implementation of content standards, 111-112

implementation of program standards, 210

implementation of standards, 243-244

individual differences in, 2

learning environment, 13, 29, 43-45

resource management, 43-45

respect for students in, 46

school atmosphere for, 222-223

science knowledge necessary for, 28

scientific inquiry and, 23-24

social and cultural considerations in, 32, 37

student-teacher relationship, 29

system support for, 4, 12, 27, 28, 37, 211, 219, 222-224

teacher research on, 223

teachers as models of scientific inquiry, 37, 50-51

teacher's perceptions as factor in, 28

See also Professional development of teachers;

Teacher collaboration

Teaching standards, 4

assessment, 37-43

assumptions underlying, 28

changes in emphases in, 52

curriculum planning, 30-31

developing community of science learners, 45-51

development of science program, 51-52

development of student goals, 30

encouraging student discourse, 36

equity considerations in, 4, 16, 20

examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217

focus areas, 4, 29

implementation, 29

intra-/interdisciplinary relations, 32, 104

managing student inquiry, 33, 36

role of, 27

selection of teaching strategies, 31-32

Standard A, 30-32

Standard B, 32-37

Standard C, 37-43

Standard D, 43-45

Standard E, 45-51

Standard F, 51-52

student diversity issues, 37

student participation, 36-37

student responsibilities for learning, 36

system reform and, 4, 27

system standards and, 230-231

techniques to facilitate learning, 32-33

Technical Education Resources Center, 14

Technology, science and, 24

abilities of technological design

grades K-4, 137-138

grades 5-8, 165-166

grades 9-12, 192

developing student abilities and understanding

grades K-4, 135-137

grades 5-8, 161-165

grades 9-12, 190-192

fundamental concepts underlying standards for

grades K-4, 137-138

grades 5-8, 165-166

grades 9-12, 192-193

grades K-4, content standards for, 106-107, 135-138

grades 5-8, content standards for, 106-107, 161-166

grades 9-12, content standard for, 106-107, 190-193

personal and social perspectives, 140-141, 167-168, 169-170

risk-benefit analysis, 167, 169

U

Unifying concepts and processes

conceptual basis, 116-119

development of student understanding, 115-116

role of, 104-105

W

Weather studies, 131-133, 136-137

Credits

Cover, title page, and p. 16. Students at Glebe Elementary School, Arlington, VA, work on an activity from Organisms, a first-grade unit in the Science and Technology for Children (STC) curriculum program. Photographer: Eric Long, courtesy National Science Resources Center (NSRC).

Cover and p. 18. Students at Bailey's Elementary School, Fairfax, VA, work on an activity from Ecosystems, a fifth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC.

Cover and p. 19. Student at Bailey's Elementary School, Fairfax, VA, works on an activity from Animal Studies, a fourth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC.

Cover and p. 81. Student recording data. Photographer: Kim Alberto, courtesy National Science Teachers Association.

Cover and p. 102. Students at Watkins Elementary School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Chemical Tests, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Jeff Tinsley, courtesy NSRC.

Cover and p. 173. Fairfax County, VA, high-school student. Photographer: Randy Wyant.

pages iv and 146. Teacher demonstrates pendulum. Photographer: David Powers, courtesy University of California, San Francisco.

facing page 1. Children on statue of Albert Einstein in Washington, DC, at the National Academy of Sciences. Photographer: Barry A. Wilson.



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OCR for page 261
--> implementation of content standards, 111-112 implementation of program standards, 210 implementation of standards, 243-244 individual differences in, 2 learning environment, 13, 29, 43-45 resource management, 43-45 respect for students in, 46 school atmosphere for, 222-223 science knowledge necessary for, 28 scientific inquiry and, 23-24 social and cultural considerations in, 32, 37 student-teacher relationship, 29 system support for, 4, 12, 27, 28, 37, 211, 219, 222-224 teacher research on, 223 teachers as models of scientific inquiry, 37, 50-51 teacher's perceptions as factor in, 28 See also Professional development of teachers; Teacher collaboration Teaching standards, 4 assessment, 37-43 assumptions underlying, 28 changes in emphases in, 52 curriculum planning, 30-31 developing community of science learners, 45-51 development of science program, 51-52 development of student goals, 30 encouraging student discourse, 36 equity considerations in, 4, 16, 20 examples of implementation, 34-35, 39, 47-49, 64-66, 80-81, 124-125, 131-133, 136, 146-147, 150-153, 162-164, 182-183, 194-196, 202-203, 215-217 focus areas, 4, 29 implementation, 29 intra-/interdisciplinary relations, 32, 104 managing student inquiry, 33, 36 role of, 27 selection of teaching strategies, 31-32 Standard A, 30-32 Standard B, 32-37 Standard C, 37-43 Standard D, 43-45 Standard E, 45-51 Standard F, 51-52 student diversity issues, 37 student participation, 36-37 student responsibilities for learning, 36 system reform and, 4, 27 system standards and, 230-231 techniques to facilitate learning, 32-33 Technical Education Resources Center, 14 Technology, science and, 24 abilities of technological design grades K-4, 137-138 grades 5-8, 165-166 grades 9-12, 192 developing student abilities and understanding grades K-4, 135-137 grades 5-8, 161-165 grades 9-12, 190-192 fundamental concepts underlying standards for grades K-4, 137-138 grades 5-8, 165-166 grades 9-12, 192-193 grades K-4, content standards for, 106-107, 135-138 grades 5-8, content standards for, 106-107, 161-166 grades 9-12, content standard for, 106-107, 190-193 personal and social perspectives, 140-141, 167-168, 169-170 risk-benefit analysis, 167, 169 U Unifying concepts and processes conceptual basis, 116-119 development of student understanding, 115-116 role of, 104-105 W Weather studies, 131-133, 136-137 Credits Cover, title page, and p. 16. Students at Glebe Elementary School, Arlington, VA, work on an activity from Organisms, a first-grade unit in the Science and Technology for Children (STC) curriculum program. Photographer: Eric Long, courtesy National Science Resources Center (NSRC). Cover and p. 18. Students at Bailey's Elementary School, Fairfax, VA, work on an activity from Ecosystems, a fifth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. Cover and p. 19. Student at Bailey's Elementary School, Fairfax, VA, works on an activity from Animal Studies, a fourth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. Cover and p. 81. Student recording data. Photographer: Kim Alberto, courtesy National Science Teachers Association. Cover and p. 102. Students at Watkins Elementary School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Chemical Tests, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Jeff Tinsley, courtesy NSRC. Cover and p. 173. Fairfax County, VA, high-school student. Photographer: Randy Wyant. pages iv and 146. Teacher demonstrates pendulum. Photographer: David Powers, courtesy University of California, San Francisco. facing page 1. Children on statue of Albert Einstein in Washington, DC, at the National Academy of Sciences. Photographer: Barry A. Wilson.

