sources of their own growth as well as supporters of the growth of others. Prospective teachers must have the opportunity to become active participants in schools through internships, clinical studies, and research. Teachers should have opportunities for structured reflection on their teach

The challenge of professional development . . . is to create optimal collaborative learning situations in which the best sources of expertise are linked with the experiences and current needs of the teachers.

ing practice with colleagues, for collaborative curriculum planning, and for active participation in professional teaching and scientific networks. The challenge of professional development for teachers of science is to create optimal collaborative learning situations in which the best sources of expertise are linked with the experiences and current needs of the teachers.

Principals and qualified community members should also participate in professional development activities in order to increase their own understanding of student science learning and of the roles and responsibilities of teachers.

THE CONVENTIONAL VIEW OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS NEEDS TO SHIFT FROM TECHNICAL TRAINING FOR SPECIFIC SKILLS TO OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTELLECTUAL PROFESSIONAL GROWTH. This assumption highlights the need for a shift from viewing teaching as a technical activity to one requiring both theoretical and practical understanding and ability. Professional development occurs in many more ways than delivery of information in the typical university course, institute, or teacher workshop. Another way to learn more about teaching science is to conduct classroom-based research, and a useful way to learn science content is to participate in research at a scientific laboratory. In all instances, professional development activities must be sustained, contextual, and require participation and reflection. The Standards assume broad concepts of how, in what formats, and under what conditions professional development can take place.

THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMING SCHOOLS REQUIRES THAT PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES BE CLEARLY AND APPROPRIATELY CONNECTED TO TEACHERS' WORK IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SCHOOL. Whenever possible, the professional development of teachers should occur in the contexts where the teachers' understandings and abilities will be used. Although learning science might take place in a science laboratory, learning to teach science needs to take place through interactions with practitioners in places where students are learning science, such as in classrooms and schools.

The Standards

The first three professional development standards can be summarized as learning science, learning to teach science, and learning to learn. Each begins with a description of what is to be learned followed by a



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