Chapter 6
Science Content Standards

The content standards presented in this chapter outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The content standards are a complete set of outcomes for students; they do not prescribe a curriculum. These standards were designed and developed as one component of the comprehensive vision of science education presented in the National Science Education Standards and will be most effective when used in conjunction with all of the standards described in this book. Furthermore, implementation of the content standards cannot be successful if only a subset of the content standards is used (such as implementing only the subject matter standards for physical, life, and earth science).

This introduction sets the framework for the content standards by describing the categories of the content standards with a rationale for



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--> Chapter 6 Science Content Standards The content standards presented in this chapter outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. The content standards are a complete set of outcomes for students; they do not prescribe a curriculum. These standards were designed and developed as one component of the comprehensive vision of science education presented in the National Science Education Standards and will be most effective when used in conjunction with all of the standards described in this book. Furthermore, implementation of the content standards cannot be successful if only a subset of the content standards is used (such as implementing only the subject matter standards for physical, life, and earth science). This introduction sets the framework for the content standards by describing the categories of the content standards with a rationale for

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--> each category, the form of the standards, the criteria used to select the standards, and some advice for using the science content standards. Rationale The eight categories of content standards are Unifying concepts and processes in science. Science as inquiry. Physical science. Life science. Earth and space science. Science and technology. Science in personal and social perspectives. History and nature of science. The standard for unifying concepts and processes is presented for grades K-12, because the understanding and abilities associated with major conceptual and procedural schemes need to be developed over an entire education, and the unifying concepts and processes transcend disciplinary boundaries. The next seven categories are clustered for grades K-4, 5-8, and 9-12. Those clusters were selected based on a combination of factors, including cognitive development theory, the classroom experience of teachers, organization of schools, and the frameworks of other disciplinary-based standards. References for additional reading for all the content standards are presented at the end of Chapter 6. The sequence of the seven grade-level content standards is not arbitrary: Each standard subsumes the knowledge and skills of other standards. Students' understandings and abilities are grounded in the experience of inquiry, and inquiry is the foundation for the development of understandings and abilities of the other content standards. The personal and social aspects of science are emphasized increasingly in the progression from science as inquiry standards to the history and nature of science standards. Students need solid knowledge and understanding in physical, life, and earth and space science if they are to apply science. Multidisciplinary perspectives also increase from the subject-matter standards to the standard on the history and nature of science, providing many opportunities for integrated approaches to science teaching. Unifying Concepts and Processes Standard Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards. Unifying concepts and processes include Systems, order, and organization. Evidence, models, and explanation. Change, constancy, and measurement. Evolution and equilibrium. Form and function. This standard describes some of the integrative schemes that can bring together students' many experiences in science education across grades K-12. The unifying concepts and processes standard can be the focus of instruction at any grade level but should always be closely linked to outcomes aligned with other content standards. In the

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--> early grades, instruction should establish the meaning and use of unifying concepts and processes—for example, what it means to measure and how to use measurement tools. At the upper grades, the standard should facilitate and enhance the learning of scientific concepts and principles by providing students with a big picture of scientific ideas—for example, how measurement is important in all scientific endeavors. Science as Inquiry Standards In the vision presented by the Standards, inquiry is a step beyond ''science as a process," in which students learn skills, such as observation, inference, and experimentation. The new vision includes the "processes of science" and requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop Understanding of scientific concepts. An appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science. Understanding of the nature of science. Skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world. The dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science. TABLE 6.1. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Understanding about scientific inquiry Understanding about scientific inquiry Understanding about scientific inquiry Science as inquiry is basic to science education and a controlling principle in the ultimate organization and selection of students' activities. The standards on inquiry highlight the ability to conduct inquiry and develop understanding about scientific inquiry. Students at all grade levels and in every domain of science should have the opportunity to use scientific inquiry and develop the ability to think and act in ways associated with inquiry, including asking questions, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, thinking critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations, constructing and analyzing alternative explanations, and communicating scientific arguments. Table 6.1 shows the standards for inquiry. The science as inquiry standards are described in terms of activities resulting in student development of certain abilities and in terms of student understanding of inquiry.

