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Appendixes

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APPENDIX A Biographical Information on Committee Members and Staff CHAIR John J. Magnuson is a professor of zoology and director of the Trout Lake Biological Station and director of the Center for Limnology, University of Wis- consin-Madison. Formerly, Dr. Magnuson was chief, Tuna Behavior Program, Biological Laboratory, U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wild- life Service; and chairman, oceanography and limnology graduate program, Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Madison. He has been a member of the affiliated graduate faculty, University of Hawaii; director, Ecology Program, National Science Foun- dation; member, Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Ocean Policy Committee; chair- man, Fisheries Task Group, Science Advisory Committee to Great Lakes Fishery Commission; and chairman, NRC Committee on Sea Turtle Conservation, NRC Committee on Fisheries, and NRC Committee to Review Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Dr. Magnuson is a member of the American Fisheries Society (president, 1981- 82), American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists; Animal Behavior Society; Ecological Society of America; American Institute of Biological Sci- ences. Areas of expertise include behavioral ecology of fishes; locomotion of scombrids; distributional ecology of fishes and macroinvertebrates in ocean fronts or gradients; comparative studies of factors determining community structure of fishes in lakes; ecology of Great Lakes; long-term ecological research on north- ern lake ecosystems; general ecology; fish and wildlife sciences. He has a BS and MS from the University of Minnesota and a PhD in Zoology from the Uni 421

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422 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETYIN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST versity of British Columbia. Address: Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706. MEMBERS Fred W. Allendorf is a professor of zoology, University of Montana. Formerly, he was the program director, Population Biology and Physiological Ecology, National Science Foundation; visiting scientist, Department of Genetics, Univer- sity of California, Davis; NATO fellow, Genetics Research Unit, University of Nottingham, England; and rector, Department of Genetics and Ecology, Aarhus University, Denmark. He has served on panels on Conservation and Restoration Biology, International Programs, and Population Biology and Physiological Ecol- ogy of the National Science Foundation; as council member of the American Genetic Association; member, Genetics Nomenclature Committee; and chair, DNA Markers Subcommittee, American Fisheries Society. Dr. Allendorf is a member of the Society for the Study of Evolution, American Society of Natural- ists, the Genetics Society of America, Society for Conservation Biology, Ameri- can Association for the Advancement of Science, American Society of Ichthyolo- gists and Herpetologists, American Fisheries Society, Sigma Xi, American Genetic Association, Desert Fishes Council, Ecological Society of America, and the Montana Native Plant Society. His research interests include evolutionary genetics of populations and conservation biology. He has a BS, zoology, Penn- sylvania State University; MS, fisheries, University of Washington; and PhD, genetics and fisheries, University of Washington. Address: Division of Biologi- cal Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula MT 59812. Robert L. Beschta is professor of forest hydrology, College of Forestry and Department of Forest Engineering, Oregon State University. Formerly, he was acting department head, forest engineering, Oregon State University; instructor and research associate, University of Arizona; forest hydrologist and research forester, U.S. Forest Service. His areas of expertise are riparian and watershed management; hydrology of wetlands, rangelands, riparian areas, and forests; pre- cipitation and runoff of mountain slopes; the effects of vegetation on the hydrol- ogy of riparian areas; channel rehabilitation and morphology; water quality moni- toring; peak-flow simulation models; and slope stability. Dr. Beschta has a BS, forest management, Colorado State University; MS, forest hydrology, Utah State University; and PhD, watershed management, University of Arizona. Address: Forest Engineering Department, 213 Peavy Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97331-5706. Peter A. Bisson is an aquatic biologist at Weyerhaeuser Company, Tacoma, Washington. Formerly, he was a research assistant, fisheries and wildlife, Or- egon State University. Dr. Bisson is a member of the American Fisheries Society

