The committee attempted a nontraditional look at how High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative (HPCCI) funds are being invested.' Traditional HPCCI budget reports show budget breakdowns by agency and by program component (High-Performance Computing Systems, National Research and Education Network, Advanced Software Technology and Algorithms, Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications, and Basic Research and Human Resources). The committee found it informative to examine the funding from a functional perspective to understand what sort of technical work is being performed and in what quantity. The committee separated the 88 HPCCI program elements into 11 disciplines defined as indicated below:
· Computer technology (CPT)applied research directed at advancing the state of computer architecture and hardware technology;
· Software technology (SWT)applied research directed at advancing the state of computer software technology;
· Communications technology (CMT)applied research directed at advancing the state of communications technology;
· Computing infrastructure (CPI)acquisition and operation of supercomputer facilities;
· Communications infrastructure (CMI)acquisition and operation of high-performance computer communications networks and services;
· Applications and computational science (APP)creation of software and computational techniques directed at solving specific scientific problems and applications;
· Common applications support (CAS)creation of software and computational techniques to support a range of applications across multiple disciplines;
· Artificial intelligence and human-machine interaction (AI)applied research directed at solving artificial intelligence and human interface problems.
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Page 97 C Review of the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative Budget The committee attempted a nontraditional look at how High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative (HPCCI) funds are being invested.' Traditional HPCCI budget reports show budget breakdowns by agency and by program component (High-Performance Computing Systems, National Research and Education Network, Advanced Software Technology and Algorithms, Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications, and Basic Research and Human Resources). The committee found it informative to examine the funding from a functional perspective to understand what sort of technical work is being performed and in what quantity. The committee separated the 88 HPCCI program elements into 11 disciplines defined as indicated below: · Computer technology (CPT)applied research directed at advancing the state of computer architecture and hardware technology; · Software technology (SWT)applied research directed at advancing the state of computer software technology; · Communications technology (CMT)applied research directed at advancing the state of communications technology; · Computing infrastructure (CPI)acquisition and operation of supercomputer facilities; · Communications infrastructure (CMI)acquisition and operation of high-performance computer communications networks and services; · Applications and computational science (APP)creation of software and computational techniques directed at solving specific scientific problems and applications; · Common applications support (CAS)creation of software and computational techniques to support a range of applications across multiple disciplines; · Artificial intelligence and human-machine interaction (AI)applied research directed at solving artificial intelligence and human interface problems.
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Page 98 · Basic hardware technology (BHW)-basic electronics research supporting electronic components that might be applied to a wide variety of systems, including computers and communications systems; · Education (EDU)training and education; and · Administration (ADM)National Coordination Office. The committee classified 86 of the 88 program elements as coming under I of the 11 disciplines listed above, based on each program element's FY 1995 milestones (Table C.1). If a program element appeared to fit into more than one discipline, the committee categorized it by examining the element's milestones to determine where the majority of the program activity was concentrated. Two of the larger Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) program activities (Intelligent Systems and Software, and Information Sciences) were split between two disciplines. Table C.2 shows the FY 1993 actual budget, the FY 1995 request,2and the percentage change in the HPCCI budget for each of these 11 disciplines. BUDGET REVIEW It is interesting to examine the HPCCI budget to see which areas are being emphasized and to compare these with the HPCCI's goals and objectives. As indicated also in Chapter 2, the current program goals are as follows: · Extend U.S. leadership in high-performance computing and networking technologies; · Disseminate the technologies to accelerate innovation and serve the economy, national security, education, and the environment; and · Spur gains in U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness. The computer technology, software technology, and communications technology disciplines address the goals of extending technical leadership in computing and communications and providing key enabling technologies for the information infrastructure. The budget for these three disciplines accounted for 32.9 percent of the FY 1993 actual budget and 30.5 percent of the FY 1995 requested budget. The largest part of the HPCCI budget is invested in applications and supercomputer computing infrastructure to support applications49.8 percent of the FY 1993 actual budget and 50.1 percent of the FY 1995 requested budget. Applications and computational science, common applications support, artificial intelligence and human-machine interaction, and computing infrastructure programs are included. The rest of the budget requested for FY 1995 is divided among basic hardware technology (5.1 percent), communications infrastructure (7.9 percent), education (5.6 percent), and a very small amount for program administration.