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--> Physical Science, Life Science, and Earth and Space Science Standards The standards for physical science, life science, and earth and space science describe the subject matter of science using three widely accepted divisions of the domain of science. Science subject matter focuses on the science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use. Tables 6.2, 6.3, and 6.4 are the standards for physical science, life science, and earth and space science, respectively. TABLE 6.2. PHYSICAL SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Properties of objects and materials Properties and changes of properties in matter Structure of atoms Position and motion of objects Motions and forces Structure and properties of matter Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism Transfer of energy Chemical reactions     Motions and forces     Conservation of energy and increase in disorder     Interactions of energy and matter TABLE 6.3. LIFE SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Characteristics of organisms Structure and function in living systems The cell Life cycles of organisms Reproduction and heredity Molecular basis of heredity Organisms and environments Regulation and behavior Biological evolution   Populations and ecosystems Interdependence of organisms   Diversity and adaptations of organisms Matter, energy, and organization in living systems     Behavior of organisms Science and Technology Standards The science and technology standards in Table 6.5 establish connections between the natural and designed worlds and provide students with opportunities to develop decision-making abilities. They are not standards for technology education; rather, these standards emphasize abilities associated with the process of design and fundamental understandings about the enterprise of science and its various linkages with technology. As a complement to the abilities developed in the science as inquiry standards,

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--> these standards call for students to develop abilities to identify and state a problem, design a solution—including a cost and risk-and-benefit analysis—implement a solution, and evaluate the solution. Science as inquiry is parallel to technology as design. Both standards emphasize student development of abilities and understanding. Connections to other domains, such as mathematics, are clarified in Chapter 7, Program Standards. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Standards An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives TABLE 6.4. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Properties of earth materials Structure of the earth system Energy in the earth system Objects in the sky Earth's history Geochemical cycles Changes in earth and sky Earth in the solar system Origin and evolution of the earth system     Origin and evolution of the universe TABLE 6.5. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans Abilities of technological design Abilities of technological design Abilities of technological design Understanding about science and technology Understanding about science and technology Understanding about science and technology     standards help students develop decision-making skills. Understandings associated with the concepts in Table 6.6 give students a foundation on which to base decisions they will face as citizens. History and Nature of Science Standards In learning science, students need to understand that science reflects its history and is an ongoing, changing enterprise. The standards for the history and nature of science recommend the use of history in school science programs to clarify different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures. Table 6.7 provides an overview of this standard.

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--> TABLE 6.6. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Personal health Personal health Personal and community health Characteristics and changes in populations Populations, resources, and environments Population growth Types of resources Natural hazards Natural resources Changes in environments Risks and benefits Environmental quality Science and technology in local challenges Science and technology in society Natural and human-induced hazards     Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges TABLE 6.7. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE STANDARDS LEVELS K-4 LEVELS 5-8 LEVELS 9-12 Science as a human endeavor Science as a human endeavor Science as a human endeavor   Nature of science Nature of scientific knowledge   History of science Historical perspectives Form of the Content Standards Below is an example of a content standard. Each content standard states that, as the result of activities provided for all students in the grade level discussed, the content of the standard is to be understood or the abilities are to be developed. Physical Science (Example) CONTENT STANDARD B: As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of Properties of objects and materials Position and motion of objects Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism After each content standard is a section entitled, Developing Student Understanding (or abilities and understanding, when appropriate), which elaborates upon issues associated with opportunities to learn the content. This section describes linkages among student learning, teaching, and classroom situations. This discussion on developing student understanding, including the remarks on the selection of content for grade levels, is based in part on educational research. It also incorporates the experiences of many thoughtful people, including teachers, teacher educators, curriculum developers, and educational researchers. (Some references to research on student understanding and abilities are located at the end of the chapter.) The next section of each standard is a Guide to the Content Standard, which