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APPENDIX A 423 (currently Western Division vice-president), associate editor for salmonids, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, and a member of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Ecological Society of America, and North American Benthological Society. His research expertise includes the struc- ture and function of stream ecosystems, fish production, population dynamics and community structure; analysis of environmental data bases; environmental impacts of land-use practices and non-point source pollution; zoogeography and systematics of freshwater fishes. Dr. Bisson has a BA, environmental biology, University of California, Santa Barbara; MS, and PhD, fisheries and wildlife, Oregon State University. Address: Weyerhaeuser Company, Technology Center WTC-lA5, Tacoma WA 98477. [After November 1995, Dr. Bisson will be with the U.S. Forest Service in Olympia, Washington.] Hampton L. Carson is a professor emeritus of genetics and molecular biology, University of Hawaii, Manoa, where he was professor. Formerly, he was a professor at Washington University (St. Louis) and instructor, zoology, Univer- sity of Pennsylvania. Pie was a member of the Wheelock Expedition, Labrador; professor, biology, University of Sao Paulo in 1951 and 1977; and Fulbright research scholar, University of Melbourne. Dr. Carson is a member of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, the Society for Study of Evolution (president, 1971), American Society of Naturalists (president, 1973), Genetics Society of America (president, 1982), American Association for the Advancement of Science, and American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His interests are genetic changes in populations that lead to the origin of species, species formation on oceanic is- lands as paradigm, chromosomes and evolution, evolution of parthenogenesis, sexual behavior and genetic shifts in populations. He has a AB and PhD, Zool- ogy, University of Pennsylvania. Address: Department of Genetics and Molecu- lar Biology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1960 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822. Donald W. Chapman is a consulting biologist and president of Don Chapman Consultants, Inc., and is an adjunct professor, Idaho State University, Pocatello. Formerly, Dr. Chapman was visiting professor, Montana State University; inland fishery biologist, FAO, Cartagena, Colombia; stock assessment specialist, FAO, Kigoma, Tanzania; visiting associate professor of limnology, University of Wis- consin, Madison; leader, Idaho Cooperative Fishery Unit and professor, Univer- sity of Idaho; director of research, Oregon Fish Commission; associate professor, Oregon State University; coordinator of Alsea Watershed Study, and Exec. Sec- retary of Water Resources Research Institute; assistant professor, Oregon State University and Coordinator, Alsea Watershed Study. He is a member of the American Fisheries Society, associate editor for salmonids, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society; member, National Marine Fisheries Service Endan- gered Species Act Technical Advisory Committee. Dr. Chapman's research

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424 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST interests are catch and stock assessment, anadromous fish passage problems, population productivity in salmon and steelhead trout, habitat evaluation in salmon and steelhead spawning and rearing areas, fishery resource management, and best management practices for land use. He has a BS, forest management, MS, fisheries, and PhD, fisheries, Oregon State University. Address: Don Chapman Consultants, Inc., 3653 Rickenbacker, Suite 200, Boise ID 83705. Susan S. Hanna is associate professor, agricultural and resource economics, Oregon State University. Her current research projects include an economic assessment of alternative management approaches in the west coast multispecies groundfish fishery, analysis of exvessel markets for groundfish, and an evalua- tion of salmonid predator-control programs on the Columbia River. Dr. Hanna is a member of the Scientific and Statistical Committee of the Pacific Fishery Management Council, the Scientific Committee of the Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Board, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Executive Committee of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade. Her research interests include fisheries economics, fisheries management, economics of com- mon property resources, and ecological economics. She has a BA, sociology and MS, agricultural and resource economics, University of Maine; Ph.D., agricul- tural and resource economics, Oregon State University. Address: Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 9733 1-3601. Anne R. D. Kapuscinski is professor of fisheries and conservation biology and an extension specialist (aquaculture), University of Minnesota. Formerly, she was fish genetics research assistant, aquaculture instructor, Oregon State Univer- sity. Dr. Kapuscinski has served as outside reviewer, Northwest Power Planning Council, hatchery genetic policies and various genetic conservation planning documents; team leader, Northwest Power Planning Council Genetics Work- shop: Sustainability of Anadromous Salmon and Trout Populations; outside re- viewer, Bonneville Power Administration, comments on hatchery fish questions related to Endangered Species Act petitions for Pacific salmon stocks; chair, symposium on conservation of fisheries genetic resources, American Fisheries Society meeting; Northwest Power Planning Council, workshops on genetic pro- duction principles for Columbia River Basin fisheries management; co-chair, Fisheries Genetics Workshop, Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference; American Fisheries Society North Central Technical Committee on Fish Genetics. Areas of research expertise include quantitative and molecular genetics of fish; aquatic biotechnology risk assessment and management; aquaculture; and genetic con- servation. She has a BA, biology, Swarthmore College; MS and PhD, fisheries, Oregon State University. Address: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, 130 Hodson Hall, University of Minnesota, St. Paul MN 55108.

