3.  

Note that the DC*MADS survey did not cover the same geographical area as covered by Holmberg's review, which precludes a direct comparison between the two estimated numbers of injection drug users.

REFERENCES

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Alcabes, P., D. Vlahov, and J.C. Anthony 1992 Characteristics of intravenous drug users by history of arrest and treatment of drug abuse. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders 180:48-54.

Anglin, M.D., J.P. Caulkins, and Y. Hser 1993 Prevalence estimation: Policy needs, current status, and future potential. Journal of Drug Issues 23(2):345-360.


Battjes, R.J., C.G. Leukefeld, and R.W. Pickens 1992 Age at first injection and HIV risk among intravenous drug users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 18:263-273.

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Brown, B.S., and G.M. Beschner, eds. 1993 Handbook on Risk of AIDS: Injection Drug Users and Sexual Partners . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


Celentano, D.D., D. Vlahov, S. Cohn, J.C. Anthony, L. Solomon, and K.E. Nelson 1991 Risk factors for shooting gallery use and cessation among intravenous drug users. American Journal of Public Health 81(10):1291-1295.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1987a Human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United States: A review of current knowledge. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 36(Suppl. S-6):1-48.

1987b Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in the United States: A Review of Current Knowledge and Plans for Expansion of HIV Surveillance Activities. Report to the Domestic Policy Council. November 30. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control.

1990 HIV prevalence estimates and AIDS case projections for the United States: Report based on a workshop. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 39(RR-16):273-276.

1992 Chronic Disease and Health Promotion MMWR Reprints: 1990-1991 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Selected behaviors that increase risk for HIV infection among high school students-United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 41:231,237-240.


Des Jarlais, D.C., S.R. Friedman, J.L. Sotheran, J. Wenston, M. Marmor, S.R. Yancovitz, B. Frank, S. Beatrice, and D. Mildvan 1994 Continuity and change within an HIV epidemic: Injecting drug users in New York City, 1984 through 1992. Journal of the American Medical Association 271:121-127.

Drug Enforcement Administration 1994 Domestic Monitor Program, October-December 1993. DEA-94058. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.



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