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--> describes the fundamental idea that underlie the standard. Content is fundamental if it Represents a central event or phenomenon in the natural world. Represents a central scientific idea and organizing principle. Has rich explanatory power. Guides fruitful investigations. Applies to situations and contexts common to everyday experiences. Can be linked to meaningful learning experiences. Is developmentally appropriate for students at the grade level specified. TABLE 6.8. CONTENT STANDARDS, GRADES K-4 UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES SCIENCE AS INQUIRY PHYSICAL SCIENCE LIFE SCIENCE Systems, order, and organization Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Properties of objects and materials Characteristics of organisms Evidence, models, and explanation Understandings about scientific inquiry Position and motion of objects Life cycles of organisms Change, constancy, and measurement   Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism Organisms and environments Evolution and equilibrium       Form and function       EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE Properties of earth materials Abilities of technological design Personal health Science as a human endeavor Objects in the sky Understandings about science and technology Characteristics and changes in populations   Changes in earth and sky Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans Types of resources       Changes in environments       Science and technology in local challenges   Criteria for the Content Standards Three criteria influence the selection of science content. The first is an obligation to the domain of science. The subject matter in the physical, life, and earth and space science standards is central to science education and must be accurate. The presentation in national standards also must accommodate the needs of many individuals who will implement the standards in school science programs. The standards represent science

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--> content accurately and appropriately at all grades, with increasing precision and more scientific nomenclature from kindergarten to grade 12. The second criterion is an obligation to develop content standards that appropriately represent the developmental and learning abilities of students. Organizing principles were selected that express meaningful links to direct student observations of the natural world. The content is aligned with students' ages and stages of development. This criterion includes increasing emphasis on abstract and conceptual understandings as students progress from kindergarten to grade 12. Tables 6.8, 6.9, and 6.10 display the standards grouped according to grade levels K-4, TABLE 6.9. CONTENT STANDARDS, GRADES 5-8 UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES SCIENCE AS INQUIRY PHYSICAL SCIENCE LIFE SCIENCE Systems, order, and organization Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Properties and changes of properties in matter Structure and function in living systems Evidence, models, and explanation Understandings about scientific inquiry Motions and forces Reproduction and heredity Change, constancy, and measurement   Transfer of energy Regulation and behavior Evolution and equilibrium     Populations and ecosystems Form and function     Diversity and adaptations of organisms EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE Structure of the earth system Abilities of technological design Personal health Science as a human endeavor Earth's history Understandings about science and technology Populations, resources, and environments Nature of science Earth in the solar system   Natural hazards History of science     Risks and benefits       Science and technology in society   5-8, and 9-12, respectively. These tables provide an overview of the standards for elementary-, middle-, and high-school science programs. The third criterion is an obligation to present standards in a usable form for those who must implement the standards, e.g., curriculum developers, science supervisors, teachers, and other school personnel. The standards need to provide enough breadth of content to define the domains of science, and they need to provide enough depth of content to direct the design of science curricula. The descriptions also need to be understandable by school personnel and to accommodate the structures of elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as the grade levels used in national standards for other disciplines.

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--> TABLE 6.10. CONTENT STANDARDS, GRADES 9-12 UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES SCIENCE AS INQUIRY PHYSICAL SCIENCE LIFE SCIENCE Systems, order, and organization Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Structure of atoms The cell Evidence, models, and explanation Understandings about scientific inquiry Structure and properties of matter Molecular basis of heredity Change, constancy, and measurement   Chemical reactions Biological evolution Evolution and equilibrium   Motions and forces Interdependence of organisms Form and function   Conservation of energy and increase in disorder Matter, energy, and organization in living systems     Interactions of energy and matter Behavior of organisms EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE Energy in the earth system Abilities of technological design Personal and community health Science as a human endeavor Geochemical cycles Understandings about science and technology Population growth Nature of scientific knowledge Origin and evolution of the earth system   Natural resources Historical perspectives Origin and evolution of the universe   Environmental quality       Natural and human-induced hazards       Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges   Use of the Content Standards Many different individuals and groups will use the content standards for a variety of purposes. All users and reviewers are reminded that the content described is not a science curriculum. Content is what students should learn. Curriculum is the way content is organized and emphasized; it includes structure, organization, balance, and presentation of the content in the classroom. Although the structure for the content standards organizes the understanding and abilities to be acquired by all students K-12, that structure does not imply any particular organization for science curricula. Persons responsible for science curricula, teaching, assessment and policy who use the Standards should note the following None of the eight categories of content

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--> standards should be eliminated. For instance, students should have opportunities to learn science in personal and social perspectives and to learn about the history and nature of science, as well as to learn subject matter, in the school science program. No standards should be eliminated from a category. For instance, "biological evolution" cannot be eliminated from the life science standards. Science content can be added. The connections, depth, detail, and selection of topics can be enriched and varied as appropriate for individual students and school science programs. However, addition of content must not prevent the learning of fundamental concepts by all students. The content standards must be used in the context of the standards on teaching and assessment. Using the standards with traditional teaching and assessment strategies defeats the intentions of the National Science Education Standards. As science advances, the content standards might change, but the conceptual organization will continue to provide students with knowledge, understanding, and abilities that will improve their scientific literacy.