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APPENDIX A 425 Kai N. Lee is professor and director, Center of Environmental Studies, Williams College. Formerly, at the University of Washington, he was assistant professor, environmental studies, political science, and Program in Social Management of Technology; adjunct associate professor, marine studies; adjunct professor, pub- lic affairs; adjunct associate professor, fisheries. Dr. Lee was visiting professor, Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University. He was also a White House Fellow and Assistant to the Secretary of Defense; member, vice-chair (1985-86), and chairman (1984-85, 1986-87), fish and wildlife committee, Northwest Power Planning Council. At the University of California, Berkeley, he was a postdoctoral fellow, Institute of Governmental Studies (1971-73) and assistant research social scientist, Institute of International Studies. He was a member of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology and is now a member of the NRC's Board on Sustainable Development. He served as a member of the board of directors of Friends of the Earth USA, a nongovernmental organization advocating environmental protection, since 1993. His areas of expertise are environmental education, adaptive management and sustainable development, and public policy and politics. Dr. Lee has an AB, physics, Columbia University, and PhD, physics, Princeton University. Address: Center for Environmental Studies Kellogg House' Williams College, P.O. Box 632, Williamstown, MA ~ - - =~ I ~ - 7 01267. Dennis P. Lettenmaier is professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Univer- sity of Washington. Dr. Lettenmaier is a member of the American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, American Society of Civil Engineers, American Water Resources Association, Western Snow Conference, and U.S. National Committee for International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. His areas of research expertise are global hydrology, hydrological forecasting, and water resource system modeling. Dr. Lettenmaier has a BS, mechanical engi- neering, University of Washington; MS, mechanical and environmental engi- neering, The George Washington University; and PhD, civil engineering, Univer- sity of Washington. Address: Department of Civil Engineering, FX-10, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Bonnie J. McCay is professor, Department of Human Ecology, Cook College, and Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers the State University. She was visiting scientist, Department of Applied Behavioral Sci- ences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Cali- fornia, Davis. She is a member of the Agriculture, Food & Human Values Society (council member, 1988-891; fellow, American Anthropological Associa- tion; fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Fisheries Society (various positions in the socioeconomics section); Anthropol- ogy Study Group for Agrarian Systems; Canadian Sociology and Anthropology Association; Columbia University Seminar on Cultural Evolution and Ecological

