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. .-.-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-.-.-. . |-: :: .., -:. A Abortions access to, 157, 158 adolescents, 66, 67-68, 77 contraception and, 70, 81, 84 developing world, 39 procedures, 83 rates, 77, 81, 82-83 Roe v. Wade, 77 RU 486, 84-85 septic, 90 waiting period, 83 Abstinence, 79, 81 Access to health care AIDS patients, 161 elderly, 156, 157, 170-173 .... financial barriers, 155-156, 161 -162 gender differences, 154, 155 geographic barriers, 162 low-income persons, 157-158 malpractice liability concerns and, 162-168 Medicaid acceptance by physicians, 158 , .. ... ... .. .. - ... . .. ... .. . . .. . . .. .......... ; ....... ..... . .. ....... . .. ..... ..... . . .. ... .. . . . :::: Ink ex 217 ::: -: physician attitudes, 160 prenatal and maternity, 161 - 168 preventive services, 158 in public hospital clinics, 161 shortage of practitioners, 162 structural barriers, 159-160 Addiction. See also Alcohol abuse and alcoholism; Cigarette smoking; Drug abuse and addiction gender differences, 9, 26-29 nicotine, 64 research on women, 184- 185 Adhesions, 86 Adolescents. See also Puberty abortions, 66, 67-68, 77 Amish cohort, 48 breastLeeding, 141 cigarette smoking, 63-64 contraception, 68 dieting, 147 eating disorders, 62-63 gender differentiation process, 45- 46, 57 health risks, 43-44

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT mental health, 47-49, 60-61 miscarriages, 66 nutrition, 141 pregnancy, 66, 77, 136 prenatal care, 90 risky behaviors, 64-65 self-image, 61-63 sexual context of, 58 sexually transmitted diseases, 66, 85 stressors, 26, 48, 58, 63 substance abuse, 61, 63, 185 suicide, 60-61, 63 Advertising, cigarette, 63, 64 African Americans AIDS, 95 breast cancer, 158 breastLeeding, 138-140, 141 cervical cancer, 158-159 contraceptive use, 69 elder care, 171 infant mortality, 89 infertility, 87-88 maternal mortality, 90 nutrition, 141 obesity/overweight, 131 prenatal care, 90 teen pregnancy, 66, 90 weight gain or loss, 136, 147 African women, 107 Age/aging and bereavement, 112-114 demographics, 18, 111-112 and disability, 144 female perspective, 111-112 and fitness, 49 and health status, 40-41, 114-115 hormones and, 37 and status of women, 107-109 and weight, 131, 136 Aggression, 24-25 218 A.H. Robins, 202 AIDS, 95, 161, 173, 179, 184, 187, 190-191, 192 Akil, Huda, 37 Alan Guttmacher Institute, 68 Alcohol abuse and alcoholism adolescents, 48, 65 denial, 94 depression and, 93, 94 enabling, 94 gender differences, 22-23, 27, 28, 65-66, 124, 184-185 marriage and, 92-93 and nutrition, 122 physical consequences, 66, 93 research on women, 184- 185 treatment, 93-94, 160- 161 Alcohol and the fews, 185 Alcohol, Chemical Dependency, and Compulsive Gambling Programs, 28 Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 28, 193 Alcoholics Anonymous, 93 Alzbeimer's disease, 36 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 91, 136 American Dietetic Association, 136 American School Health Association, 66 Androgens, 24-25 Anemia, 8, 39, 125, 137 Anorexia nervosa, 62-63 Antibodies, antisperm, 87 Antisocial personality disorder, 22, 23, 27 Anxiety, 27, 47, 48, 92, 94 Artificial insemination, 86 Attention deficits, 56 Autoimmune diseases, 22