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--> Changing Emphases The National Science Education Standards envision change throughout the system. The science content standards encompass the following changes in emphases: LESS EMPHASIS ON MORE EMPHASIS ON Knowing scientific facts and information Understanding scientific concepts and developing abilities of inquiry Studying subject matter disciplines (physical, life, earth sciences) for their own sake Learning subject matter disciplines in the context of inquiry, technology, science in personal and social perspectives, and history and nature of science Separating science knowledge and science process Integrating all aspects of science content Covering many science topics Studying a few fundamental science concepts Implementing inquiry as a set of processes Implementing inquiry as instructional strategies, abilities, and ideas to be learned CHANGING EMPHASES TO PROMOTE INQUIRY   LESS EMPHASIS ON MORE EMPHASIS ON Activities that demonstrate and verify science content Activities that investigate and analyze science questions Investigations confined to one class period Investigations over extended periods of time Process skills out of context Process skills in context Emphasis on individual process skills such as observation or inference Using multiple process skills—manipulation, cognitive, procedural Getting an answer Using evidence and strategies for developing or revising an explanation Science as exploration and experiment Science as argument and explanation Providing answers to questions about science content Communicating science explanations Individuals and groups of students analyzing and synthesizing data without defending a conclusion Groups of students often analyzing and synthesizing data after defending conclusions Doing few investigations in order to leave time to cover large amounts of content Doing more investigations in order to develop understanding, ability, values of inquiry and knowledge of science content Concluding inquiries with the result of the experiment Applying the results of experiments to scientific arguments and explanations Management of materials and equipment Management of ideas and information Private communication of student ideas and conclusions to teacher Public communication of student ideas and work to classmates

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--> is a basic and powerful force that has consequences to individuals' health and to society. Students should understand various methods of controlling the reproduction process and that each method has a different type of effectiveness and different health and social consequences. POPULATION GROWTH Populations grow or decline through the combined effects of births and deaths, and through emigration and immigration. Populations can increase through linear or exponential growth, with effects on resource use and environmental pollution. Various factors influence birth rates and fertility rates, such as average levels of affluence and education, importance of children in the labor force, education and employment of women, infant mortality rates, costs of raising children, availability and reliability of birth control methods, and religious beliefs and cultural norms that influence personal decisions about family size. Populations can reach limits to growth. Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals that can be supported in a given environment. The limitation is not the availability of space, but the number of people in relation to resources and the capacity of earth systems to support human beings. Changes in technology can cause significant changes, either positive or negative, in carrying capacity. NATURAL RESOURCES Human populations use resources in the environment in order to maintain and improve their existence. Natural resources have been and will continue to be used to maintain human populations. The earth does not have infinite resources; increasing human consumption places severe stress on the natural processes that renew some resources, and it depletes those resources that cannot be renewed. Humans use many natural systems as resources. Natural systems have the capacity to reuse waste, but that capacity is limited. Natural systems can change to an extent that exceeds the limits of organisms to adapt naturally or humans to adapt technologically. ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY [See Content Standard C (grades 9-12)] Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes that affect humans. Those processes include maintenance of the quality of the atmosphere, generation of soils, control of the hydrologic cycle, disposal of wastes, and recycling of nutrients. Humans are changing many of these basic processes, and the changes may be detrimental to humans. Materials from human societies affect both physical and chemical cycles of the earth. Many factors influence environmental quality. Factors that students might investigate include population growth, resource use, population distribution, overconsumption, the capacity of technology to solve problems, poverty, the role of economic, political, and religious views, and different ways humans view the earth. NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED HAZARDS [See Content Standard D (grades 9-12)] Normal adjustments of earth may be hazardous for humans. Humans live at the interface between the atmosphere driven

