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nerd SLD In TRnT nlRTEF FOR CORRERCIRl I lTERIORS R PROCEEDIDGS S11D ROHE LS JRRFT Co~r~rudee on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Publication NMAB~77-2 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the study committee were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report is a description of a conference and workshop planned and conducted by the steering committee. It contains the views of the individual participants at the workshop and does not represent the judgment of the study committee. Any conclusions or recommendations reported here are solely those of the individual workshop participants who made them. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted under Grant No. FAA-93~-033 with the U.S. Department of Transportation. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-70653 International Standard Book Number 0-309~5336 Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW HA-262 Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 1-800-624~242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Cover: Artist's conception of a future aircraft interior design. Courtesy of Teague and Associates.

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Committee on Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors ELl M. PEARCE (Chair), Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York BRUCE T. DeBONA, AlliedSignal, Morristown, New Jersey FREDERICK L. DRYER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey HOWARD W. EMMONS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts TAKASH! KASHTWAGT, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland BARBARA C. LEVIN, Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland NAMES C. McGRATH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg NAMES M. PETERSON, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington PATRICIA A. TATEM, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. Technical Advisor SCOTT CAMPBELL, Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California Liaison Representatives THOR EKLUND, Fire Safety Branch, Federal Aviation Administration, AtIantic City, New Jersey RICHARD LYON, Fire Safety Branch, Federal Aviation Administration, Atiantic City, New Jersey National Materials Advisory Board Staff THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant ~

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National Materials Advisory Board NAMES C. WILLIAMS, Chair, General Electric Company, Cincinnati, Ohio IAN D. ACHENBACH, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois BILL R. APPLETON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee ROBERT R. BEEBE, Homestake Mining Company (Retired), Tucson Arizona I. MELVIN BERNSTEIN, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts I. KEITH BRIMACOMBE, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada JOHN V. BUSCH, IBIS Associates, Inc., Wellesley, Massachusetts HARRY E. COOK, University of Illinois, Urbana ROBERT EAGAN, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROLYN HANS S ON, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada KRISTINA M. JOHNSON, University of Colorado, Boulder LIONEL C. KIMERETNG, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge NAMES E. McGRATH, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg RICHARD S. MULLER, University of California, Berkeley ELSA RElCHMANIS, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JOHN STRINGER, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan NAMES W. WAGNER, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOSEPH G. WIRTH, Raychem Corporation, MenIo Park, California ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, Director 1V

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PREFACE The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an Advanced Fire Safety Materials Research Program to meet the requirements of the Aviation Safety Act of 1988. The program's objective is "to discover the fundamental relationships between the composition and structure of materials and their behavior in fires to enable the design of a totally fire-resistant cabin for future commercial aircraft. Research will be basic in nature and will focus on synthesis, characterization, modeling, and processing of new materials and materials combinations to improve the fire performance, increase the functionality, and reduce the cost of next-generation cabin materials." The FAA requested that the National Research Council, through its National Materials Advisory Board, recommend research in promising areas based on projected technology. Towards this end, the National Research Council established the Committee on Fire and Smoke Resistant Matenals for Commercial Aircraft Interiors. The committee hosted a Conference on Fire and Smoke Resistant Materials held at the National Academy of Sciences on November 8-10, 1994. Conference attendees included representatives from industry, government, and academe. These are the proceedings of that conference. The conference participants identified trends in aircraft fire safety and suggested promising research directions for the FAA's program in smoke and fire resistant materials. This conference report contains the 15 papers presented by the invited speakers and summaries of the workshop sessions that followed. The papers sewed as background for the workshop sessions, each of which addressed a specific topic: (~) toxicity issues, (2) fire performance parameters, (3) drivers for materials development, and (4) new materials technology. Each workshop group discussed the current state of development, technological needs, and promising technology for future development. The workshop chairs reported on each session to the conference as a whole, after which issues of interest were further discussed by all participants. v

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The information from the conference presentations and workshop sessions have been used by the study committee as input to its final report. The efforts of all the attendees, presenters, workshop chairs, and committee members and staff (and in particular Tom Munns) are acknowledged and appreciated. Eli M. Pearce Committee Chair V1

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CONTENTS PART I- INVITEI) PAPERS Federal Aviation Administration Fire-Safety Mission Thomas E. McSweeny Airplane Accidents and Fires Thomas M. Murray Heat Exposure and Burning Behavior of Cabin Materials During an Aircraft Post-Crash Fuel Fire Constantine P. Sarkos Fundamental Fire Properties of Combustible Materials Dougal D. Drysdale Fire Tests and Hazard Evaluation lames G. Quintiere Fire Properties of Materials Archie Tewarson Fire-Screening Results of Polymers and Composites Usman Sorathia and C. Beck Fire Properties of Future Material Candidates Charles A. Wilkie Meeting FR Goals Using Polymer Additive Systems Edward D. Wei! An Overview of Inorganic and Organome~lic Polymers Marte} Zeldin vat 3 7 25 37 45 61 93 . tic 129 151

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Flame-Retarding Woo} Textile Materials and the Evaluation of Thermally Stable Polymers for Commercial Airplanes Sally A. Hasselbrack Smoke Toxicity David Purser In-Service Performance Criteria for Aircraft Interiors Hanns-Ioerg Betz Design of Aircraft Interior Swen I. Schaich Processing and Manufacturing of Interior Components Hans-Dieter Berg PART II - WORKSHOP SUMMARY 165 175 197 203 213 SESSION I: Toxicity 224 SESSION Il: Fire Performance Parameters 228 SESSION ITI: Drivers for Materials Development 233 SESSION IV: New Materials Technology 240 APPENDIX A: Conference Program 243 APPENDIX B: Conference Participants and Speakers 247 - vail