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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science NATIONAL SCIENCE RESOURCES CENTER The National Science Resources Center (NSRC) is operated by the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution to improve the teaching of science in the nation's schools. The NSRC collects and disseminates information about exemplary teaching resources, develops and disseminates curriculum materials, and sponsors outreach activities, specifically in the areas of leadership development and technical assistance, to help school districts develop and sustain hands-on science programs. The NSRC is located in the Arts and Industries Building of the Smithsonian Institution and in the Capital Gallery Building in Washington, D.C. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 in accordance with the will of Englishman James Smithson, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America, "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." The Smithsonian has since evolved into an institution devoted to public education, research, and national service in the arts, sciences, and history. This independent federal establishment is the world's largest museum complex and is responsible for public and scholarly activities, exhibitions, and research projects nationwide and overseas.
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science NATIONAL SCIENCE RESOURCES CENTER National Academy of Sciences Smithsonian Institution NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science is a completely revised and updated edition of its predecessor volume—Science for Children: Resources for Teachers, which was developed and produced by the National Science Resources Center and published by the National Academy Press in 1988. The views expressed in this book are solely those of its contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences or the Smithsonian Institution. Every effort was made to ensure the accuracy of information presented in this volume. The National Science Resources Center makes no representation that the information in this guide is absolutely without error. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Resources for teaching elementary school science / National Science Resources Center, National Academy of Sciences, Smithsonian Institution. p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Science for children. 1988. Includes indexes. ISBN 0-309-05293-9 1. Science—Study and teaching (Elementary)—United States— Bibliography. I. National Science Resources Center (U.S.) II. Science for children. Z5818.S3R47 1996 [LB1585] 372.3′5044—dc19 —dc20 95-26429 CIP Printed in the United States of America © 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The 13-page NSRC Science Instructional Materials Review Form in Appendix B may be reproduced for educational purposes. No other part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without permission in writing from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. National Science Resources Center Arts and Industries Building, Room 1201 Smithsonian Institution Washington, D.C. 20560 National Academy Press Sally Stanfield, Editorial Coordination Francesca Moghari, Cover Design Liz Clark, Isely &/or Clark Design, Book Design Linda C. Humphrey, Page Layout Douglas Lapp, Executive Director Charles N. Hardy, Deputy Director for Information Dissemination, Materials Development, and Publications Sally Goetz Shuler, Deputy Director for Development, External Relations, and Outreach Evelyn M. Ernst, Information Dissemination Director Dean Trackman, Publications Director Project Development Team Evelyn M. Ernst, Director Barbara K. Johnson, Research Associate Terence Proctor, Information Technology Specialist Dorothy Sawicki, Project Managing Editor Theodore D. Schultz, Program Officer, Networking Sharon Seaward, Program Assistant Rita C. Warpeha, Resource/Database Specialist Max-Karl Winkler, Cover Illustrations Jonathan Kronstadt, Writer Consultant Abigail Porter, Writer Consultant Cover and photo credits appear on p. 289.