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426 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Systems; International Association for the Advancement of Appropriate Tech- nology for Developing Countries; International Association for the Study of Com- mon Property. FIer research interests are culture and common property; social science issues in fisheries management; and ecological anthropology. Dr. McCay has a BA, Portland State University; MPH and PhD, anthropology, Columbia University. Address: Department of Human Ecology, Cook College, Rutgers, the State University, P.O. Box 231, New Brunswick NJ 08903. Gordon M. MacNabb is president and chief executive officer, PRECARN Asso- ciates, Inc., and president, G.M. MacNabb Consultants. Formerly, he was chair- man, Columbia River Treaty, Permanent Engineering Board; associate to the principal, Queen's University; president, Natural Sciences and Engineering Re- search Council of Canada (1978-86~; chairman, Energy Supplies Allocation Board (1979-80~; president, Uranium Canada, Ltd. (1975-851; and deputy minister, se- nior assistant deputy minister (energy), and assistant deputy minister (energy), Energy, Mines, and Resources, Canada. Mr. MacNabb is a member, Professional Engineers of Ontario, and vice-president and fellow, Canadian Academy of Engi- neering. His areas of expertise are hydroelectric and river basin planning, includ- ing the Columbia River; engineering issues, Columbia River Treaty; and treaty negotiations, St. John River, Maine and New Brunswick; and operating entities, Columbia River. He has a BS, Civil Engineering, Queen's University, and 11 honorary degrees. Address: PRECARN Associates, 30 Colonnade Road, Suite 300, Nepean, Ontario, Canada K2E 7J6. Thomas P. Quinn is an associate professor, fisheries, University of Washington. Formerly, he was research associate, oceanography, University of British Colum- bia. He is a member of the American Fisheries Society, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Animal Behavior Society, and the American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists. Dr. Quinn's main areas of expertise are the migration, homing, and spawning behavior of Pacific salmon. He has a BA, biology, Swarthmore College; MS, University of Washington; and PhD, Fisher- ies, University of Washington. Address: School of Fisheries, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Brian E. Riddell is section head, Salmon Stock Assessment and Enhancement Evaluation, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada. Other experience at the Pacific Biological Station in- cludes head, Salmon Stock Assessment Program; head, Salmon Populations Sec- tion; head, Salmon Genetics Unit, head, International Salmon Unit. Dr. Riddell was the first chairman (1985-89) and member of the steering committee for the Salmon Sub-Committee of the Pacific Stock Assessment Review Committee; associate editor for genetics, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society; and chain, organizing committee, International Symposium on Interaction be

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APPENDIX A 427 tween Enhanced and Wild Salmonids (1989-924. His areas of expertise include population biology and genetics of Pacific salmon, including conservation genet- ics of small natural populations in exploited landscapes and the impact of inten- sive culture on enhanced stocks and local natural populations; behavioral genet- ics and developmental genetics in salmonids; population dynamics and fishing mortality estimates on Pacific salmon, particularly chinook salmon; international fishery issues. Dr. Riddell has a BS, marine biology, University of Guelph, and PhD, ecology/population biology, McGill University. Address: Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Biological Science Branch, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada V9R SK6. Earl E. Werner is professor, biology, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He has served as vice-president of the Ecological Society of America and editor, Ecology and Ecological Monographs. Formerly, he was assistant professor, University of Iowa and associate professor and professor, zoology, Michigan State University, Kellogg Biological Station. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Society of Naturalists; Ecological Society of America; British Ecologi- cal Society; International Behavioral Ecology Society; International Society of Theoretical and Applied Limnology. His areas of expertise are community ecol- ogy, population biology, and behavioral ecology. He has an AB, zoology, Co- lumbia University, and PhD, zoology-ecology, Michigan State University. Ad- dress: Biology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. STAFF David Policansky is associate director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology at the National Research Council. Formerly, he taught and did research at the University of Chicago, the University of Massachusetts at Boston, and the Grey Herbarium of Harvard University. He was visiting scientist at the National Marine Fisheries Service Northeast Fisheries Center. He is a member of the Ecological Society of America, the American Fisheries Society, and the advi- sory councils to the University of Alaska's School of Fisheries and Ocean Sci- ences and the University of British Columbia's Fisheries Centre. He was a member of the editorial board of BioScience. His interests include genetics, evolution, and ecology, particularly the effects of fishing on fish populations, ecological risk assessment, and natural resource management. He has directed approximately 15 projects at the National Research Council dealing with natural resources and ecological risk assessment, most recently on the Endangered Spe- cies Act. He has a BA, biology, from Stanford University and an MS and PhD, biology, from the University of Oregon. Address: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418.

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428 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETYIN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Tania Williams is research associate in the Board on Environmental Studies at the National Research Council. Formerly, she was a consultant at Wilson, Hill Associates, business manager at Kitty Hawk Investment Corporation, telecom- munications specialist at Telecom Specialists, Inc., and research assistant at Alex. Brown & Sons, Inc. At the National Research Council, she has helped manage projects on Alaskan outer continental shelf environmental information and wet- lands characterization, and she manages a project reviewing the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Program, and the U.S. National Committee on Scientific Problems of the Environment. Her interests include natural resources, botany, and science policy. She has a BS, psychology, Allegheny College and has studied at Ealing College in London and the University of Baltimore. Address: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washing- ton, DC 20418. Adrienne Davis is senior program assistant in the Board on Environmental Stud- ies and Toxicology. Formerly, she was a legal clerk-typist at the U.S. Patent and Trademark office. At the National Research Council, she has worked at the Toxicology Information Center and on a variety of projects, including DNA forensics, environmental research, and the Endangered Species Act. Her inter- ests are information technology and management and education. She has a BS, business education, University of Maryland and MA, computers in education and training, Trinity College. Address: Board on Environmental Studies and Toxi- cology, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418.

