid, two-dimensional fluids and are being used to study the relaxation and self-organization of fluid turbulence (see Plate 2 for details). (Courtesy of C.F. Driscoll, University of California, San Diego.) Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications PANEL ON OPPORTUNITIES IN PLASMA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CLIFFORD SURKO, University of California, San Diego, Co-Chair JOHN AHEARNE, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Co-Chair PETER BANKS, University of Michigan THOMAS BIRMINGHAM, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center MICHAEL BOYLE, Bondtronix, Inc. RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University JONAH JACOB, Science Research Laboratory, Inc. MIKLOS PORKOLAB, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EDWIN SALPETER, Cornell University ROBERTA SAXON, SRI International SAM TREIMAN, Princeton University HERBERT YORK, University of California, San Diego (retired) ELLEN ZWEIBEL, University of Colorado RONALD D. TAYLOR, Senior Program Officer (1992–1994) DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications PLASMA SCIENCE COMMITTEE RAVI SUDAN, Cornell University, Chair RICHARD A. GOTTSCHO, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Vice Chair STEVEN C. COWLEY, University of California, Los Angeles JAMES DAKIN, GE Lighting ROY GOULD, California Institute of Technology RICHARD D. HAZELTINE, University of Texas at Austin MARY KATHERINE HUDSON, Dartmouth College WILLIAM L. KRUER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MICHAEL LIEBERMAN, University of California, Berkeley CHUAN S. LIU, University of Maryland NATHAN RYNN, University of California, Irvine ELLEN ZWEIBEL, University of Colorado Former Members of the Committee Who Were Active During the Period of the Study JONATHAN ARONS, University of California, Berkeley MAHA ASHOUR-ABDALLA, University of California, Los Angeles IRA BERNSTEIN, Yale University E.M. CAMPBELL, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University ALAN GARSCADDEN, Wright Research and Development Center ROBERT L. McCRORY, JR., University of Rochester FRANCIS W. PERKINS, Princeton University JOSEPH PROUD, GTE Laboratories Incorporated NORMAN ROSTOKER, University of California, Irvine RONALD D. TAYLOR, Senior Program Officer (1992–1994) DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY DAVID N. SCHRAMM, University of Chicago, Chair ROBERT C. DYNES, University of California, San Diego, Vice Chair LLOYD ARMSTRONG, JR., University of Southern California DAVID H. AUSTON, Rice University DAVID E. BALDWIN, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory PRAVEEN CHAUDHARI, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center FRANK DRAKE, University of California, Santa Cruz HANS FRAUENFELDER, Los Alamos National Laboratory JEROME I. FRIEDMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MARGARET J. GELLER, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University AL NARATH, Sandia National Laboratories JOSEPH M. PROUD, GTE Corporation (retired) ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, Cornell University JOHANNA STACHEL, State University of New York at Stony Brook DAVID WILKINSON, Princeton University SIDNEY WOLFF, National Optical Astronomy Observatories DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director ROBERT L. RIEMER, Associate Director DANIEL F. MORGAN, Program Officer NATASHA CASEY, Senior Administrative Associate STEPHANIE Y. SMITH, Project Assistant

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation RHONDA J. HUGHES, Bryn Mawr College SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, Rutgers University KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory HANS MARK, University of Texas at Austin THOMAS A. PRINCE, California Institute of Technology JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences L.E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota LEON K. SILVER, California Institute of Technology CHARLES P. SLICHTER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory SHMUEL WINOGRAD, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center CHARLES A. ZRAKET, Mitre Corporation (retired) NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Preface In the mid-1980s, the plasma physics volume of the series Physics Through the 1990s (National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1986) signaled problems for plasma science in the United States, particularly with regard to the basic aspects of the science. In the years that followed, there developed a widespread feeling in the plasma science community that something systematic needed to be done to address these issues. Out of this concern, the Plasma Science Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy was created in 1988. Following its establishment, plans were begun to undertake this study. With funding from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research, the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology was appointed in May 1992, and the study began. Approximately half of the 13-member panel consisted of experts in the many facets of plasma science considered in this report and half of scientists outside the field, with one of the co-chairs selected as a person with experience in science policy. Three of the members are from industry; one is from a government laboratory and one from an independent research society; and the remaining eight are from academe. The task statement to the panel requested that this study examine virtually all aspects of plasma science and technology in the United States, assess the health of basic plasma science as a research enterprise, and identify and address key issues in the field. Specifically, the panel was charged with the task of conducting an assessment of plasma science that included beams, accelerators, and coherent radiation sources; single-species plasmas and atomic traps; basic plasma science in magnetic confinement and inertial fusion devices; space plasma

