Changing Emphases

The National Science Education Standards envision change throughout the system. The professional development standards encompass the following changes in emphases:



Transmission of teaching knowledge and skills by lectures

Inquiry into teaching and learning

Learning science by lecture and reading

Learning science through investigation and inquiry

Separation of science and teaching knowledge

Integration of science and teaching knowledge

Separation of theory and practice

Integration of theory and practice in school settings

Individual learning

Collegial and collaborative learning

Fragmented, one-shot sessions

Long-term coherent plans

Courses and workshops

A variety of professional development activities

Reliance on external expertise

Mix of internal and external expertise

Staff developers as educators

Staff developers as facilitators, consultants, and planners

Teacher as technician

Teacher as intellectual, reflective practitioner

Teacher as consumer of knowledge about teaching

Teacher as producer of knowledge about teaching

Teacher as follower

Teacher as leader

Teacher as an individual based in a classroom

Teacher as a member of a collegial professional community

Teacher as target of change

Teacher as source and facilitator of change

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