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science NATIONAL SCIENCE RESOURCES CENTER ADVISORY BOARD Chair ROBERT M. FITCH Senior Vice President (retired), Research and Development, S. C. Johnson Wax, Racine, Wise. Members RUSSELL AIUTO Senior Project Officer, Council of Independent Colleges, Washington, D.C. MARJORY BARUCH Educational Consultant, Fayetteville, N.Y. ANN BAY Director, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DEANNA BANKS BEANE Project Director, YouthALIVE, Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. F. PETER BOER Executive Vice President and Chief Technical Officer, W. R. Grace and Company, Boca Raton, Fla. DOUGLAS K. CARNAHAN Vice President and General Manager, Measurement Systems Organization, Hewlett-Packard Company, Boise, Idaho FRED P. CORSON Vice President and Director, Research and Development, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich. GOÉRY DELACÔTE Executive Director, The Exploratorium, San Francisco, Calif. JOANN E. DEMARIA Elementary School Teacher, Hutchison Elementary School, Herndon, Va. HUBERT M. DYASI Director, The Workshop Center, City College School of Education (The City University of New York), New York, N.Y. BERNARD S. FINN Curator, Division of Electricity and Modern Physics, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. GERALD D. FISCHBACH Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. SAMUEL H. FULLER Vice President of Corporate Research, Digital Equipment Corporation, Littleton, Mass. JERRY P. GOLLUB Professor of Physics, Haverford College, Haverford, Pa. ANA M. GUZMAN Program Director, Alliances for Minority Participation, Texas A & M University, College Station, Tex. ROBERT M. HAZEN Staff Scientist, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. NORBERT S. HILL, JR. Executive Director, American Indian Science and Engineering Society, Boulder, Colo. MANERT KENNEDY Executive Director, Colorado Alliance for Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. JOHN W. LAYMAN Professor of Education and Physics, and Director, Science Teaching Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. SARAH A. LINDSEY Science Coordinator, Midland Public Schools, Midland, Mich. THOMAS E. LOVEJOY Counselor for Biodiversity and Environmental Affairs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. LYNN MARGULIS Distinguished University Professor, Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass. MARA MAYOR Director, The Smithsonian Associates, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. SHIRLEY M. MCBAY President, Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, D.C. JOSEPH A. MILLER, JR. Senior Vice President for Research & Development, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Del. JOHN A. MOORE Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, Calif. PHILIP NEEDLEMAN Corporate Vice President, Research and Development, and Chief Scientist, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Mo. CARLO PARRAVANO Director, Merck Institute for Science Education, Rahway, N.J. RUTH O. SELIG Executive Assistant to the Acting Provost, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. MAXINE F. SINGER President, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. PAUL H. WILLIAMS Director, Center for Biology Education, and Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wise. KAREN L. WORTH Faculty, Wheelock College, and Senior Associate, Urban Elementary Science Project, Education Development Center, Newton, Mass. Ex Officio Members E. WILLIAM COLGLAZIER Executive Officer, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. JAMES C. EARLY Assistant Provost for Educational and Cultural Programs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science CONTENTS FOREWORD ix PREFACE xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii PART 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDE 2 PART 2. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE CURRICULUM MATERIALS PART 2 OVERVIEW 10 1 • LIFE SCIENCE 14 Core Materials 14 Supplementary Materials 25 Science Activity Books 41 2 • EARTH SCIENCE 48 Core Materials 48 Supplementary Materials 55 Science Activity Books 62 3 • PHYSICAL SCIENCE 68 Core Materials 68 Supplementary Materials 80 Science Activity Books 87 4 • MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE 96 Core Materials 96 Supplementary Materials 100 Science Activity Books 110 5 • CURRICULUM PROJECTS PAST AND PRESENT 122 PART 3. TEACHER'S REFERENCES PART 3 OVERVIEW 132 6 • BOOKS ON TEACHING SCIENCE 134 7 • SCIENCE BOOK LISTS AND RESOURCE GUIDES 148 8 • PERIODICALS 156
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science PART 4. ANCILLARY RESOURCES FOR ELEMENTARY SCIENCE TEACHERS PART 4 OVERVIEW 166 9 • MUSEUMS AND OTHER PLACES TO VISIT 168 Complete Regional Listing 171 Select Annotated Listing 179 10 • PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS 222 APPENDIXES A • PUBLISHERS AND SUPPLIERS 244 B • NSRC EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR CURRICULUM MATERIALS 251 THE INDEXES 265 • TITLE INDEX 266 • INDEX OF NAMES (AUTHORS, SERIES, CURRICULUM PROJECTS) 269 • INDEX OF TOPICS IN CURRICULUM MATERIALS 272 • INDEX OF GRADE LEVELS OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS BY SCIENTIFIC AREA 277 • INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC AREAS OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS BY GRADE LEVEL 279 • SUBJECT INDEX 281 • INDEX OF ANCILLARY RESOURCES (PLACES TO VISIT/ORGANIZATIONS) 283