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Page 99 TABLE C.1 Mapping of Agencies, HPCCI Budget Allocations, Program Elements, and Discipline Categories AgencyA 1995 Requested ($M) 1993 Actual ($M) DisciplineB Program ElementC ARPA 36.15 11.35 Al Intelligent systems and software ARPA 36.15 11.35 SWT ARPA 60.20 44.90 CPT Scalable computing systems ARPA 44.50 33.50 BHW Microsystems ARPA 43.10 34.80 CMT Networking ARPA 33.90 38.00 SWT National-scale information enterprises ARPA 29.60 36.50 SWT Scalable software ARPA 23.00 00.00 CMT Global grid communications ARPA 10.50 15.10 Al Information sciences ARPA 10.50 15.10 SWT ARPA 14.00 13.90 EDU Foundations ARPA 09.80 00.00 APP Health information infrastructure ARPA 06.00 00.00 BHW Integrated command and control technology NSF 76.43 63.89 CPI Supercomputer centers NSF 46.16 30.10 CMI NSFNET NSF 35.25 00.00 CAS Information infrastructure technology and applications program NSF 25.35 21.79 SWT Software systems and algorithms NSF 20.95 18.65 CPI Research infrastructure NSF 20.70 18.76 CPT Computing systems and components NSF 20.24 15.34 EDU Education and training NSF 11.50 07.80 APP Biological sciences (non-NC/GC) NSF 11.30 09.80 CMT Very high speed networks and optical systems NSF 11.00 10.40 Al Human machine interaction and information access NSF 10.75 07.00 CAS Grand Challenge applications groups NSF 10.55 09.20 CAS Research centers NSF 09.77 02.75 APP Physical sciences (non-NC/GC) NSF 07.59 05.72 CAS Computational mathematics (non-NC/GC) continues
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Page 100 TABLE C. 1continued AgencyA 1995 Requested ($M) 1993 Actual ($M) DisciplineB Program ElementsC NSF 04.23 02.17 APP Engineering (non-NC/GC) NSF 03.84 01.15 CPI Geosciences (non-NC/GC) NSF 03.01 00.65 APP Social, behavioral, and economic sciences (non-NC/GC) DOE 35.60 35.13 CPI Supercomputer access DOE 16.00 1 5.25 CAS Basic research for applied mathematics research DOE 14.80 07.68 CMI Energy sciences network (Esnet) DOE 12.90 07.15 CPI High-performance computing research centers DOE 12.60 08.98 CAS Software components and tools DOE 09.90 07.73 CPI Evaluation of early systems DOE 09.00 06.53 APP Enabling energy Grand Challenges DOE 03.40 02.44 CAS Computational techniques DOE 03.00 02.36 EDU Education, training, and curriculum DOE 02.00 02.60 EDU Research participation and training DOE 02.00 01.86 CMT Gigabit research and development DOE 02.00 01.80 APP High-performance research centers-global climate collaboration DOE 01.20 00.00 CAS Information infraservices DOE 01.00 00.00 CPI Advanced prototype systems NASA 55.30 46.80 APP Grand Challenge support NASA 26.40 17.60 CPI Testbeds NASA 12.70 08.50 CMI National Research and Education Network (NREN) NASA 10.70 00.00 EDU Information infrastructure applications NASA 09.20 05.40 SWT Systems software NASA 06.80 00.00 CAS Information infrastructure technology NASA 03.80 03.30 EDU Basic research and human resources NIH 11.00 08.00 CPI DCRT high-performance biomedical computing program continues
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Page 101 TABLE C.1continued AgencyA 1995 Request ($M) 1993 Actual ( $M) DisciplineB ProgramC NIH 11.00 01.50 APP National Library of Medicine high-performance computing and communications health care applications NIH 08.80 03.40 APP NCRR information infrastructure technology applications NIH 08.80 06.80 APP NCRR advanced software technology and algorithms NIH 06.70 06.30 CPI NCI Frederick biomedical supercomputing center NIH 06.50 00.40 CMI NLM medical connections program NIH 05.40 03.80 CAS NLM IAIMS grants NIH 05.00 03.10 EDU NCRR basic research and human resources NIH 04.80 04.10 APP NLM biotechnology informatics NIH 04.70 05.00 CAS NLM intelligent agent database searching NIH 03.60 02.90 EDU NLM HPCCI training grants NIH 02.20 01.50 APP NLM electronic imaging NIH 02.00 00.00 CMI NCI high-speed networking and distributed conferencing NIH 00.70 00.40 ADM National Coordination Office NIH 00.60 00.00 APP High-performance communications for PDQ, Cancer Net, and electronic publishing NSA 26.10 00.00 CPT Supercomputing research NSA 05.70 00.00 SWT Secure operating system development NSA 03.50 00.00 CMT Very high speed networking NSA 02.60 00.00 CMT High-speed data protection electronics NSA 02.00 00.00 BHW Superconducting research NSA 00.23 00.00 EDU Technology-based training NIST 25.20 00.00 CAS Systems integral for manufacturing applications NIST 07.60 00.60 APP Development and dissemination of scientific software for high-performance computing systems continues
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Page 102 TABLE C. 1continued AgencyA 1995 Requested ($M) 1993 Actual ($M) DisciplineB Program ElementC NIST 06.45 00.00 BHW Metrology for future generations of microelectronics NIST 04.00 00.00 CAS Language, image, and text processing NIST 04.00 00.00 SWT Specification and testing of high-integrity, distributed systems NIST 02.75 00.00 CAS Support for electronic commerce NIST 02.20 01.50 CMT Deployment and performance measures for gigabit nets and massively parallel processor systems NIST 01.75 00.00 CMT Metrology to support mobile and fixed-base communications networks NIST 01.25 00.00 CAS Electronic libraries and distributed multimedia applications NIST 01.20 00.00 SWT Assurance, reliability, and integrity of NREN objects NOAA 16.05 09.40 APP Advanced computation NOAA 08.70 00.40 CMI Networking connectivity NOAA 00.50 00.00 APP Information dissemination pilots EPA 06.45 05.33 APP Environmental modeling EPA 05.25 01.31 APP Computational techniques EPA 01.97 01.16 EDU Education and training EPA 00.70 00.21 CMI State network connectivity EPA 00.30 00.00 APP Public data access AARPA, Advanced Research Projects Agency; NSF, National Science Foundation; DOE, Department of