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications physics; astrophysics; low-temperature plasmas; and theoretical and computational plasma science. It was directed to address the following: Assess the health of basic plasma science in the United States as a research enterprise: (a) Identify and describe selected scientific opportunities. (b) Identify and describe selected technological opportunities. (c) Assess and prioritize new opportunities for research using the criteria of intellectual challenge, prospects for illumination of classic research questions, connection with other fields of science, and potential for applications. (d) Assess applications using the criteria of potential for contributing to industrial competitiveness, national defense, human health, and other aspects of human welfare. Identify and address the issues in the field, including the following: (a) Evaluate the quality and size of the educational programs in plasma science in light of the nation's future needs. (b) Assess the institutional infrastructure in which plasma science is conducted, and identify changes that would improve the research and educational effort. (c) Characterize the basic experimental facilities needed to increase scientific productivity. (d) Develop a research strategy that is responsive to the issues. (e) Compare the U.S. program with those of Japan and Western Europe, and identify opportunities for international cooperation. (f) Identify the interactions and synergism with other areas of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and astronomy. (g) Assess the linkage of theory and experiment. (h) Assess manpower requirements and the prospects for meeting them. (i) Identify the users of plasma science and their needs. Make recommendations to federal agencies and to the community that address these issues. During the course of the study, the panel held three two-day meetings and two lengthy teleconferences. As part of the process, the panel took steps to solicit input from the plasma science community. Letters were sent to 200 scientists and engineers, requesting their input on the issues raised in the charge to the panel. This list was selected from the list of Fellows of the Plasma Physics Division of the American Physical Society (90), and it also included others suggested by members of the panel (65) and by grant officers involved in funding plasma science (45). The letters went to university faculty and staff (90), industrial scientists (25), staff at national laboratories (50), and others (5). A separate, more specialized survey was sent to 33 experimentalists engaged in basic plasma physics research. Input was also solicited by announcements of the panel's work that appeared in the newsletters of the American Geophysical Union, the American Physical Society, the Plasma Physics Division of the American Physical Society, the Committee on Plasma Science of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and the University Fusion Associates. Town meetings were held at American Physical Society Plasma Physics Division meetings and the Gaseous Electronics Conference. There is general agreement from these

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications sources on the themes expressed in this report: There is concern about the decline in basic plasma science, particularly in the area of basic plasma experimentation and other small-scale research efforts, and basic plasma science is perceived to lack a "home" in the federal agencies. Also during the course of the study, the panel heard presentations from grant officers involved in funding plasma science from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research. The task statement requested that the panel assess specific areas of plasma science, such as beams, accelerators, and coherent radiation sources (called topical areas in the report), and broad areas of plasma science, including fundamental plasma experiments, theoretical and computational plasma physics, and education in plasma science. At the first meeting of the panel, these areas were renamed slightly and the topical area of low-temperature plasmas was added, since it had been omitted from the task statement through an oversight. The resulting seven topical areas are assessed in Part II of the report, and the three broad areas of plasma science are assessed in Part III. Part IV consists of some concluding remarks. During the course of the study, the panel had numerous discussions about the desirability of establishing organizational units specifically devoted to plasma science in the relevant federal agencies. Many members of the plasma science community who were consulted strongly advocated the establishment of such homes, believing that they are needed if basic plasma science is to be given the focused attention and increased support that the panel recommends. While this subject is beyond the scope of the panel's work, the panel suggests that the federal government might give this issue further consideration.