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science FOREWORD IN LATE 1995, the National Research Council completed the development of the National Science Education Standards, accomplishing an important task that was first requested by the governors of our nation's 50 states in 1989. Designed to guide the teaching of science in kindergarten through twelfth grade, these Standards provide a concrete vision of what is needed to achieve excellence in science education in the United States. The vision in the Standards reflects the consensus of the thousands of teachers, scientists, science educators, and other experts across the country who authored and critiqued its successive drafts. The Standards specify the understandings and abilities that all students should achieve by the end of the fourth, eighth, and twelfth grades. They deal with science content, emphasizing that this content can be taught through the use of many different curricula. At the same time, they recognize the importance of carefully designed curriculum units that have been tested by teachers and shown to be effective in promoting student understanding. To help parents, teachers, schools, and school districts select outstanding curricula for the science education of their children, we are now pleased to introduce the publication Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science. Developed by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science is a guide packed with carefully gathered and reviewed information about hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum materials and resources for teaching science in kindergarten through sixth grade. It will help teachers implement the principles contained in the National Science Education Standards, because it is based on the same fundamental tenets: the need for active inquiry and the critical importance of teaching for understanding, as science becomes a core activity in every grade—from kindergarten through high school. The NSRC has made many significant contributions to science education reform since its inception in 1985. In addition to the development of science curriculum materials, the Center has been active in other areas of curriculum reform, including information dissemination, leadership development, and technical assistance to school districts. It plans to develop volumes similar to this one to aid middle school and high school science teaching in the not-too-distant future. As NSRC's sponsoring organizations, the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution take great pride in the issuance of this publication. Producing a system of science education that prepares all of America's children for a productive and fulfilling life in the twenty-first century will be a lengthy, and sometimes slow and difficult process—for the National Science Education Standards constitute a call for a revolution in science education, and such fundamental changes take time. Good hands-on, inquiry-based science curricula are a crucial component of this effort to improve our schools, and we view Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science as a landmark book for all those interested in the education of children. BRUCE M. ALBERTS President National Academy of Sciences I. MICHAEL HEYMAN Secretary Smithsonian Institution
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science PREFACE ON BEHALF of the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), I am pleased to introduce readers to this new volume, Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science. It replaces Science for Children: Resources for Teachers as the NSRC's current guide to hands-on, inquiry-centered elementary school science curriculum materials and resources. Although important changes have been made in this completely updated and revised edition, it retains many important elements of the original, as well as its spirit and purpose—namely, to help elementary school teachers teach science more effectively in their classrooms. The NSRC produced the first edition of the guide in 1988, and that volume became a valued resource almost immediately. Since 1988, elementary science curriculum materials have proliferated and efforts in science education reform have taken on new intensity, culminating recently in the publication of the landmark National Science Education Standards from the National Research Council. Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science was under development at the same time that work on the National Science Education Standards was proceeding, and the NSRC has endeavored to ensure that the new resource guide will be responsive to the recommendations in that historic document. The guide is designed to provide teachers, principals, school district administrators, and others with up-to-date information on curriculum materials that are consonant with the principles advocated in the Standards. These principles include an emphasis on student inquiry, teaching for understanding, and the inclusion of science as a core subject in every grade, starting in kindergarten. We at the NSRC believe that this new edition of Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science responds to a critical need in science education today. The sheer volume of science curriculum materials now available can be daunting for individual teachers and for school systems trying to select the most effective materials for their specific needs. Although there is a broad range of science teaching resources that are available to serve the needs of elementary school teachers, the quality of these published materials varies greatly. Authoritative guidance in evaluating materials is essential to making sound decisions, and the complication of evaluating the science content, together with the hands-on, inquiry-based aspects of materials, requires special expertise. For all these reasons, Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science can be a productive and time-saving tool for teachers and school districts, and ultimately, of course, of great benefit to their students. To select the curriculum materials to be included in this new guide, the NSRC, which is operated jointly by the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution, established an extensive, rigorous review process. This process required the development of criteria by which reviewers could assess instructional materials. The evaluation criteria established by the NSRC for this purpose were informed by the emerging National