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con Index B Baby boom generation, 115, 192 Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, 193 Bangladesh, 39 Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth, 120-121, 122, 126 Bass & Howes, 187 Battering, 160 Baulieu, Etienne-Emile, 83 Beauty standards, 46-48, 62, 125-126, 148 Beecher, Harry K., 188 Benet, Leslie Z., 186 Benign breast tumors, 82 Bereavement, 112-114 Bipolar disorder (manic depression), 22, 23, 92 Blood pressure, 36 Blume, Sheila, 28, 185 Body composition and size, 29-31, 46-48, 128-131, 144-145 Body mass index, 128-131 Bone fractures, 21, 30-31, 122 Bone tissue losses, 30-31, 48, 110, 111 122, 144 Boston Nurses Study, 198 Boston Women's Health Collective, 190 Brain cancer, 85 Brain structure and function, 37-38 Breakfast of the Birds, 103 Breast cancer access to care, 158 childbearing age and, 8-9, 99 fat and, 8-9, 144, 147 First Ladies, 4 hormone replacement therapy and, 110 mortality, 158 nutrition and, 120, 144 ., 219 origins, 8-9, 36 raceand,l58 research, 106-107, 109 risk of, 21, 111 screening, 111, 153, 158 treatment, 84 BreastLeeding, 80 calcium metabolism, 142 characteristics of nursing mothers, 138-141 and nutrition, 120, 134-135, 141, 142 and ob esity/overweight, 142- 143 Brown, Louise, 86 Bulimia, 47, 48, 62-63 Bush, President, 193 Calcium, 8, 70, 122, 126, 127, 137, 142, 144 Canada, 67 Cancer screening, 111, 157, 158-159 Cardiovascular disorders ageand,l9-20,21 arrhythmias, 21 cigarette smoking and, 28, 183 contraception and, 80 Coronary Drug Project, 183 differential treatment of women, 8, 20, 183 Framingham project, 182 Lipid Research Clinic, 183 menopause and, 110, 182-183 mortality of women, 19-20, 183 Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 183, 193, 198 nutrition and, 70, 99, 120 Physicians' Health Study, 183 prevention studies, 109 research on women, 182- 183 risk factors, 183

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT Cassatt, Mary, 51, 73 Cataracts, 144 Center for Women's Health Research, 154 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 86, 167, 184 Cervical cancer, 99, 153, 158-159 Cervical cap, 81 Chastity, 59, 68 Chestnut, Charles, 70-71 Child care, 93, 157, 161 Children/childhood diet and nutrition, 56 diseases and disorders, 56 gender differentiation process, 44- 45, 56-57 mental health, 24, 56 sexual abuse, 25, 56 socioeconomic contexts, 56 survival, 55-56 Chlamydia, 85 Cholesterol, 110 Cigarette smoking adolescents, 63-65, 70 advertising, 63, 64 and contraceptive use, 82 and drug abuse, 65 health effects, 28, 36, 111 longevity and, 17-18, 112 and menopause, 105 mental health status and, 27 metabolism of nicotine, 27 and pregnancy and childbearing, 137 "scarlet woman" image, 63 Surgeon General's Report, 63 and weight control, 48 women's rates, 18-19, 27, 28 Circumcision, female, 41 Clayton, Paula J., 48 Clinton, President, 84, 193 Cognitive function, 144 220 Cohler, Bertram, 19, 43, 112, 113-115 Colon cancer, 36 Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 91 Committee on Research in Problems of Sex, 202 Community and migrant health centers, 164-165 Condoms, female, 97-98 Condoms, male, 67, 68, 78, 79, 80- 81, 95, 96, 99 Conger, John I., 26, 47-48, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62 Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, 89-90 Contraception/contraceptives. See also specific contraceptives abortion and, 70, 81, 84 access to, 157 adolescent use of, 67, 68-70 costs, 82 Dalkon Shield disaster, 81, 190, 202-203 Depo-Provera, 203 distribution, 82 drawbacks, 79-80 effectiveness, 80-81 FDA approval, 203 health risks, 82, 120 and HIV infection, 95-96 implants, 79, 80 options, 79 oral, 60, 67, 69, 70, 77, 78, 79, 80 81, 82, 83, 120 research, 70, 81-82, 193, 196, 201 204 and sexually transmitted diseases, 99 social effects, 59, 60 spermicides, 79, 81, 95 use, 78 Cornell University, 47, 143

