required for an effective science program. Leadership can be vested in a variety of people, including teachers, school administrators, and science coordinators. Who provides such leadership is not as critical as ensuring that the responsibilities for support, maintenance, assessment, review, revision, and improvement of the program are effectively carried out so that students have opportunities to learn and teachers have the opportunity to teach.

The alignment needed in a science program can be illustrated by considering scientific inquiry. The ability to understand and conduct scientific inquiry is an important goal for students in any science program. To accomplish this goal, teachers must provide students with many opportunities to engage in and reflect on inquiry about natural phenomena. The district and school must provide curriculum frameworks that highlight inquiry and the support of materials and time to make this type of teaching possible. And assessment tasks should require students to demonstrate an understanding of inquiry and an ability to inquire.

Program Standard B

The program of study in science for all students should be developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives; emphasize student understanding through inquiry; and be connected with other school subjects.

  • The program of study should include all of the content standards.

  • Science content must be embedded in a variety of curriculum patterns that are developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives.

  • The program of study must emphasize student understanding through inquiry.

  • The program of study in science should connect to other school subjects.

This standard sets criteria for the work of curriculum designers and developers, whether in school districts, research and development institutions, or commercial publishing houses. It also sets criteria for those who select curricula.

THE PROGRAM OF STUDY SHOULD INCLUDE ALL OF THE CONTENT STANDARDS. Science content, as defined by the Standards, includes eight categories—unifying concepts and processes in science, science as inquiry, physical science, life science, earth and space science, science and technology, science in personal and social perspectives, and history and nature of science. An effective science program includes activities for students to achieve understanding and ability in all categories.

SCIENCE CONTENT MUST BE EMBEDDED IN A VARIETY OF CURRICULUM PATTERNS THAT ARE DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE, INTERESTING, AND RELEVANT TO STUDENTS' LIVES. Curriculum includes not only the content, but also the structure, organization, balance, and means of presentation of the content in the classroom. Designing curricula considers the teaching and assessment standards, as well as the program standards and the content standards.

The translation of content into curricula can and should take many forms. The Standards do not prescribe a single curriculum for students to achieve the content



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