Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
--> National Science Education Standards NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC
OCR for page R2
--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by the Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The study was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and a National Academy of Sciences president’s discretionary fund provided by the Volvo North American Corporation, The Ettinger Foundation, Inc., and the Eugene McDermott Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Science Education Standards. p. cm. “National Research Council.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-05326-9 1. Science—Study and Teaching—Standards—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Q183.3.A1N364 1996 507.1’0973—dc20 95-45778 CIP First Printing, December 1995 Second Printing, March 1996 Third Printing, July 1996 Fourth Printing, October 1996 Fifth Printing, February 1998 National Science Education Standards is available for sale from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). It is also available via internet at http://www:nas.edu. Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover by Grafik, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia.
OCR for page R3
--> Acknowledgments The National Science Education Standards are the product of the efforts of many individuals and groups. We want to acknowledge The National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment The Chair's Advisory Committee The Executive Editorial Committee The Content Working Group The Teaching Working Group The Assessment Working Group The Focus Groups The National Review Groups The many individuals who have served as consultants to the project All who have diligently reviewed the drafts The National Science Education Standards Development Team Angelo Collins, Director Rodger Bybee, Chair, Content Working Group Karen Worth, Chair, Teaching Working Group Audrey Champagne, Chair, Assessment Working Group Harold Pratt, Senior Program Officer The National Research Council Staff Donna M. Gerardi, Special Assistant for New Initiatives Patrice Legro, Senior Program Office Lee R. Paulson, Managing Editor Douglas K. Sprunger, Senior Project Assistant Suzanne White, Senior Project Assistant Tina M. Winters, Editorial Assistant See Appendix for members of the above groups. Major funding for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and a National Academy of Sciences president's discretionary fund provided by the Volvo North American Corporation, The Ettinger Foundation, Inc., and the Eugene McDermott Foundation. National Science Education Standards is available for sale from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). It is also available via internet at http://www:nas.edu.
OCR for page R4
OCR for page R5
--> Contents Call to Action vii National Science Education Standards: An Overview 1 Organization of the Standards 3 Science Teaching Standards 4 Professional Development Standards 4 Assessment Standards 5 Science Content Standards 6 Science Education Program Standards 7 Science Education System Standards 8 Toward the Future 9 1 Introduction 11 Why National Science Education Standards? 12 Goals for School Science 13 History of the National Science Education Standards 13 Organization 15 Guidance for Readers 17 References for Further Reading 17 2 Principles and Definitions 19 Perspectives and Terms in the National Science Education Standards 22 References for Further Reading 24 3 Science Teaching Standards 27 The Standards 29 Standard A 30 Standard B 32 Standard C 37 Standard D 43 Standard E 45 Standard F 51 Changing Emphases for Teaching 52 References for Further Reading 53 4 Standards for Professional Development for Teachers of Science 55 The Standards 58 Standard A 59 Standard B 62 Standard C 68 Standard D 70 Changing Emphases for Professional Development 72 References for Further Reading 73
OCR for page R6
--> 5 Assessment in Science Education 75 The Standards 78 Standard A 78 Standard B 79 Standard C 83 Standard D 85 Standard E 86 Assessments Conducted by Classroom Teachers 87 Improving Classroom Practice 87 Planning Curricula 87 Development Self-directed Learners 88 Reporting Student Progress 88 Researching Teaching Practices 89 Assessments Conducted at the District, State, and National Levels 89 Data Analysis 90 Teacher Involvement 90 Sample Size 90 Representative Sample 90 Sample Assessments of Student Science Achievement 91 Assessing Understanding of the Natural World 91 Assessing the Ability to Inquire 98 Changing Emphases for Assessment 100 References for Further Reading 101 6 Science Content Standards 103 Rationale 104 Unifying Concepts and Processes Standard 104 Science as Inquiry Standards 105 Physical Science, Life Science, and Earth and Space Science Standards 106 Science and Technology Standards 106 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Standards 107 History and Nature of Science Standards 107 Form of the Content Standards 108 Criteria for the Content Standards 109 Use of the Content Standards 111 Changing Emphases for Contents 113 Content Standard: K-12 115 Content Standards: K-4 121 Science as Inquiry 121 Physical Science 123 Life Science 127 Earth and Space Science 130 Science and Technology 135 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives 138 History and Nature of Science 141