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car Index Coronary Drug Project, 183 Coronary heart disease, 18 Cragin, E.B., 91 Creoles, 107 Cultural factors bereavement, 113 in diet, 122-125 in eating disorders, 47-48 entry into adulthood, 75-76 gender inequalities, 40, 96-97 longevity and, 38-40 mental health and, 38, 47-48 and obesity and overweight, 126, 131-132, 134 physical health and, 19, 40-43 postreproductive status, 107-108 protective customs, 59-60 sexual permissivity, 59, 61 Cureton, Kirk I., 29 Cushing's syndrome, 85 D Dairy products, 120, 122-124, 126 Dalhousie University, 196 DeBruin, Debra, 197 Deirdre, 207 Dementia, 113 Demographics, gender differences, 18, 111-112 Depo-Provera, 203 Depression (major) adolescents, 44, 46-47, 60-61 alcoholism and, 93, 94, 160 childhood, 24 circadian rhythms and, 25 drug abuse and, 27 eating disorders and, 47 elderly women, 113-114 gender differences in, 8, 9, 22, 23- 24, 48 221 hormones and, 24 postpartum, 92 sexual abuse and, 25 sources, 92 DES, 188-189, 190 Developing countries life expectancy, 39 women's nutrition, 9, 123-125 Diabetes, 80 Diaphragms, 69, 79, 81, 95, 99 Diet. See also specific nutrients beauty standards and, 125-126 consequences of, 8, 143-145 cultural factors in, 122-125 gender roles and, 124 guidelines, 122, 123 "magic bullets," 121 Dietary supplements, 121, 137, 144 Dieting. See also Weight and exercise, 146-147 extreme, 137 and metabolism, 147 results, 145-146 successful programs, 147 yo-yo, 147 Differentiation, sexual, 16 Discrimination, 133, 148 Divorce, 93, 156 Dixon, Wendy Fay, 207 Dopamine, 47 Drug abuse and addiction adolescents, 27, 44, 65, 70 cigarette smoking and, 65 gender differences in, 22, 23, 28- 29, 35 health consequences of, 66 HIV infection, 94, 95, 96 male influence on females, 65 metabolism, 28-29, 37 physiology and, 37 Dysthymia, 22, 23

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT E East Germany (former), 83 Eating disorders, 9, 29, 35, 44, 47-48, 125-126. See also specific disorders Education, 76, 138 Egypt, 39 Elderly women access to care, 156, 157, 170-173 bereavement, 112-114 demographics, 18 disability, 111, 171 family caretakers, 171, 172 long-term care, 157, 170-173 medication use, 20-21 nutritional needs, 143-145 widowhood, 112-114, 171, 172 Elixir Sulfanilamide, 187 Embryonic development, 16, 38 Emory University Medical School, 20 Employment issues, 154, 156 Endometrial cancer, 82, 110 Endometriosis, 84, 86, 87 Energy requirements, 127, 141 England and Wales, 67 Epidemiological Catchment Area study, 22 Estrogen, 110 Exercise, 8, 49, 57, 70, 111, 145, 146- 147 F Faculte de Medecine Paris-sud, 83 Family planning clinics, 67, 68-69, 82, 157 Fashion, and health, 42-43 Fat, dietary, 8-9, 110, 120, 122, 144, 147 Fee, Elizabeth, 187, 189, 190, 192, 196 Fertility, body fat and, 134 Fetal development, 16-17, 55 monitoring, 91, 168-169 nutrition, 135 research, 87, 193 Fibroid tumors, 84, 186, 196 Fillmore, Kaye, 92, 93 Finland, 88 Folate, 137 Food and Nutrition Board, 7-8, 136 Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act, 187 Ford, Betty, 4 Fractures. See Bone fractures Framingham project, 182 France, 67, 83, 84 Frank, Ellen, 23-24, 25, 38, 58, 59-60 Fridlund, Karen, 126, 127 Gaal, Aniko, 1 Gamete interfallopian transfer (GIFT), 86-87 Garn, Stanley M., 29 Gastric surgery, 133, 146 Gender differentiation process, 44-47 inequalities, 40, 96-97, 181 - 183 ratios, 39, 173 roles, 40-41, 49, 77, 94, 107-108, 124, 195-196 Gender differences access to health care, 154, 155 addiction, 9, 26-29, 37 alcohol abuse, 22-23, 27, 28, 65 behavioral, 35-36, 38, 44 body composition and size, 29-31 brain structure and function, 37-38 child development history, 44 cultural considerations, 38-43 demographic, 18 diet and nutrition, 120, 123-124 222