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Acknowledgments In preparing this report, the Panel on Opportunities in Plasma Science and Technology has benefited greatly from the assistance of many members of the plasma science community. We are particularly indebted to the former chairs of the Plasma Science Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, C.F. Kennel and F.W. Perkins, and the present chair, Ravi Sudan, for their advice and help. The other members of the Plasma Science Committee also provided valuable advice during the course of the study. The panel would like to acknowledge the following colleagues for the extensive advice and assistance they provided in assembling the broad range of material covered in this report and for critical reading of various portions of it: Jonathan Arons, University of California, Berkeley; Ira B. Bernstein, Yale University; John Bollinger, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado; Keith H. Burrell, GA Technologies, Inc.; Vincent S. Chan, GA Technologies, Inc.; Xing Chen, Science Research Laboratory, Inc.; Samuel A. Cohen, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; Bruce Danly, Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Luiz Da Silva, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Patrick Diamond, University of California, San Diego; Paul Drake, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; C. Fred Driscoll, University of California, San Diego; Eduardo Epperlein, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Joel Fajans, University of California, Berkeley; Walter Gekelman, University of California, Los Angeles; Brian Gilchrist, University of Michigan; Martin Goldman, University of Colorado; Tamas I. Gombosi, University of Michigan; Daniel Goodman, Science Research Laboratory, Inc.; Richard A. Gottscho, AT&T Bell Laboratories; Roy W. Gould, California Institute of Technology; Hans Griem, University of Maryland; Larry R. Grisham, Princeton

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Plasma Physics Laboratory; Richard Hazeltine, University of Texas; Noah Hershkowitz, University of Wisconsin; Chuck Hooper, University of Florida; Mary Hudson, Dartmouth College; Chandrashekhar Joshi, University of California, Los Angeles; Robert Kessler, Textron Defense Systems; William Kruer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Stephen Lane, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Richard Lee, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Bruce Lipschultz, Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; James F. Lyon, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; James Maggs, University of California, Los Angeles; Earl S. Marmar, Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Dennis Mathews, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Jakob Maya, Matsushita Electrical Works, R&D Laboratory; Kevin M. McGuire, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; George Morales, University of California, Los Angeles; Andrew Nagy, University of Michigan; Torsten Neubert, University of Michigan; Francis W. Perkins, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; Arthur V. Phelps, JILA, University of Colorado (retired); Stewart C. Prager, University of Wisconsin; Juan Ramirez, Sandia National Laboratories; Barrett Ripin, American Physical Society; Gerald L. Rogoff, Sylvania, Inc.; Louis Rosocha, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norman Rostoker, University of California, Los Angeles; Andrew Schmitt, Naval Research Laboratory; Wolf Seka, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics; Gary Selwyn, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frederick Skiff, University of Maryland; Reiner Stenzel, University of California, Los Angeles; Raul Stern, University of Colorado, Boulder; Ravindra Sudan, Cornell University; Roscoe White, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; Scott Wilks, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; David Wineland, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado; Masaaki Yamada, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; Michael C. Zarnstorff, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Contents Executive Summary   1 PART I: OVERVIEW         Introduction,   7     The Role of Plasma Science in Our Society,   8     The Discipline of Plasma Science,   11     Common Research Themes,   11     Wave-Particle Interactions and Plasma Heating,   11     Chaos, Turbulence, and Transport,   14     Plasma Sheaths and Boundary Layers,   14     Magnetic Reconnection and Dynamo Action,   14     Research and Education in Plasma Science,   15     Basic Plasma Experiments,   15     Theory and Computational Plasma Physics,   17     Education in Plasma Science,   18     Summary of Topical Areas,   19     Low-Temperature Plasmas,   19     Nonneutral Plasmas,   20     Inertial Confinement Fusion,   21     Magnetic Confinement Fusion,   22

