5

 

Assessment in Science Education

 

75

   

The Standards

 

78

   

Standard A

 

78

   

Standard B

 

79

   

Standard C

 

83

   

Standard D

 

85

   

Standard E

 

86

   

Assessments Conducted by Classroom Teachers

 

87

   

Improving Classroom Practice

 

87

   

Planning Curricula

 

87

   

Development Self-directed Learners

 

88

   

Reporting Student Progress

 

88

   

Researching Teaching Practices

 

89

   

Assessments Conducted at the District, State, and National Levels

 

89

   

Data Analysis

 

90

   

Teacher Involvement

 

90

   

Sample Size

 

90

   

Representative Sample

 

90

   

Sample Assessments of Student Science Achievement

 

91

   

Assessing Understanding of the Natural World

 

91

   

Assessing the Ability to Inquire

 

98

   

Changing Emphases for Assessment

 

100

   

References for Further Reading

 

101

6

 

Science Content Standards

 

103

   

Rationale

 

104

   

Unifying Concepts and Processes Standard

 

104

   

Science as Inquiry Standards

 

105

   

Physical Science, Life Science, and Earth and Space Science Standards

 

106

   

Science and Technology Standards

 

106

   

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Standards

 

107

   

History and Nature of Science Standards

 

107

   

Form of the Content Standards

 

108

   

Criteria for the Content Standards

 

109

   

Use of the Content Standards

 

111

   

Changing Emphases for Contents

 

113

   

Content Standard: K-12

 

115

   

Content Standards: K-4

 

121

   

Science as Inquiry

 

121

   

Physical Science

 

123

   

Life Science

 

127

   

Earth and Space Science

 

130

   

Science and Technology

 

135

   

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

 

138

   

History and Nature of Science

 

141



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