many years, there is a severe lack of quantitative and experimental understanding of a wide range of phenomena that occur in low-temperature collision-dominated plasmas. Most low-temperature plasma applications involve complex reactions between electrons and a host of atomic, molecular, and ionic species. These species are found in highly excited states not encountered in nonplasma environments. Operation of plasmas in applications ranging from lasers to materials processing and lighting requires optimization of the densities of these species. Scientists modeling these systems require a broader range of diagnostics to characterize species densities in benchmark plasmas, and more powerful methods for measuring, calculating, or approximating the cross sections that dominate the rate equations.

In some cases, such as microwave breakdown, the positive column of dc metal-vapor rare-gas discharges, and wall-stabilized arcs, researchers have obtained experimental data, theoretical understanding, and predictive models. However, much of this basic research was performed before 1960. In some cases with immediate industrial and government applications the information was updated in the 1970s, using modern experimental and modeling techniques. Examples include fluorescent lamps, high-intensity lamps, electron-beam-controlled discharge lasers, some specific plasma processes, and arcs (e.g., in discharge-limiting situations, such as transport in weakly ionized swarms and near thermal equilibrium). This research produced a significant improvement in the performance of devices using these plasmas. Recent research was driven by interest in high-power lasers for ballistic missile defense. The decline of interest in that use has severely reduced related funding.

In other areas, there has been limited progress during the last 30 years, including understanding phenomena such as collisional discharges in magnetic fields in the presence of boundaries, transient discharges and sheaths, discharge stability, and plasma interactions with practical surfaces. For example, recently there has been much interest in the dc cathode fall, since modeling and experiments are much further ahead for bulk-phase plasmas than for cases, such as the cathode fall, in which plasma contact with surfaces is important.

Lack of research support in the physics of low-temperature plasmas has resulted in a low level of training in collision-dominated low-temperature plasmas and in the training of engineers and physicists for plasma processing. No federal agency claims responsibility for this area.

The existing support has emphasized short-term goals and work only on current government- and industry-related topics. In FY 1991, there were only two long-term projects, and neither is currently funded. It is our understanding that since the beginning of FY 1992, there has been essentially no low-temperature plasma research project with more than a one-year time scale, since research in this area is dominated by the current needs of the radio-frequency plasma processing and lighting industries. This short time scale severely discourages new, innovative, or thorough research. Novel experimental and modeling tech-



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