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can Index embryonic development, 16, 38 genetic, 15-16 illness, 17, 19, 154-155 immune response, 8, 18 income spending patterns, 124 longevity, 17-22 mental health, 22-26, 37-38, 38 metabolism, 27 sexual development, 58-59 sleep requirements, 25 social development, 56-57 tobacco use, 17-19 weight gain or loss, 131, 147 General Accounting Office, 192- 193 Genetics eating disorders, 47-48 gender differences, 15-16 Goldstein, Jill, 49 Gonadotrophins, 120 Gonorrhea, 85 Goodwin, Frederick K., 28 Grunberg, Neil E., 27 Guatemala, 124 H Halmi, Katherine, 47 Harvard University Medical School, 49 Healey, Bernadine, 109, 193, 194 Health-care-seeking behavior, 19, 20- 21, 154 Health care system. See also Access to health care contradictions in, 153, 210 differential treatment of women, 8, 20, 153-154, 157 differential use of, 19, 20-21, 154- 155 OB/GYNs, 200-201 professional role of women, 154, 156, 162, 197-198, 199, 200-201 rationing of care, 157- 158 Health insurance, 76, 87-88, 155-157, 161-162 Health maintenance organizations, 159 Hearing loss, 21 Heart. See Cardiovascular disorders Henderson, Maureen M., 18, 20, 21, 28, 37, 48 Hepatitis B vaccine, 18 Hispanics AIDS, 95 breastLeeding, 139-140 contraception, 80, 97 obesity/overweight, 131 HIV infection, 66, 86, 94, 95-96 Homosexuality, 36 Hong Kong, 77, 88 Hormone replacement therapy, 110- 111 Hormones. See Reproductive hormones Human genome mapping, 36 I Illness. See also specific disorders cultural factors, 19 gender differences in, 17, 19-21, 154-155 more-selective-male-cohort theory, 20 rates of, 20, 21-22 types of, 21 Immune response, 8, 18, 22, 36, 39, 144 In vitro fertilization (IVF), 86, 87 Income and access to health care, 155, 161 162 and breastLeeding, 138- 140 differential spending patterns, 124, 154 223

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT India, 39, 107 Indiana University School of Medicine, 158 Indonesia, 27 Infant formula, 138 Infant mortality, 77, 88-91, 153 Infertility, 77-78, 85-88, 90, 196 Institute for Health and Aging, 92 Institute of Medicine (IOM) child development report, 55 Panel on the National Health Care Survey, 156 perspectives on women's health, 4-8 IOM Committee/Subcommittee on an Aging Society, 171 on Antiprogestins, 84 on Contraception, 78 to Design a Strategy for Quality Review and Assurance in Medicare, 173 to Develop Criteria for Evaluating the Outcomes of Approaches to Prevent and Treat Obesity, 126, 132 on Diet and Health, 122 on the Ethical and Legal Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies, 180 on Health and Behavior, 92 on Health Objectives for the Year 2000, 90 on Health Promotion and Disability Prevention for the Second Fifty Years, 111 on Monitoring Access to Personal Health Care Services, 90, 158, 159 on Nutrition During Lactation, 134, 141 on Population, 201 on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths, 63, 64 65 on Research Capabilities of Academic Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 200 to Study Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, 10 to Study Medical Professional Liability and Delivery of Obstetrical care, 162-166, 167 for the Study of Health Consequences of the Stress of Bereavement, 112, 114 to Study the Role of Allied Health Personnel, 171 on Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues in AIDS Research, 65, 95-96 Intrauterine devices (IUDs), 69, 77, 79-80, 81 Iron, 120, 124, 127, 137 Issues in women's health, 7, 209-212 J Jackson, Valerie P., 158 Jacobs, Sarah Florin, 211-212 Japan, 27, 88 Japanese Americans, 90 Jewish Chronic Diseases Hospital (Brooklyn), 188 Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, 187 Johnson, Tracy, 187, 189, 190, 192, 196 Johnson & Johnson, 202 K Kathy, 33 224

