set cookie National Science Education Standards

    ability to meet human needs and aspirations. Much can be learned about the internal workings of science and the nature of science from study of individual scientists, their daily work, and their efforts to advance scientific knowledge in their area of study.

  • Occasionally, there are advances in science and technology that have important and long-lasting effects on science and society. Examples of such advances include the following

    Copernican revolution

    Newtonian mechanics


    Geologic time scale

    Plate tectonics

    Atomic theory

    Nuclear physics

    Biological evolution

    Germ theory

    Industrial revolution

    Molecular biology

    Information and communication

    Quantum theory

    Galactic universe

    Medical and health technology

  • The historical perspective of scientific explanations demonstrates how scientific knowledge changes by evolving over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge.

References for Further Reading

Science as Inquiry

AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1993. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. New York: Oxford University Press.

AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1989. Science for All Americans: A Project 2061 Report on Literacy Goals in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Washington DC.: AAAS.

Bechtel, W. 1988. Philosophy of Science: An Overview for Cognitive Science. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Bingman, R. 1969. Inquiry Objectives in the Teaching of Biology. Boulder, CO and Kansas City, MO: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study and Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory.

Carey, S., R. Evans, M. Honda, E. Jay, and C. Unger. 1989. An experiment is when you try it and see if it works: A study of grade 7 students' understanding of the construction of scientific knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 11(5): 514-529.

Chinn, C.A., and W. F. Brewer. 1993. The role of anomalous data in knowledge acquisition: A theoretical framework and implications for science instruction. Review of Educational Research, 63(1): 1-49.

Connelly, F.M., M. W. Wahlstrom, M. Finegold, and F. Elbaz. 1977. Enquiry Teaching in Science: A Handbook for Secondary School Teachers. Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

Driver, R. 1989. Students' conceptions and the learning of science: Introduction. International Journal of Science Education, 11(5): 481-490.

Duschl, R.A. 1990. Restructuring Science Education: The Importance of Theories and Their Development. New York: Teachers College Press.

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