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications     Beams, Accelerators, and Coherent Radiation Sources,   24     Space Plasmas,   24     Astrophysical Plasmas,   26     Central Messages of this Report,   26     Conclusions and Recommendations,   28 PART II: TOPICAL AREAS     1   Low-Temperature Plasmas   33     Introduction,   33     Lighting,   36     Gas Discharge Lasers,   37     Plasma Isotope Separation,   38     Plasmas for Electric Propulsion of Space Vehicles,   39     Magnetohydrodynamics,   39     Plasmas for Pollution Control and Reduction,   40     Plasma Processing of Materials,   42     Conclusions and Recommendations,   45     Conclusions,   45     Recommendations,   45 2   Nonneutral Plasmas   47     Introduction and Background,   47     Recent Advances in Nonneutral Plasmas,   48     Electron Plasmas,   49     Ion Plasmas,   50     Ion Plasmas in Electron-Beam Ion Traps,   51     Confinement of Antimatter,   53     Research Opportunities,   53     Coherent Structures and Vortex Dynamics,   54     Transport Processes,   54     Confinement Properties in Nonaxisymmetric Geometries,   54     Stochastic Effects,   54     Strongly Coupled Nonneutral Plasmas,   55     Quantum-Mechanical Effects,   56     Antimatter,   56     Opportunities for Advances in Technology,   57     Precision Clocks,   57     Precision Mass Spectrometry,   57     Ion Sources with Enhanced Brightness,   57

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications     Electron-Beam Ion Traps,   58     Radiation Sources,   58     Pressure Standard in Ultrahigh-Vacuum Regime,   58     Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations,   59 3   Inertial Confinement Fusion   60     Introduction and Background,   60     Recent Advances,   61     Laser Fusion,   61     Ion-Beam Fusion,   62     Scientific and Technological Opportunities,   64     Conclusions and Recommendations,   69 4   Magnetic Confinement Fusion   71     Introduction,   71     Magnetohydrodynamics and Stability,   72     Introduction and Background,   72     Past Achievements,   72     Future Prospects,   73     Tokamak Transport,   74     Introduction and Background,   74     Past Achievements,   74     Future Prospects,   75     Edge and Divertor Physics,   77     Introduction and Background,   77     Recent Advances,   79     Future Research and Technical Opportunities,   79     Plasma Heating and Non-inductive Current Drive,   80     Neutral-Beam Heating and Current Drive,   80     Introduction and Background,   80     Past Achievements,   81     Future Prospects,   81     Radio-Frequency Heating and Current Drive,   81     Introduction and Background,   81     Past Achievements,   83     Future Prospects,   83     Diagnostic Development,   84     Introduction and Background,   84     Past Achievements,   84     Future Prospects,   86     Non-Tokamak Concepts,   86     Introduction and Background,   86     Recent Advances,   87

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications     Future Prospects,   88     Conclusions,   89     Recommendations,   90 5   Beams, Accelerators, and Coherent Radiation Sources   92     Introduction and Background,   92     Recent Advances and Science and Technology Opportunities,   92     Intense Charged-Particle Beams,   92     Accelerators,   94     Coherent Radiation Sources,   96     Conclusions and Recommendations,   98 6   Space Plasmas   100     Introduction,   100     Background,   100     Status,   101     Tools for Space Plasma Physics,   103     Space-Based Techniques,   103     Ground-Based Techniques,   103     Plasma Theory and Simulations,   105     Laboratory Techniques,   106     Fundamental Processes in Space Plasmas,   106     Wave-Particle Interactions,   106     Charged-Particle and Plasma Energization,   107     Dust-Plasma Interactions,   108     The Critical Ionization Velocity Effect,   108     Radiation Processes,   109     Active Experiments,   109     Plasma and Neutral Mass Injections,   109     Particle Beam Experiments,   110     Wave Injection Experiments,   110     Vehicle-Environment Interactions,   111     Future Plans and Opportunities,   112     In Situ Observations,   112     In Situ Experiments,   116     Terrestrial Observation Networks,   116     Laboratory Experiments,   117     Conclusions and Recommendations,   118 7   Plasma Astrophysics   120     Recent Accomplishments in Plasma Astrophysics,   120     Magnetized Disks, Winds, and Jets,   120     Particle Acceleration in Shocks,   121