OCR for page R7
--> Content Standards: 5-8 143 Science as Inquiry 143 Physical Science 149 Life Science 155 Earth and Space Science 158 Science and Technology 161 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives 166 History and Nature of Science 170 Content Standards: 9-12 173 Science as Inquiry 173 Physical Science 176 Life Science 181 Earth and Space Science 187 Science and Technology 190 Science in Personal and Social Perspectives 193 History and Nature of Science 200 References for Further Reading 204 7 Science Education Program Standards 209 The Standards 210 Standard A 210 Standard B 212 Standard C 214 Standard D 218 Standard E 221 Standard F 222 Changing Emphases for Programs 224 References for Further Reading 225 8 Science Education System Standards 227 The Standards 230 Standard A 230 Standard B 231 Standard C 231 Standard D 232 Standard E 232 Standard F 233 Standard G 233 Changing Emphases for Systems 239 References for Further Reading 240 Epilogue 243 Appendix 246 Index 254 Credits 261
OCR for page R8
--> The world looks so different after learning science. For example, trees are made of air, primarily. When they are burned, they go back to air, and in the flaming heat is released the flaming heat of the sun which was bound in to convert the air into tree. [A]nd in the ash is the small remnant of the part which did not come from air, that came from the solid earth, instead. These are beautiful things, and the content of science is wonderfully full of them. They are very inspiring, and they can be used to inspire others. Richard Feynman
OCR for page R9
--> Call to Action This nation has established as a goal that all students should achieve scientific literacy. The National Science Education Standards are designed to enable the nation to achieve that goal. They spell out a vision of science education that will make scientific literacy for all a reality in the 21st century. They point toward a destination and provide a roadmap for how to get there. All of us have a stake, as individuals and as a society, in scientific literacy. An understanding of science makes it possible for everyone to share in the richness and excitement of comprehending the natural world. Scientific literacy enables people to use scientific principles and processes in making personal decisions and to participate in discussions of scientific issues that affect society. A sound grounding in science strengthens many of the skills that people use every day, like solving problems creatively, thinking critically, working cooperatively in teams, using technology effectively, and valuing life-long learning. And the economic productivity of our society is tightly linked to the scientific and technological skills of our work force. Many types of individuals will play a critical role in improving science education: teachers; science supervisors; curriculum developers; publishers; those who work in museums, zoos, and science centers; science educators; scientists and engineers across the nation; school administrators; school board members; parents; members of business and industry; and legislators and other public officials. Individuals from all of these groups were involved in the development of the National Science Education Standards, and now all must act together in the national interest. Achieving scientific literacy will take time because the Standards call for dramatic changes throughout school systems. They emphasize a new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world. They also invoke changes in what students are taught, in how their performance is assessed, in how teachers are educated and keep pace, and in the relationship between schools and the rest of the community—including the nation's scientists and engineers. The Standards make acquiring scientific knowledge, understanding, and abilities a central aspect of education, just as science has become a central aspect of our society. The National Science Education Standards are premised on a conviction that all students deserve and must have the opportunity to become scientifically literate. The Standards look toward a future in which all Americans, familiar with basic scientific ideas and processes, can have fuller and more productive lives. This is a vision of great hope and optimism for America, one that can act as a powerful unifying force in our society. We are excited and hopeful about the difference that the Standards will make in the lives of individuals and the vitality of the nation. RICHARD KLAUSNER, CHAIRMAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS AND ASSESSMENT BRUCE ALBERTS, PRESIDENT NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
OCR for page R10
Marking the culmination of a three-year, multiphase process, on April 10th, 2013, a 26-state consortium released the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school.
Print copies of the Next Generation Science Standards are available for pre-order now or you can view the online version at nextgenscience.org
The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.