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74 SETTING PRIORITIES FOR CLINICALPRACTICE GUIDELINES Borbas, C., McLaughlin, D., and Schultz, A. The Minnesota Clinical Comparison and Assessment Program. In Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice. Chicago, Ill.: Hospital Research and Education Trust, 1993. Cluzeau, F., Littlejohn, P., Grimshaw, J., et al. Critical Appraisal of Clinical Practice Guidelines. Unpublished manuscript. Health Care Evaluation Unit, St. Georges Hospital Medical School, University of London, April 1994. Dalkey, N.C. The Delphi Method: An Experimental Study of Group Opinion. Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, 1969. Delbecq, A., Van de yen, A., and Gustaison, D. Group Techniques for Program Planning. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1975. Eddy, D. Selecting Technologies for Assessment. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 5:485-501, 1989. Eddy, D. Practice Guidelines: Priority-Setting Form (Version 3.4~. Unpublished document, September 23, 1994. Eisenberg, J.M., Doctors ' Decisions and the Cost of Medical Care: The Reasons for Doctors' Practice Patterns and Ways to Change Them. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press, 1986. Ferguson, J. Presentation to a workshop convened by the IOM Committee on Setting Priorities for Guidelines Development. Woods Hole, Mass.: August 15, 1994. Fink, A., Kosecoff, J., Chassin, M., arid Brook, R. Consensus Methods: Characteristics and Guidelines for Use. American Journal of Public Health 74(9):979-983, 1984. GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). Medicare: Technology Assessment and Medical Coverage Decisions. GAO/HEHS-94-195FS. Washington, D.C., July 1994. Gifford, G. Presentation to a workshop convened by the IOM Committee on Setting Priorities for Guidelines Development. Woods Hole, Mass.: August 15, 1994. Horn, S., and Hopkins, D. Clinical Practice Improvement: A New Technology for Developing Quality Cost-Effective Health Care. New York, N.Y.: Faulkner and Gray, 1994. IOM (Institute of Medicine). A Consortium for Technology Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1983. IOM. Assessing Medical Technologies. Council on Health Care Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1985. IOM. Controlling Costs and Changing Patient Care? The Role of Utilization Management. B. Gray and M. Field, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989a. IOM. Effectiveness Initiative. Setting Priorities for Clinical Conditions. K.N. Lohr and R.A. Rettig, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989b.

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REFERENCES 75 IOM. Acute Myocardial Infarction: Setting Priorities for effectiveness Research. P.H. Mattingly and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990a. IOM. Breast Cancer: Setting Priorities for effectiveness Research. K.N. Lohr, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990b. IOM. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Directions for a New Program. M.J. Field and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990c. IOM. Consensus Development at the NIH: Improving the Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990d. IOM. Effectiveness and Outcomes in Health Care: Proceedings of an Invitational Conference. K.A. Heithoff and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990e. IOM. Hip Fracture: Setting Priorities for Effectiveness Research. K.N. Lohr and K.A. Heithoff, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990f. IOM. Improving Consensus Development for Health Technology Assessment. An International Perspective. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990g. IOM. Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance. K.N. Lohr, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990h. IOM. National Priorities for the Assessment of Clinical Conditions and Medical Technologies: Report of a Pilot Study. M.E. Lara and C. Goodman, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1991. IOM. Guidelinesfor ClinicalPractice: From Development to Use. M.J. Field and K.N. Lohr, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992a. IOM. Setting Priorities for Health Technology Assessment: A Model Process. M.S. Donaldson and H.C. Sox, Jr., eds. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992b. Kent, C. Technology Assessment: A Stronger Federal Role? Medicine and Health Perspectives. December 16, 1991. Kibbe, D.C., Kaluzny, A.D., and McLaughlin, C.P. Integrating Guidelines with Continuous Quality Improvement. Journal on Quality Improvement 20~4~:181-191, 1994. Linstone, H., and Turoff, M., eds. The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1975. Lomas, J. Words Without Action? The Production, Dissemination, and Impact of Consensus Recommendations. Annual Review of Public Health 12:41~5, 1991. Lomas, J. Retailing Research: Increasing the Role of Evidence in Clinical Services for Childbirth. Milbank Quarterly 71~3~:439~75, 1993. MOGA (Aledical Outcomes & Guidelines Alert). Academics Examine Guidelines Methods. November 17, 1994a.

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