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science Science Education Standards and are consistent with the philosophy and the basic principles articulated in the standards. (These evaluation criteria appear in Appendix B in this volume and can be used independently by teachers and school districts for assessing curriculum materials.) Among directories and databases of elementary school science curriculum materials, Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science is unique for basing its selection of materials on a formal review process. This review was carried out in two phases, involving a panel of teacher reviewers and a panel of scientist reviewers. (The review process is described in the Introduction to the Guide; the reviewers are listed in the Acknowledgments.) With respect to the structure of the new book, Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science retains the major sections and useful indexes of the previous edition. The chapter now called ''Museums and Other Places to Visit" has been expanded considerably. The redesign of the interior of the book includes mechanical adjustments to make the information in the guide more accessible to readers. An example is the use of a system of entry numbers for the annotations to help locate them easily. This new edition lists and annotates materials and resources for kindergarten through sixth grade. Readers may be pleased to note that the NSRC plans to develop guides for middle school and high school in the not-too-distant future. Inspiration for the 1988 edition of this reference volume can be attributed to Sally Goetz Shuler, NSRC's Deputy Director for Development, External Relations, and Outreach, who recognized the need for such a book almost 10 years ago. Building on the strengths of the previous edition, Evelyn M. Ernst, NSRC Program Director for Information Dissemination and general editor of Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science, joined NSRC to direct this project. Working with her staff and with Chuck Hardy, the NSRC Deputy Director for Information Dissemination, Materials Development, and Publications, she has guided the project through all phases of development—from formulation of the evaluation criteria through panel review to publication. We would like to thank the NSRC's parent institutions, the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution, for their vision and support in helping NSRC undertake this project. We look forward to hearing from users of the volume as to its effectiveness in meeting their needs, together with any suggestions they may have for its improvement. DOUGLAS LAPP Executive Director National Science Resources Center January 1996
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PRODUCING Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science has been an immense undertaking and a rewarding one. It could not have been accomplished without the hard work and dedication of a core group of staff, combined with the efforts of a large number of reviewers, consultants, volunteers, and other professionals. The National Science Resources Center (NSRC) is grateful to its Advisory Board, whose membership is listed at the beginning of this book, for its continued guidance and direction. Special appreciation is extended to the members of the Executive Committee—Ann Bay, Hubert M. Dyasi, Robert M. Fitch, Lynn Margulis, John A. Moore, and Carlo Parravano—for their helpful comments on the final manuscript. This edition of the guide was brought to fruition with support from Bayer Foundation, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Inc., Digital Equipment Corporation, The Dow Chemical Company Foundation, Hewlett-Packard Company, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education. The U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Defense also provided support for the first edition. Special thanks go to Evelyn M. Ernst, project director and general editor, and to her staff and to the consultants who participated in the work on the volume. Barbara K. Johnson contributed to the development of the curriculum and teacher reference sections and assisted with the logistics of the second phase of the curriculum materials review process. Theodore Schultz surveyed museums, professional organizations, and other institutions and drafted annotations for these sections of the guide. Rita C. Warpeha, with the assistance of consultants Lorraine Hayes and Russell Smith, cataloged and researched the many materials received for review. Terence Proctor, NSRC information technology specialist, provided technical support. Sharon Seaward assisted staff and provided logistical support during all aspects of the project. Consultants Jonathan Kronstadt and Abigail Porter and NSRC staff member Lynn Miller drafted annotations. Michaela Oldfield assisted with manuscript preparation. Dorothy Sawicki served as developmental and managing editor for the resource guide and drafted overview and introductory material. The NSRC appreciates the assistance of the many hundreds of organizations and individuals who contributed time and effort to the information-gathering and review stages of the manuscript. Thanks go to reviewers of the final manuscript, Joyce Dutcher, Instructional Specialist in Elementary Science/Health with Fort Bend Independent School District in Sugar Land, Tex.; and to Becky Smith, Elementary Science/Social Sciences Curriculum Materials Editor with Mesa Public Schools in Mesa, Ariz. NSRC also acknowledges with gratitude the technical review of the chapter "Museums and Other Places to Visit" carried out by the Association of Science-Technology Centers under the direction of Bonnie Van Dorn and Ellen Griffee. And, finally, this guide would not have been possible without the support of the many teachers and scientists who reviewed curriculum materials. Following are lists of their names and affiliations.
