Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 66 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1995

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Biographical Memoirs The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-05037-5 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTOdN, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     MYRON LEE BENDER BY FRANK H. WESTHEIMER   3     ROYAL ALEXANDER BRINK BY OLIVER E. NELSON, JR., AND RAY D. OWEN   25     SETH CARLO CHANDLER, JR. BY W. E. CARTER AND M. S. CARTER   45     JULE GREGORY CHARNEY BY NORMAN A. PHILLIPS   81     EUGENE FEENBERG BY GEORGE PAKE   115     ROBERT EDWARD GROSS BY FRANCIS D. MOORE AND JUDAH FOLKMAN   131     HARRY GRUNDFEST BY JOHN P. REUBEN   151     LOUIS GEORGE HENYEY BY PETER H. BODENHEIMER   169

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Biographical Memoirs     JOSEPH OAKLAND HIRSCHFELDER BY R. BYRON BIRD, CHARLES F. CURTISS, AND PHILLIP R. CERTAIN   191     FREDERICK KAUFMAN BY MICHAEL F. GOLDE   207     DANIEL SANFORD LEHRMAN BY JAY S. ROSENBLATT   227     CHARLES SNOWDEN PIGGOT BY GEORGE R. TILTON   247     HENRY PRIMAKOFF BY S. P. ROSEN   267     J. FRANK SCHAIRER BY H. S. YODER, JR.   289     HARRY BOLTON SEED BY JAMES K. MITCHELL   323     KENNETH WARTINBEE SPENCE BY ABRAM AMSEL   335     MAX TISHLER BY LEWIS H. SARETT AND CLYDE ROCHE   353     GEORGE HOYT WHIPPLE BY LEON L. MILLER   371

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Biographical Memoirs PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary

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