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--> by solar energy and the upper mantle where convection creates changes in the earth's solid crust. As societies have grown, become stable, and come to value aspects of the environment, vulnerability to natural processes of change has increased. Human activities can enhance potential for hazards. Acquisition of resources, urban growth, and waste disposal can accelerate rates of natural change. Some hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and severe weather, are rapid and spectacular. But there are slow and progressive changes that also result in problems for individuals and societies. For example, change in stream channel position, erosion of bridge foundations, sedimentation in lakes and harbors, coastal erosions, and continuing erosion and wasting of soil and landscapes can all negatively affect society. Natural and human-induced hazards present the need for humans to assess potential danger and risk. Many changes in the environment designed by humans bring benefits to society, as well as cause risks. Students should understand the costs and trade-offs of various hazards—ranging from those with minor risk to a few people to major catastrophes with major risk to many people. The scale of events and the accuracy with which scientists and engineers can (and cannot) predict events are important considerations. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN LOCAL, NATIONAL, AND GLOBAL CHALLENGES [See Content Standard E (grades 9-12)] Science and technology are essential social enterprises, but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen. The latter involves human decisions about the use of knowledge. Understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology should precede active debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various science- and technology-related challenges. However, understanding science alone will not resolve local, national, or global challenges. Progress in science and technology can be affected by social issues and challenges. Funding priorities for specific health problems serve as examples of ways that social issues influence science and technology. Individuals and society must decide on proposals involving new research and the introduction of new technologies into society. Decisions involve assessment of alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits and consideration of who benefits and who suffers, who pays and gains, and what the risks are and who bears them. Students should understand the appropriateness and value of basic questions—"What can happen?"—"What are the odds?"—and ''How do scientists and engineers know what will happen?" Humans have a major effect on other species. For example, the influence of humans on other organisms occurs through land use—which decreases space available to other species—and pollution—which changes the chemical composition of air, soil, and water.

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--> History and Nature of Science Content Standard G As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of Science as a human endeavor Nature of scientific knowledge Historical perspectives Developing Student Understanding The National Science Education Standards use history to elaborate various aspects of scientific inquiry, the nature of science, and science in different historical and cultural perspectives. The standards on the history and nature of science are closely aligned with the nature of science and historical episodes described in the American Association for the Advancement of Science Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Teachers Scientists value peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making public the results of work. of science can incorporate other historical examples that may accommodate different interests, topics, disciplines, and cultures—as the intention of the standard is to develop an understanding of the human dimensions of science, the nature of scientific knowledge, and the enterprise of science in society—and not to develop a comprehensive understanding of history. Little research has been reported on the use of history in teaching about the nature of science. But learning about the history of science might help students to improve their general understanding of science. Teachers should be sensitive to the students' lack of knowledge and perspective on time, duration, and succession when it comes to historical study. High school students may have difficulties understanding the views of historical figures. For example, students may think of historical figures as inferior because they did not understand what we do today. This "Whiggish perspective" seems to hold for some students with regard to scientists whose theories have been displaced. Guide to the Content Standard Fundamental concepts and principles that underlie this standard include SCIENCE AS A HUMAN ENDEAVOR Individuals and teams have contributed and will continue to contribute to the scientific enterprise. Doing science or engineering can be as simple as an individual conducting field studies or as complex as hundreds of people working on a major scientific question or technological problem. Pursuing science as a career or as a hobby can be both fascinating and intellectually rewarding. Scientists have ethical traditions. Scientists value peer review, truthful reporting about the methods and outcomes of investigations, and making

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--> public the results of work. Violations of such norms do occur, but scientists responsible for such violations are censured by their peers. Scientists are influenced by societal, cultural, and personal beliefs and ways of viewing the world. Science is not separate from society but rather science is a part of society. NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE c, as scientists strive for the best possible explanations about the natural world. Scientific explanations must meet certain criteria. First and foremost, they must be consistent with experimental and observational evidence about nature, and must make accurate predictions, when appropriate, about systems being studied. They should also be logical, respect the rules of evidence, be open to criticism, report methods and procedures, and make knowledge public. Explanations on how the natural world changes based on myths, personal beliefs, religious values, mystical inspiration, superstition, or authority may be personally useful and socially relevant, but they are not scientific. Because all scientific ideas depend on experimental and observational confirmation, all scientific knowledge is, in principle, subject to change as new evidence becomes available. The core ideas of science such as the conservation of energy or the laws of motion have been subjected to a wide variety of confirmations and are therefore unlikely to change in the areas in which they have been tested. In areas where data or understanding Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing and from other bodies of knowledge through the use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism. are incomplete, such as the details of human evolution or questions surrounding global warming, new data may well lead to changes in current ideas or resolve current conflicts. In situations where information is still fragmentary, it is normal for scientific ideas to be incomplete, but this is also where the opportunity for making advances may be greatest. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES In history, diverse cultures have contributed scientific knowledge and technologic inventions. Modern science began to evolve rapidly in Europe several hundred years ago. During the past two centuries, it has contributed significantly to the industrialization of Western and non-Western cultures. However, other, non-European cultures have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems through technology. Usually, changes in science occur as small modifications in extant knowledge. The daily work of science and engineering results in incremental advances in our understanding of the world and our