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con Index King, Janet, 121, 136 Kuhn, Thomas, 7, 137 L Learning disabilities, 37, 56 Life expectancy, 21, 39 Life experience, and health, 40 Lipid Research Clinic, 183 Lipoprotein lipase, 145 Long-term care, 157 Longevity cultural considerations, 38-39 gender differences in, 17-22 price of, 210 Low-birth-weight babies, 28, 89-90, 162, 164 Lung cancer, 28, 36, 112 M Maccoby, Eleanor, 43-44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 56-57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 68 Magnesium, 137 Malpractice liability concerns, 162- 170, 202 Marital status, 156 Mass media, sexual suggestion, 59 Matriarch stage, 107 McEwen, Bruce, 36-38 Mead, Margaret, 40 Medicaid, 67, 88, 155, 156, 158, 164, 166, 171-172 Medicare, 156, 158, 171-172 Medication consumption, 20-21 Meditation, 1 Menarche/menstrual period age of, 134 body fat and, 134 and nutrition, 120, 124-125 225 Menopause, 30 baby boomer generation, 115 cigarette smoking and, 105 climacteric, 106, 110 health issues after, 106-107, 109- 111 hormone replacement therapy, 110-111 nutrition, 120 physiological aspects, 110 research needs, 186-187 and status of women, 107-109 Mental health adolescents, 47-49 children, 56 cultural factors and, 38 gender differences in, 22-26 physiology and, 37 Mental Health Research Institute. 37 Metabolism alcohol, 28 calcium, 142 exercise and, 146-147 hormones, 37, 120-121 illicit drugs, 28-29 nicotine, 27 therapeutic drugs, 186-187 and weight, 29, 132, 133, 147 Mexican Americans, 90, 131 Military women, 126-127 Milk sugar lactose, 120 Miscarriages, 66, 90 Morbidity, 8 Mortality. See also Longevity AIDS, 95 alcoholism and, 28 breast cancer, 158 cervical cancer, 158-159 developing countries, 39 eating disorders, 62-63 gender differences in, 8, 19-20

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT heart disease, 19-20, 183 infant, 77, 88-90, 153 maternal, 90, 112, 127, 135 Mullerian duct, 16 Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, 183, 193, 198 Munter, Gabriele, 103 Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, 18 Myocardial infarction, 19 N National Center for Health Statistics, 131 National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 191 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 131 National Institute of Mental Health, 22 National Institutes of Health AIDS research for women, 184 and electronic fetal monitoring, 168 National Task Force on Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, 128, 131 Office of Research on Women's Health, 193 research reforms, 192- 193 Revitalization Act of 1993, 193 Women's Health Initiative, 109- 110, 121 National Osteoporosis Foundation, 70 National Women's Health Network, 190 Native Americans, 90, 107, 131 Natural History of Alcoholism, 185 Netherlands, 67, 83 Neonatal intensive care, 90-91 Neural tube defects, 137 Neurotransmitters, 47 Nicotine, 27 Norepinephine, 47 Nuremberg Code, 187-188 Nurse-midwives, 162, 166 Nurses' aides, 172-173 Nursing homes, 112, 170, 171-172 Nutrition challenges, 9 developing countries, 9, 41 and later quality of life, 143- 145 Military Recommended Daily Allowances, 126 during pregnancy, 8, 120, 134-137 publications and conferences, 7-8 Recommended Daily Allowances, 126, 136-137 Nutritional epidemiology, 120- 121 o Obesity and overweight breastLeeding and, 142-143 cultural aspects, 126, 131-132, 134 definitions, 127-128 and discrimination, 133, 148 gastric surgery, 133 and heart disease, 183 lipoprotein lip ase and, 145 management, 132, 145 metabolism and, 132, 133 methods of determining, 128, 131 national goals, 148 pregnancy and childbearing and, 127, 133-134, 136, 142-143 United States, 127 Obsessive-compulsive disorder, 22, 23 Office of the Surgeon General, 126 Oldham and District Hospital (Lancashire, England), 87 226

