Statistics on U.S. Immigration

An Assessment of Data Needs for Future Research

Barry Edmonston, Editor

Committee on National Statistics and

Committee on Population

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



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--> Statistics on U.S. Immigration An Assessment of Data Needs for Future Research Barry Edmonston, Editor Committee on National Statistics and Committee on Population Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.1996

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit. self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for this project was provided by the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and, through their general contributions to the work of the Committee on National Statistics, several other federal agencies. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 96-69271 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05275-0 Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Additional copies of this report are available from:National Academy Press ,2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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--> COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 1994–1995 NORMAN M. BRADBURN (Chair), National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago JOHN E. ROLPH (Vice Chair), Department of Information and Operations Management, School of Business Administration, University of Southern California JOHN F. GEWEKE, Department of Economics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis JOEL B. GREENHOUSE, Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University ERIC A. HANUSHEK, W. Allen Wallis Institute of Political Economy, Department of Economics, University of Rochester ROBERT M. HAUSER, Department of Sociology and Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison NICHOLAS JEWELL, Vice Provost, Chancellor’s Office, University of California, Berkeley WILLIAM NORDHAUS, Department of Economics, Yale University JANET L. NORWOOD, The Urban Institute, Washington, District of Columbia EDWARD B. PERRIN, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington KEITH F. RUST, Westat, Inc., Rockville, Maryland DANIEL L. SOLOMON, Associate Dean, Academic Affairs., North Carolina State University MIRON L. STRAF, Director

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--> COMMITTEE ON POPULATION 1994–1995 RONALD D. LEE, (Chair), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley CAROLINE H. BLEDSOE, Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University JOSÉ-LUIS BOBADILLA, World Bank, Washington, DC JOHN BONGAARTS, The Population Council, New York, New York JOHN B. CASTERLINE, The Population Council, New York, New York LINDA G. MARTIN, The RAND Corp., Santa Monica, California ROBERT A. MOFFITT, Department of Economics, Johns Hopkins University MARK R. MONTGOMERY, The Population Council, New York, New York ANNE R. PEBLEY, The RAND Corp., Santa Monica, California RONALD R. RINDFUSS, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JAMES P. SMITH, The RAND Corp., Santa Monica, California BETH SOLDO, Department of Demography, Georgetown University MARTA TIENDA, Population Research Center, University of Chicago AMY O. TSUI, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill JOHN HAAGA, Director

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--> Acknowledgments Many people contributed time and expertise to the workshop, and the Committee on National Statistics and the Committee on Population appreciate their cooperation and assistance. In particular, Michael Teitelbaum served most ably as chair of the workshop, and he and the workshop participants contributed many thoughts and comments to the shaping of this report. Thanks are due to those who presented papers at the workshop: Barbara Anderson, Frank D. Bean, M. Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, Michael Greenwood, Guillermina Jasso, Douglas Massey, Mark Rosenzweig, Rubén Rumbaut, James P. Smith, Marta Tienda, and Michael White. The papers presented at the workshop served as the starting point for major sections of this report and are noted in the relevant sections. The workshop also benefited from the valuable and stimulating comments of panelists on the papers: Robert Bach, William Butz, Thomas Espenshade, W. Parker Frisbie, Robert Gardner, Sherrie Kossoudji, Alejandro Portes, Brian Roberts, Mary Waters, and Karen Woodrow. Special appreciation is due to those who assisted as rapporteurs: Jeffrey Passel, Lindsay Lowell, Lisa Roney, Steve Sandell, and Robert Warren. Workshop participants realized the importance of having an ongoing discussion of changing demands for immigration statistics and especially the ways in which federal agencies attempt to respond to those data needs. One outcome of the workshop was the formation of the Interagency Taskforce on Immigration, at which representatives of federal agencies with an interest in immigration have met regularly since December 1992 under the sponsorship of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Robert Warren, research coordinator of the

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--> INS Office of Policy and Planning, has chaired the task force.1 The task force has formed a number of working groups that are developing ideas and programs to improve immigration statistics in a variety of ways, including data on temporary migrants, data from longitudinal surveys, immigration data in the Current Population Survey, and increased exploitation of administrative data. The agenda for the workshop was developed in consultation with Edward Lynch and Robert Warren from the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Nancy Moss and Jeffery Evans from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Miron Straf from the Committee on National Statistics, and Linda Martin from the Committee on Population (now at the Rand Corp.). John Haaga from the Committee on Population assisted with the final report. Barry Edmonston from the Committee on National Statistics was responsible for the conduct of the workshop as well as the preparation of the report. The task of coordinating the workshop was accomplished by Michele Conrad, also from the Committee on National Statistics, who helped to ready the report for publication. The report benefited from the thoughtful comments of reviewers and the editorial skills of Christine McShane of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. We would also like to acknowledge former members of both committees who served during the time the workshop was developed and convened. Such members of the Committee on National Statistics include Burton H. Singer (former chair), Martin H. David, Noreen Goldman, Louis Gordon, and Dorothy P. Rice. Former members of the Committee on Population include Samuel T. Preston (former chair). T. Paul Schultz, Susan C.M. Scrimshaw, Barbara Boyle Torrey, and James Trussell. The input of these former members of both committees greatly helped shape the development of the workshop. 1   At the time of the workshop, Warren was director of the INS Statistics Division. Linda Gordon is currently acting director of the Statistics Division.

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--> Contents     Summary   1     Conclusions   1     Recommendations   3 1   Introduction   7     Interest in Immigration Issues   7     Shifts in Immigration Patterns   9     Establishing Data Priorities   11     Adequacy of Immigration Data   15     Definition of Terms   15     Organization of the Report   17 2   Trends in U.S. Immigration   18     A Demographic Perspective   18     An Economic Perspective   23 3   Effects of Immigration and Assimilation   28     Social Policy and Welfare   29     Perinatal Health   33     Mental Health   34     Educational Attainment   35     Research Needs   36     Data Needs   38

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--> 4   Labor Force Issues   40     Economic Aspects of Immigration   40     Wage Trends   41     Immigrants and Emerging Industries   43     Research Issues   45 5   Social and Family Networks   46     Immigration Networks   46     Immigration and the Family   49     Research Issues   52     Data Needs   54 6   Immigration Data Needs   57     Decennial Census   57     Current Population Survey   59     Immigration and Naturalization Service Records   62     Case Studies   64     Data on Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity   65 7   Longitudinal Studies of Immigrants   68     Advantages and Disadvantages   70     Alternatives to a Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants   71     Special-Purpose Immigrant Surveys   75     Need for Longitudinal Data   75     References   82     Appendix   87     Agenda   87     Papers Presented at the Workshop   89     Workshop Participants   90

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Statistics on U.S. Immigration An Assessment of Data Needs for Future Research

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