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications     Magnetized Convection in Stars,   121     Formation of Low-Mass Stars,   121     Problems in Plasma Astrophysics,   123     Dense Stellar Plasmas,   123     Thermal Conduction in Plasmas,   123     Structure of Collisionless Shocks,   123     Acceleration of Particles to High Energies,   124     Hydromagnetic Turbulence,   124     Magnetic Reconnection,   124     The Magnetization of the Universe,   125     Laboratory Experiments,   125     Training in Plasma Astrophysics,   125     Funding for Plasma Astrophysics,   126     Summary,   127     Conclusions and Recommendations,   127     Conclusions,   127     Recommendation,   127 PART III: BROAD AREAS OF PLASMA SCIENCE     8   Basic Plasma Experiments   131     Introduction and Background,   131     Overview of Recent Progress,   133     Basic Plasma Experiments,   133     Wave Phenomena,   133     Bernstein Waves,   133     Mode Conversion,   134     Wave-Particle Interactions,   134     Magnetically Trapped Particle Instabilities,   134     Lower Hybrid Wave Current Drive,   135     Beat Wave Excitation and Particle Acceleration,   135     Nonlinear Phenomena,   135     Double Layers,   135     Ponderomotive Forces and the Filamentation of Electromagnetic Radiation,   135     Magnetic Field Line Reconnection,   136     Plasma Reorganization,   136     Chaos and Turbulence,   137     Chaos,   137     Quasilinear Effects and Single-Wave Stochasticity,   137     Collisionless Heat Transport,   139     Strong Langmuir Turbulence,   139     Experimental Techniques and Capabilities,   139     Plasma Sources,   139     Mechanical Probes,   141

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications     Laser-Based Optical Diagnostics,   142     Data Acquisition and Processing,   143     Research Opportunities,   144     Fundamental Plasma Processes,   144     Wave Phenomena,   144     Alfvén Waves,   144     Wave-Plasma Interactions,   144     Intense Laser-Plasma Interactions,   144     Chaos, Turbulence, and Localized Structures,   145     Nonlinear Particle Dynamics and Chaos,   145     Nonlinear Wave Phenomena,   145     Turbulence,   145     Turbulent Transport,   146     Sheaths, Boundary Layers, and Double Layers,   146     Shock Waves,   147     Striated Plasmas,   147     Flows in Magnetized Plasmas,   147     Plasmoids,   147     Magnetic Effects,   148     Magnetic Field Line Reconnection,   148     Dynamo Action,   148     Magnetic Reconfiguration,   149     New Experimental Capabilities,   150     Use of Nanotechnology,   150     Optical Diagnostics,   150     New Regimes of Plasma Parameters,   151     Data Acquisition,   151     Massively Parallel Plasma Diagnostics,   151     Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations,   152 9   Theoretical and Computational Plasma Physics   156     Introduction and Background,   156     Recent Advances in Theoretical and Computational Plasma Physics,   159     Hamiltonian Transport,   159     Coherent Structures and Self-Organization,   160     Strong Plasma Turbulence,   160     Gyrokinetics,   160     Large-Orbit Effects on Plasma Stability,   161     Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics,   161     Numerical Simulation of Plasma Processes,   161     Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction,   161     Nonlinear Processes in Ionospheric Plasmas,   162     Collisional Relaxation of Nonneutral Plasmas,   162     Free-Electron Lasers and High-Power Microwave Sources,   163     Research Opportunities,   163     Basic Plasma Theory and Applications to Laboratory Plasmas,   163     Nonlinear Plasma Processes,   163     Numerical Simulation,   164

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications     Novel Analytical Techniques,   164     Boundary Layers,   164     Kinetic Theory,   165     Stochastic Effects in Evolving Plasmas,   165     Alpha-Particle Effects in Magnetically Confined Plasmas,   165     Concept Improvement,   166     Nonlinear Interaction of Intense Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas,   166     Current-Carrying Plasmas with Flow,   167     Engineering Design Tools,   167     Space Plasmas,   167     Magnetic Reconnection,   168     Turbulence,   168     Large-Scale Flows,   169     Particle Acceleration,   169     Plasma Confinement and Transport,   170     Collisionless Shocks,   171     Chaotic Effects,   171     Summary,   172     Conclusions and Recommendations,   172 10   Education in Plasma Science   174     Degree Production and Employment Statistics,   174     Estimate of Future Supply of Plasma Physicists,   177     Educating Non-Plasma Students in Plasma Physics,   178     General Comments,   178      Recommendations,   180 PART IV: CONCLUSION     APPENDICES     A   Federal Funding Data,   189 B   Letters to Funding Agencies,   193 C   List of Agencies Contacted,   199

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Plasma Science: From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications Plasma Science From Fundamental Research to Technological Applications

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