OCR for page 261
--> page 1. Students at Stuart-Hobson School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Magnets and Motors, a sixth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 7. Students at Stuart-Hobson School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Magnets and Motors, a sixth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 9. Students at Long Branch Elementary School, Arlington, VA, work on an activity from Sounds, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 10. First-grade students at North Frederick Elementary School, Frederick, MD, examine quail hatched in the classroom. Photographer: John Woo. page 11. Fairfax County, VA, high-school students in astronomy lab. Photographer: Randy Wyant. page 26. Teacher and student at laboratory centrifuge in Fairfax County, VA. Photographer: Randy Wyant. page 27. Students at Suitland High School, Forestville, MD, conduct ChemCom laboratory activities. Photographer: Colette Mosley, courtesy American Chemical Society. page 41. Students dissect a cow's eye. Courtesy University of California, San Francisco. page 54. Teachers participate in DNA fingerprinting science program. Photographer: Karen Preuss, courtesy University of California, San Francisco. page 55. Teachers participate in San Francisco City Science Summer Institute. Photographer: Margaret R. Clark, courtesy University of California, San Francisco. page 65. Teachers participate in San Francisco City Science Summer Institute. Photographer: Margaret R. Clark, courtesy University of California, San Francisco. page 74. First-grade student at Monocacy Elementary School in Frederick, MD, holds duckling hatched in classroom. Courtesy Ardith Newbold. page 75. Students at Long Branch Elementary School, Arlington, VA, work on an activity from Sounds, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 100. Students at Bailey's Elementary School, Fairfax, VA, work on an activity from Animal Studies/Ecosystems, a fourth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Rick Vargas, courtesy NSRC. page 103. Student at Bailey's Elementary School, Fairfax, VA, work on an activity from Animal Studies/Ecosystems a fourth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Rick Vargas, courtesy NSRC. page 112. Students at Watkins Elementary School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Chemical Tests, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 114. Student in Fairfax County, VA. Photographer: Tom Schudel. page. 115. Student at Stuart-Hobson School, Washington, DC, works on an activity from Magnets and Motors, a sixth-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 118. Student participates in activities during ''Take Your Child to Work Day" at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Photographer: Linda Bellofatto. page 120. Pre- and post-tests show concept development of the needs of living things of student Alicia Incerpi at Montclair Elementary School in Los Altos, CA. page 121. Students at Watkins Elementary School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Chemical Tests, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 125. Child with hamster. Photographer: Jan Tuomi. page 132. Elementary-school children. Courtesy Joyce Weiskopf. page 142. Sixth-grade student's drawing of an ecocolumn. page 143. Student participates in activities during "Take Your Child to Work Day" at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Courtesy Linda Bellofatto and Nancy Dubiell. page 153. Students participate in activities during "Take Your Child to Work Day" at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Courtesy Linda Bellofatto and Nancy Dubiell. page 172. Drawings by Arlene Pinto, student at Washington-Lee High School, Arlington, VA. page 195. Student in Fairfax County, VA, works in school greenhouse. Photographer: Randy Wyant. page 203. Students at Suitland High School, Forestville, MD, work at ChemCom activity building models of alkanes and alkenes. Photographer: Colette Mosley, courtesy American Chemical Society. page 208. Participants in San Francisco City Science Summer Institute. Photographer: Margaret R. Clark, courtesy University of California, San Francisco. page 209. Student and teacher at Watkins Elementary School, Washington, DC, work on an activity from Chemical Tests, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC. page 226. Participants in San Francisco City Science Summer Institute. Photographer: Margaret R. Clark, courtesy University of California, San Francisco. page 227. Irene Chen, a participant in the 54th Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Photographer: Mark Portland, courtesy of the Science Talent Search. page 237. Teachers' curriculum workshop. Courtesy Joyce Weiskopf. page 242. Amil Menom, a participant in the 54th Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Photographer: Mark Portland, courtesy Science Talent Search. page 243. Student at Watkins Elementary School, Washington, DC, works on an activity from Chemical Tests, a third-grade STC unit. Photographer: Dane A. Penland, courtesy NSRC.