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--> An Analysis of a Scientific Inquiry By the "header titles" this example emphasizes some important components of the assessment process. Any boundary between assessment and teaching is lost in this example. Students engage in an analytic activity that requires them to use their understanding of all the science content standards. The activity assumes that they have maintained journals throughout their high school career and have had much previous experience with analyzing scientific inquiry. It would be unreasonable to expect them to successfully complete such an analysis without prior experience. The assessment task requires the use of criteria developed by the class and the teacher together for self assessment and peer assessment. Students may elect to improve the analysis or do another. The teacher uses the data to decide what further inquiries, analyses, or evaluations students might do. [This example highlights Teaching Standards A, C, and E; Assessments Standards A, B, and E; and 9-12 Content Standard G.] SCIENCE CONTENT: This activity focuses on all aspects of the Content Standard on the History and Nature of Science: Science as a human endeavor, nature of scientific knowledge, and historical perspectives on science. ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY: Students read an account of an historical or contemporary scientific study and report on it. ASSESSMENT TYPE: Performance, individual, group, public. ASSESSMENT PURPOSE: The teacher uses the information gathered in this activity for assigning grades and for planning further activities involving analysis or inquiry. DATA: Students' individual reports; student reviews of their peers' work; and teacher's observations. CONTEXT: This assessment activity is appropriate at the end of 12th grade. Throughout the high school science program, students have read accounts of scientific studies and the social context in which the studies were conducted. Students sometimes read the scientist's own account of the investigation and sometimes an account of the investigation written by another person. The earlier the investigation, the more likely that the high school students are able to read and understand the scientist's original account. Reports by scientists on contemporary studies are likely to be too technical for students to understand, but accounts in popular science books or magazines should be accessible to high school students. Examples of contemporary and historical accounts appropriate to this activity include Goodfield's An Imagined World Weiner's The Beak of the Finch Watson's The Double Helix Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle Project Physics Readers In each student's science journal are notes on his or her own inquiries and the inquiries read about throughout the school science career, including an analysis of historical context in which the study was conducted. After completing each analysis, the science teacher had reviewed and commented on the analysis as well as on the student's developing sophis

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--> tication in doing analysis. Questions that guided each student's analysis include What factors—personal, technological, cultural, and/or scientific—led this person to the investigation? How was the investigation designed and why was it designed as it was? What data did the investigator collect? How did the investigator interpret the data? How were the investigator's conclusions related to the design of the investigation and to major theoretical or cultural assumptions, if any? How did the investigator try to persuade others? Were the ideas accepted by contemporaries? Are they accepted today? Why or why not? How did the results of this investigation influence the investigator, fellow investigators, and society more broadly? Were there ethical dimensions to this investigation? If so, how were they resolved? What element of this episode seems to you most characteristic or most revealing about the process of science? Why? ASSESSMENT EXERCISE Each student in the class selects an account of one scientific investigation and analyzes it using the questions above. When the analyses are completed, they are handed in to the teacher who passes them out to other members of the class for peer review. Prior to the peer reviews, the teacher and the class have reviewed the framework for analysis and established criteria for evaluating the quality of the analyses. The teacher reviews the peer reviews and, if appropriate, returns them to the author. The author will have the opportunity to revise the analysis on the basis of the peer review before submitting it to the teacher for a grade. EVALUATION OF STUDENT RESPONSES The teacher's grade will be based both on the student's progress in conducting such analyses and on how well the analysis meets the criteria set by the teacher in consultation with the class.