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science TEACHER REVIEW PANEL SEAN DUFFY Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Flint Hill Elementary School, Vienna, Va. ANNETTE EDLER Science Teacher/Coordinator, Prince Georges County Public Schools, Potomac Landing Elementary School, Fort Washington, Md. PAMELA I. ELLISON Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Hayfield Secondary/Intermediate School, Alexandria, Va. DOREEN L. HALL Teacher, Montgomery County Public Schools, Brookhaven Elementary School, Rockville, Md. DARLENE HAZEN Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Kings Park Elementary School, Springfield, Va. SUSANNE JERDE Teacher, Highline School District, Sunnydale Elementary School, Seattle, Wash. DON JOHNSON Teacher, Fort Bend Independent School District, Settlers Way Elementary School, Sugar Land, Tex. DEBRA L. JONES Science Curriculum Specialist, Fairfax County Public Schools, Fairfax, Va. SANDRA L. KLEIN Teacher, Highline School District, Parkside Primary School, Des Moines, Wash. NANCY MASTERSON Teacher, Mesa Public Schools, Taft Elementary School, Mesa, Ariz. PATRICIA MCCLURE Science Program Specialist, Fairfax County Public Schools, Fairfax, Va. ANNE MARIE MILNER Teacher, Fort Bend Independent School District, Barrington Place Elementary, Sugar Land, Tex. SHIRLEY MITCHELL Teacher, Arlington Public Schools, Jamestown Elementary School, Arlington, Va. HELEN C. MURPHY Teacher, Montgomery County Public Schools, Summit Hall Elementary School, Gaithersburg, Md. MARY ANN PETERSON Teacher, Arlington Public Schools, Williamsburg Middle School, Arlington, Va. DEBRA S. REEDER Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Clifton Elementary School, Clifton, Va. KITTY Lou SMITH Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, West Springfield High School, Springfield, Va. ROGER SPRATT Teacher Specialist for Health/Science/Mathematics, Mesa Public Schools, Ariz. LAURIE THOMPSON Resource Teacher, Project SEED, Pasadena Unified School District, Pasadena, Calif. MARY COLLEEN THOMPSON Teacher, Fort Bend Independent School District, Settlers Way Elementary School, Sugar Land, Tex. MARY T. TSOTSIS Resource Teacher, Project SEED, Pasadena Unified School District, Pasadena, Calif. GWENDOLYN M. WILLIAMS Teacher, Fairfax County Public Schools, Silverbrook Elementary School, Fairfax Station, Va. EUGENE F. WILSON Teacher, Clara Barton Center for Children, Cabin John, Md.
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science SCIENTIST REVIEW PANEL LENA AUSTIN Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Howard University, Washington, D.C. EARL BLOCH Associate Professor, Howard University Medical School, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM C. BURTON Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va. EARL CALLEN Professor Emeritus, Department of Physics, American University, Washington, D.C. IDA CHOW Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, D.C.; and Executive Officer, Society for Developmental Biology, Bethesda, Md. ANNA COBLE Associate Professor, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Howard University, Washington, D.C.; and President, Minority Women in Science, Washington, D.C. ELAINE DAVIS Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, D.C. RICHARD DIECCHIO Associate Professor of Geology, Department of Geography and Earth Systems Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. LAFAYETTE FREDERICK Professor (retired), Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, D.C. DAVID HERSHEY Adjunct Faculty Member, Prince Georges County Community College, Hyattsville, Md. PHILIP B. JOHNSON Physicist, Loral Corporation, Manassas, Va. HOWARD KAPLAN Retired, Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. DONALD KELSO Associate Professor, Department of Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. RAMON LOPEZ Associate Research Scientist, Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Md.; and Director of Education and Outreach, The American Physical Society, College Park, Md. IRWIN MANNING Physicist (retired), Naval Research Laboratory, Bethesda, Md. EDWARD MAX Molecular Biologist, Center for Biologic Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Md. GEORGE MUSHRUSH Professor and Chair, Department of Chemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. JOSEPH NEALE Professor and Chair, Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. JOHN POJETA Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. LARRY ROCKWOOD Associate Professor, Department of Biology, George Mason University Fairfax, Va. JAY SHAFFER Professor, Department of Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. TOPPER SHUTT Meteorologist, WUSA TV, Channel 9, Washington, D.C. GERALDINE TWITTY Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, D.C. DAVID WILLIAMS Adjunct Faculty Member, Department of Chemistry, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va. NANCY ZELLER Adjunct Professor, Department of Biology, American University, Washington, D.C.
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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDE