Technical, short-term, in-service workshops

Ongoing professional development to support teachers

Policies unrelated to Standards-based reform

Policies designed to support changes called for in the Standards

Purchase of textbooks based on traditional topics

Purchase or adoption of curriculum aligned with the Standards and on a conceptual approach to science teaching, including support for hands-on science materials

Standardized tests and assessments unrelated to Standards-based program and practices

Assessments aligned with the Standards

Administration determining what will be involved in improving science education

Teacher leadership in improvement of science education

Authority at upper levels of educational system

Authority for decisions at level of implementation

School board ignorance of science education program

School board support of improvements aligned with the Standards

Local union contracts that ignore changes in curriculum, instruction, and assessment

Local union contracts that support improvements indicated by the Standards

References for Further Reading

AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 1990. The Liberal Art of Science: Agenda for Action. Washington, DC: AAAS.

ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development). 1992. Using Curriculum Frameworks for Systemic Reform. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Berryman, S.E., and T.R. Bailey. 1992. The Double Helix of Education & the Economy. New York: The Institute on Education and the Economy, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Blank, R.K., and M. Dalkilic. 1992. State Policies on Science and Mathematics Education 1992. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers, State Education Assessment Center.

The Business Roundtable. 1992. Essential Components of a Successful Education System: Putting Policy into Practice. New York: The Business Roundtable.

The Business Roundtable. 1989. Essential Components of a Successful Education System: The Business Roundtable Education Public Policy Agenda. New York: The Business Roundtable.

Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. 1991. In the National Interest: The Federal Government in the Reform of K-12 Math and Science Education. New York: Carnegie Corporation.

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