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--> ability to meet human needs and aspirations. Much can be learned about the internal workings of science and the nature of science from study of individual scientists, their daily work, and their efforts to advance scientific knowledge in their area of study. Occasionally, there are advances in science and technology that have important and long-lasting effects on science and society. Examples of such advances include the following Copernican revolution Newtonian mechanics Relativity Geologic time scale Plate tectonics Atomic theory Nuclear physics Biological evolution Germ theory Industrial revolution Molecular biology Information and communication Quantum theory Galactic universe Medical and health technology The historical perspective of scientific explanations demonstrates how scientific knowledge changes by evolving over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge. References for Further Reading Science as Inquiry AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1989. Science for All Americans: A Project 2061 Report on Literacy Goals in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Washington DC.: AAAS. Bechtel, W. 1988. Philosophy of Science: An Overview for Cognitive Science. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum. Bingman, R. 1969. Inquiry Objectives in the Teaching of Biology. Boulder, CO and Kansas City, MO: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study and Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory. Carey, S., R. Evans, M. Honda, E. Jay, and C. Unger. 1989. An experiment is when you try it and see if it works: A study of grade 7 students' understanding of the construction of scientific knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 11(5): 514-529. Chinn, C.A., and W. F. Brewer. 1993. The role of anomalous data in knowledge acquisition: A theoretical framework and implications for science instruction. Review of Educational Research, 63(1): 1-49. Connelly, F.M., M. W. Wahlstrom, M. Finegold, and F. Elbaz. 1977. Enquiry Teaching in Science: A Handbook for Secondary School Teachers. Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Driver, R. 1989. Students' conceptions and the learning of science: Introduction. International Journal of Science Education, 11(5): 481-490. Duschl, R.A. 1990. Restructuring Science Education: The Importance of Theories and Their Development. New York: Teachers College Press.

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--> Duschl, R.A., and R.J. Hamilton, eds. 1992. Philosophy of Science, Cognitive Psychology, and Educational Theory and Practice. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Glaser, R. 1984. Education and thinking: The role of knowledge. American Psychologist, 39(2): 93-104. Grosslight, L., C. Unger, E. Jay, and C.L. Smith. 1991. Understanding models and their use in science: Conceptions of middle and high school students and experts. [Special issue] Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(9): 799-822. Hewson, P.W., and N.R. Thorley. 1989. The conditions of conceptual change in the classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 11(5): 541-553. Hodson, D. 1992. Assessment of practical work: Some considerations in philosophy of science. Science & Education, 1(2): 115-134. Hodson, D. 1985. Philosophy of science, science and science education. Studies in Science Education, 12: 25-57. Kyle, W. C. Jr. 1980. The distinction between inquiry and scientific inquiry and why high school students should be cognizant of the distinction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 17(2): 123-130. Longino, H.E. 1990. Science as Social Knowledge: Values and Objectivity in Scientific Inquiry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Mayer, W.V., ed. 1978. BSCS Biology Teachers' Handbook, third edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Metz, K.E. 1991. Development of explanation: Incremental and fundamental change in children's physics knowledge. [Special issue] Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(9): 785-797. NRC (National Research Council). 1988. Improving Indicators of the Quality of Science and Mathematics Education in Grades K-12. R.J. Murnane, and S.A. Raizen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NSRC (National Science Resources Center). 1996. Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Ohlsson, S. 1992. The cognitive skill of theory articulation: A neglected aspect of science education . Science & Education, 1(2): 181-192. Roth, K.J. 1989. Science education: It's not enough to 'do' or 'relate.' The American Educator, 13(4): 16-22; 46-48. Rutherford, F.J. 1964. The role of inquiry in science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2: 80-84. Schauble, L., L.E. Klopfer, and K. Raghavan. 1991. Students' transition from an engineering model to a science model of experimentation. [Special issue] Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(9): 859-882. Schwab, J.J. 1958. The teaching of science as inquiry. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 14: 374-379. Schwab, J.J. 1964. The teaching of science as enquiry. In The Teaching of Science, J.J. Schwab and P.F. Brandwein, eds.: 3-103. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Welch, W.W., L.E. Klopfer, G.S. Aikenhead, and J.T. Robinson. 1981. The role of inquiry in science education: Analysis and recommendations. Science Education, 65(1): 33-50. Physical Science, Life Science, and Earth and Space Science AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1989. Science for All Americans: A Project 2061 Report on Literacy Goals in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Washington, DC: AAAS.