Energy; NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; NIH, National Institutes of Health; NSA, National Security Agency; NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology; NOAA, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration; EPA, Environmental Protection Agency. BAl, artificial intelligence and human-machine interaction; SWT, software technology; CPT, computer technology; BHW, basic hardware technology; CMT, communications technology; EDU, education and training; APP, applications and computational science; CAS, common applications support; CPI, computing infrastructure; CMI, communications infrastructure; ADM, National Coordination Office. CNC/GC, National Challenge/Grand Challenge; DCRT, Division of Computer Research and Technology (NIH); IAIMS, Integrated Academic Information Management System; NLM, National Library of Medicine; NCRR, National Center for Research Resources (NIH); NCI, National Cancer Institute (NIH); PDQ, Physician Data Query (NIH). SOURCE: Data on agency budgets and program activities were extracted from the FY 1995 Implementation Plan prepared by the National Coordination Office (1994).
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Page 103 TABLE C.2 Actual FY 1 993 and Requested FY 1995 HPCCI Budget (millions of dollars) Categorized by Discipline Discipline 1993 1995 Percentage Change Computer technology 63.66 107.00 68 Software technology 128.14 155.60 21 Communications technology 47.96 89.45 86 Computing infrastructure 165.60 204.72 23 Communications infrastructure 47.29 91.56 94 Applications and computational science 102.44 176.96 73 Common applications support 57.39 147.44 157 Artificial intelligence and human-machine nteraction 36.85 57.65 56 Basic hardware technology 33.50 58.95 76 Education 44.66 64.54 45 Administration 0.40 0.70 75 TOTAL program 727.89 1154.56 59 Alternatively, the 11 discipline categories can be used to examine the balance between support for discipline-specific scientific research that uses high-performance computing and communications technologies and support for computer science research on new high-performance computing and communications technologies. Analysis of the FY 1995 HPCCI budget request shows that $352 million (30 percent) would be invested in basic research in computer, software, and communications technologies; $205 million (18 percent) in applied computer science research, artificial intelligence, and human-machine interaction; $176 million (15 percent) in direct support of applications and computational science; and $297 million (26 percent) in computing and communications infrastructure. Commentary: Many Possibilities for Misinterpretation The HPCCI has enjoyed a certain amount of political support and is growing even in a time of very tight federal budgets. The committee believes that this has created a ''bandwagon" effect: the initiative has had its scope extended by the inclusion of some work not directly related to the HPCCI's goals, however valuable it may be, or work with broad relevance. The result has been a less than focused program. For example, all high-performance computing and communications systems are built from electronics and depend directly on advancements in basic electronic technology. The ARPA Microsystems program activity, which constitutes the large majority of the basic hardware discipline, supports research in basic electronics technologies. This research will eventually benefit
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Page 104 the high-performance computing and communications technology base and help advance the nation's information infrastructure, but it could also be used in a wide variety of other contexts. Another problem is the possible creation of false expectations about the extent to which the HPCCI could create the technology necessary for advancing the nation's information infrastructure. A large amount of work within the two applications disciplines is directed primarily toward the use of high-performance computing in solving certain scientific and agency mission problems. Only a part of this work, such as the creation of digital libraries, would apply directly to the goal of enhancing the nation's information infrastructure. Some of this work is directed at challenging computational science problems, which have excellent scientific impact but whose results are more easily justified as scientific results, rather than HPCCI results. Also, the HPCCI invests much more heavily in computing than in communications. Less than 16 percent of the FY 1995 request is for communications technology and infrastructure. About one-third of the program is directed toward creating new technology directly applicable to advancing the information infrastructure. The growth in funding in these areas is offset by an unrelated decrease in research investment by industry, spurred in part by competitive changes in the computer and communications industries. As a result, the nation's total amount of research in high-performance computing and communications technologies is considerably less than it appears, and in fact may be insufficient to maintain the strategic U.S. lead in these technologies or to support the rapid deployment of an enhanced information infrastructure. NOTES 1. CPSMA (1994), p. 7; this report points out that labor-intensive, detailed disaggregation of published data may be the only way to understand how research program budgets are spent. 2. Amounts shown for FY 1995 are Executive Budget requests. At press time, agency appropriations had been made, but the involved agencies had not disaggregated the appropriations and reported the HPCCI portions to the National Coordination Office. A 2-year time period, FY 1993 to FY 1995, was used to help dampen any single-year jumps in level.