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con Index One Hundred Years of Solitude, 107 Oral sex, 96 Ortho Pharmaceutical, 202 Osteoporosis cigarette smoking and, 28 gender differences in, 21, 35 menopause and, 110 nutrition and, 8, 70-71, 99, 120, 122 pregnancy and lactation and, 142 research, 106-107, 109, 193 Our Bodies, Ourselves, 4, 190 Ovarian cancer, 21, 82, 99, 120 Ovulation disorders, 86 pa Pacific Islanders, 131 Panic disorder, 22, 23 Pap smears, 158-159 Pelvic inflammatory disease, 82 Personality disorders, 47 Perspectives on women's health changes in, 3-4 Food and Nutrition Board, 7-8 IOM, 4-8 life experience, 9, 10 life span, 9-10, 53-55 male-centered, 6-7, 93-94, 160- 161, 195-196 pregnancy-centered, 54, 173-174, 195-196 social-role, 10 Pfaff, Donald, 24-25 Phobias, 22, 23 Physician-patient relationships, 167 Physicians' Health Study, 183, 198 Pica, 137-138 Pill, 60, 67, 69, 70, 77, 78, 79, 80-81, 83, 99, 120-121, 202 Pneumonia, 21 Polan, Mary Lake, 187, 201 227 Population Council, 81, 84 Portrait of Eleanor, 151 Poverty and poor people, 70, 155, 156, 157-158, 163-165 Prax, Valentine Henriette, 117 Pregnancy and childbearing adolescents, 66, 77, 90 age and, 99 alcohol detoxification, 185 cesarean section, 91 -92, 135, 168, 169-170 drug effects during, 188-189 ectopic, 82, 90, 187 fetal monitoring, 91, 168-169 geriatric, 105 insurance coverage, 157 r ,, Intrauterine 1ntectlons, j~ late, 8-9 male selection over females, 41 malpractice liability concerns, 162- 170 morbidity and mortality, 39, 41, 112, 127, 135, 137 natural childbirth, 141 nutrition, 8, 120, 134-137, 142 obesity and, 127, 133-134, 142- 143 preeclampsia, 186, 196 prenatal and maternity care, 89-90, 153, 161-168 quickening, 83-84 reproductive period, 209 social role expectations, 49 and social status, 98 unintended, 77 weight gain, 134-136 Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, 157 Prenatal and maternity care, 89-90, 161-168 Pressure sores, 21 Princeton, 70

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT Progestins, 110 Protective customs, 59-60 Protein, 127 Puberty, 17, 24, 26, 43, 45-47, 57-58, 59, 134 Q Quality of care, in nursing homes, 172-173 R Rape, 58, 59 Rasmussen, Kathleen Maher, 143 Reed, Beth Glover, 93-94 Relationships formation of, 57, 59 sexual, 61, 65 Religious communities, 68 Relman, Arnold, 167-168 Reproductive cancers, 70, 99, 110, 120, 144, 193 Reproductive hormones and aging, 37 infertility interventions, 86 menopause and, 110 and mental health, 24-25, 92 nonreproductive influences, 36 Reproductive tract infections, 39 Reproductive years. See also Abortions; Contraception/ contraceptives; Infertility; Pregnancy and childbearing; Sexual relationships AIDS, 95-98 alcohol abuse, 92-93 entry into adulthood, 75-76 health status, 77 mental disorders, 92-94 span, 209 Research on women activism, 190-192 addictions, 184-185 AIDS, 182, 184 breast cancer, 106-107, 109 clinical trial participation, 179-181, 184, 186-187, 192, 198-199 demographic barriers, 197-198 effects of bias, 185-187, 197 ethical principles, 191 - 192 experimentation abuses and, 187- 188 extrapolation from male-based results, 183 funding issues, 179, 198-199, 200, 202 gender bias, 181-185, 195-196 heart disease, 182-183 hormonal fluctuations and, 197 leadership of women, 198-200 male bias, 195 male norm, 195 policy reforms, 192-195 pregnant women and, 189-190 reproductive, 196, 199-200 scientific culture and, 195-196 Rheumatoid arthritis, 21 Rockefeller, Happy, 4 Rockefeller University, 24, 36 Rosenberg, Irwin, 144 Rosenberg, Leon E., 18, 19, 20 Roussel-Uclaf, 84 RU 486, 84-85 S Salt, 135 Sargeant, Geneve Rixford, 151 Schizophrenia, 22, 23, 36, 48-49 Scrimshaw, Susan, 8, 39, 41, 80, 96- 97, 107, 108, 116, 124 Seaman, Barbara, 173 228