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--> Driver, R., A. Squires, P. Rushworth, and V. Wood-Robinson. 1994. Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children's Ideas. London: Routledge. Driver, R., E. Guesne, and A. Tiberghien, eds. 1985. Children's Ideas in Science. Philadelphia, PA.: Open University Press. Fensham, P. J., R. F. Gunstone, and R. T. White, eds. 1994. The Content of Science: A Constructivist Approach to Its Teaching and Learning. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press. Harlen, W. 1988. The Teaching of Science. London: Fulton. NSTA (National Science Teachers Association). 1992. Scope, Sequence, Coordination. The Content Core: A Guide for Curriculum Designers. Washington, DC: NSTA. Osborne, R.J., and P. Freyberg. 1985. Learning in Science: The Implications of 'Children's Science.' New Zealand: Heinemann. Physical Science AAPT (American Association of Physics Teachers). 1988. Course Content in High School Physics. High School Physics: Views from AAPT. College Park, MD: AAPT. AAPT (American Association of Physics Teachers). 1986. Guidelines for High School Physics Programs. Washington, DC: AAPT. ACS (American Chemical Society). 1996. FACETS Foundations and Challenges to Encourage Technology-based Science. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. ACS (American Chemical Society). 1993. ChemCom: Chemistry in the Community, second ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. Life Science BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study). 1993. Developing Biological Literacy: A Guide to Developing Secondary and Post-Secondary Biology Curricula. Colorado Springs, CO: BSCS. Jacob, F. 1982. The Possible and the Actual. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Medawar, P.B., and J.S. Medawar. 1977. The Life Science: Current Ideas of Biology. New York: Harper and Row. Moore, J.A. 1993. Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Morowitz, H.J. 1979. Biological Generalizations and Equilibrium Organic Chemistry. In Energy Flow in Biology: Biological Organization as a Problem in Thermal Physics. Woodbridge, CT: Oxbow Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Fulfilling the Promise: Biology Education in Our Nation's Schools. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Earth and Space Science AGI (American Geological Institute). 1991. Earth Science Content Guidelines Grades K-12. Alexandria, VA: AGI. AGI (American Geological Institute). 1991. Earth Science Education for the 21st Century: A Planning Guide. Alexandria, VA: AGI. NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society: A Critical Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Science and Technology AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1989. Science for All Americans: A Project 2061 Report on Literacy Goals in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. New York: Oxford University Press.

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--> Johnson, J. 1989. Technology: A Report of the Project 2061 Phase I Technology Panel. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Selby, C.C. 1993. Technology: From myths to realities. Phi Delta Kappan, 74(9): 684-689. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Gore, A. 1992. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Meadows, D.H., D.L. Meadows, and J. Randers. 1992. Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future. Post Mills, VT: Chelsea Green. Miller, G.T. 1992. Living in the Environment: An Introduction to Environmental Science, 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Moore, J. 1985. Science as a Way of Knowing II: Human Ecology. Baltimore, MD: American Society of Zoologists. NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Solid-Earth Sciences and Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Silver, C.S., and R.S. DeFries. 1990. One Earth, One Future: Our Changing Global Environment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. History and Nature of Science In addition to references for Science as Inquiry, the following references are suggested. AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press. Bakker, G., and L. Clark. 1988. Explanation: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Cohen, I.B. 1985. Revolution in Science. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Hacking, I. 1983. Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hoyingen-Huene, P. 1987. Context of discovery and context of justification. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 18(4): 501-515. Klopfer, L. 1992. A historical perspective on the history and nature of science on school science programs. In Teaching About the History and Nature of Science and Technology: Background Papers, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study and Social Science Education Consortium: 105-129. Colorado Springs, CO: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Machamer, P. 1992. Philosophy of science: An overview for educators. In Teaching About the History and Nature of Science and Technology: Background Papers, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study and Social Science Education Consortium: 9-17. Colorado Springs, CO: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Malley, M. 1992. The Nature and History of Science. In Teaching About the History and Nature of Science and Technology: Background Papers, Biological Sciences Curriculum Study and Social Science Education Consortium: 67-79. Colorado Springs, CO: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. Moore, J.A. 1993. Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1995. On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Russell, T.L. 1981. What history of science, how much, and why? Science Education 65 (1): 51-64.

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