several large clinical epidemiologic studies of HIV infection among drug users (the ALIVE study) and is the principal evaluator of the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore needle exchange programs. He is also a registered nurse with a certificate in infection control and has worked in this capacity at the Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center, the University of Maryland Hospital, and Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Inc. The author of numerous articles, chapters, and monographs, he has served as a peer reviewer for a number of journals and been a member of editorial boards. He has participated on a number of advisory panels for the National Institutes of Health and served as a consultant for the Health Department in Washington, D.C.; the Municipal Institute of Health in Barcelona, Spain; and the Istituto Superiore d'Sanità in Italy. He is a member of the Society for Epidemiologic Research, the American Public Health Association, and the Infectious Disease Society of America, among others. He has a B.A. in history from Earlham College, a B.S.N. and an M.S. in nursing from the University of Maryland at Baltimore, and a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins University.

W. WAYNE WIEBEL is associate professor of epidemiology in the School of Public Health at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He also serves as director of Community Outreach Intervention Projects at the university. Originally trained as an ethnographer, his research interests include the combined use of qualitative and quantitative research methods. He has been active in the field of substance abuse research over the past 20 years and in AIDS intervention research for the past 10 years. He has a B.A. in sociology from Northeastern University and an M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Northwestern University.

DAVID R. WILLIAMS is associate professor of sociology and associate research scientist in the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. His previous academic appointment was at Yale University. His research has focused on differences in socioeconomic status in health in general, and the health of the African American population in particular. He has served as a consultant to numerous federal health agencies and private organizations. Currently he is a member of the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and chairs its subcommittee on Minority and Other Special Populations. He is also a member of the National Science Foundation's Board of Overseers for the General Social Survey. He has an M.P.H. from Loma Linda University, a M.Div. from Andrews University, and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan.



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