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con Index Secondary sexual characteristics, 17 Segal, Sheldon, 81 Selenium, 137 Sensitive-period concept, 55, 56 Serotonin, 47 Sexual abuse, 25, 56, 59, 60, 93 activity, 76, 83 objects, 58 pressures, 9, 60 relationships, 61, 66, 94 revolution, 60, 77, 187 Sexually transmitted diseases, 66, 70, 85, 96, 97, 99, 159, 187 Sherwin, Susan, 196 Silverstone, Barbara, 171 Singapore, 77, 83, 88 Sketch of Denise's Daughter, 51 Sleep, 25 Snyder, Chuck, 185 Social contexts, of mental health differences, 25-26 Socialization, gender-specific, 57, 59- 60 Socioeconomic status, and access to care, 155, 156, 157-158, 163- 165, 171 Somatization disorder, 22, 23 South Oaks Hospital (Amityville, NY), 28 Spain, 88 Sports, 49 Stanford University, 43-44, 187 Staphylococcus aureus, 42 Sterilization, 78-79 Stern, Judith, 145, 147 Stress in adolescents, 26, 48, 58 of bereavement, 112-114 cigarette smoking and, 48 consequences of, 36-37 hormones, 37, 92 management, 36 Substance abuse. See also Alcohol abuse and alcoholism; Drug abuse and addiction adolescents, 61, 63 sources of, 92 treatment, 160 Sugar galactose, 120 Suicide, 60-61, 63, 113 Summer Sunlight, 13 Sweden, 67, 84, 88 Sweets and sugars, 122 Syphilis, 159, 188 r Tampons, 42-43 Tenneson, Joyce, 33 "Test-tube babies," 86-87 Thacker, Stephen B., 167, 169-170 Thalidomide, 188-189 The Bath, 73 The Family, 117 Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), 42-43 Trussell, James, 69-70 TuBts University, 144 Tuskeegee Syphilis Study, 188 U UCLA School of Public Health, 8, 39 Uniformed Services University School of Medicine, 27 United Kingdom, 84 United States cigarette smoking, 27 diet, 125-126 longevity, 38-39 obesity and overweight, 127 status of older women, 108-109 teen pregnancy rate, 66 University Hospital in Minneapolis, 48 229

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I N H E R O WN R ~ G HT University of California at Berkeley, 121 California at Davis, 145 California at San Diego, 120, 186 California at San Francisco, 92 Chicago, 19, 43 Colorado, 26 Michigan, 29, 37, 93 Pittsburgh, 23, 38, 197 Texas Southwest Medical Center, 38 Washington, 18, 154 Urinary infections, 21 U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 144 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children, 137-138, 141 Uterine cancer, 21, 110 Uterine prolapse, 39 V Vaginal cancer, 189 Vallian, George, 185 Van Ness, Beatrice Whitney, 13 Varioceles, 86 Violence, 44 Vitamin B6, 137, 144 Vitamin Bit, 144 Vitamin C, 144 Vitamin D, 137, 144 Vitamin E, 137 W Weight age and, 131 control, 29, 99, 125-126, 146 Weight-for-height tables, 128-130, 132 Weight Watchers, 48 Wenger, Nanette K., 20 Wet nurses, 138 Whites breast cancer, 158 breastLeeding, 138-140 cervical cancer, 158-159 obesity/overweight, 131 prenatal care, 90 teen pregnancy rate, 66 weight gain or loss, 136, 147 WIC Program, 137-138, 141 Widowers, 114 Widowhood, 112-114, 171, 172 Wilson, Jean, 38 Withdrawal, 67, 79, 81 Wolffian duct, 16 Women's Health Initiative, 109-110, 121, 193-195 Women's Health Trial, 147 Woods, Nancy Anne Fugate, 154, 155, 157, 173-174 Wymelenberg, Suzanne, 67, 77, 82, 86, 87 y Yogurt, 120 z Zinc, 137, 144 230