content and pedagogy with other education professionals; opportunities to design and revise learning experiences that will help students to attain the desired learning; opportunities to practice, observe, critique, and analyze effective teaching models and the challenges of implementing exemplary strategies; and opportunities to build the skills of self-reflection as an ongoing process throughout each teacher's professional life.

USE STUDENT DATA, OBSERVATIONS OF TEACHING, AND INTERACTIONS WITH COLLEAGUES TO REPORT STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS, PARENTS, POLICY MAKERS, AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC. Teachers have the obligation to report student achievement data to many individuals and agencies, including the students and their parents, certification agencies, employers, policy makers, and taxpayers. Although reports might include grades, teachers might also prepare profiles of student achievement. The opportunity that students have had to learn science is also an essential component of reports on student achievement in science understanding and ability.

[See Program Standard D and System Standard D]

Teaching Standard D

Teachers of science design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. In doing this, teachers

  • Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended investigations.

  • Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry.

  • Ensure a safe working environment.

  • Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students.

  • Identify and use resources outside the school.

  • Engage students in designing the learning environment.

Time, space, and materials are critical components of an effective science learning environment that promotes sustained inquiry and understanding. Creating an adequate environment for science teaching is a shared responsibility. Teachers lead the way in the design and use of resources, but school administrators, students, parents,

Teachers of science need regular, adequate space for science.

and community members must meet their responsibility to ensure that the resources are available to be used. Developing a schedule that allows time for science investigations needs the cooperation of all in the school; acquiring materials requires the appropriation of funds; maintaining scientific equipment is the shared responsibility of students and adults alike; and designing appropriate use of the scientific institutions and resources in the local community requires the participation of the school and those institutions and individuals.

This standard addresses the classroom use of time, space, and resources—the ways in which teachers make decisions about



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