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APPENDIX B Meeting Dates and Locations ,~9 December 7-8, 1992 Washington, D.C. National Academy of Sciences February 1-3, 1993 Portland, Oregon Holiday Inn, Lloyd Center June 23-25, 1993 Seattle, Washington University Inn September 8-10, 1993 Portland, Oregon Portland Marriott December 13- 14, 1993 Irvine, California Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center February 27 - March 1, 1994 Irvine, California Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center June 16-17, 1994 Seattle, Washington Battelle Conference Center 429

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APPENDIX CAcknowledgements The committee would like to thank the following for contributing to its delibera- tions: Rick Applegate, Fish & Wildlife Division, NPPC Bill Bakke, Oregon Trout Don Bevan, Endangered Species Act Snake River Salmon Recovery Team Gerald Bouck, Fish and Wildlife Division, Bonneville Power Administration Doug DeHart, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife John Donaldson, Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Authority Bob Francis, University of Washington Bill Frank, Chair, Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission James Geisinger, Northwest Forestry Association Eugene Green, Sr., Columbia River InterTribal Fish Commission Randall Hardy, Bonneville Power Administration Gordon Haugen, USDA Forest Service, PAC Fish Coordinator Arleigh Isley, Cattlemen's Association Ralph Johnson, University of Washington James Lichatowich, fisheries consultant Irene and Kent Martin, Salmon for All Peter Moyle, University of California, Davis Phil Mundy, private consultant Willa Nehlsen, Pacific Rivers Council Evelyn Pinkerton, University of British Columbia Jay Rasmussen, Oregon Coastal Zone Management Association 430

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APPENDIX C Henry Regier, University of Toronto Roger Schiewe, Bonneville Power Administration, Dittmer Center James Sedell, USDA Forest Service J. Gary Smith, NMFS, Northwest Region, Deputy Director Glen Spain, Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations Anne Squier, Office of Governor, Oregon Michael Tillman, NMFS, Office of Protected Resources, Director Frank Warrens, Pacific Fisheries Management Council Warren Wooster, University of Washington Al Wright, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee 431 The committee would also like to thank those that briefed it at its public sessions: Portland, March 1, 1993 Lionel Boyer, Shoshone-Bannock Tribe Steve Culley, FINS John Davenport, forestry consultant Art Goddard, Canadian Consulate General Lon Peter, Public Power Council Carl Schreck, Oregon State University Seattle, June 24, 1993 Michael Anderson, The Wilderness Society Mike Carr, Oregon Trout Darryll Olsen, Northwest Irrigation Utilities Ray White, consultant Portland, September 9, 1993 James Baker, Sierra Club Dan Diggs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Victor Kaczynski, consultant Tom Marlin, Coalition for Anadromous Salmon and Steelhead Habitat John Palmisano, consultant Larry Riggs, Genetic Resource Consultants Dan Rohlf, Northwest Environmental Defense Center and for American Rivers Council Gary Spackman, Idaho Department of Water Resources February 12-15, 1994 (writing session) Janet Fischer and the staff of the University of Wisconsin's Trout Lake Laboratory, for their support at a writing meeting held there.

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APPENDIX D Major Landforms and Their Rivers MOUNTAIN RANGES A series of mountain ranges, such as the Olympic and the Coast Range, extend from northern Washington's Olympic Peninsula southward along the Washington and Oregon coast to California. Rivers flowing from the Olympic Mountains drain to both coastal and Puget Sound basins. The Olympic Moun- tains receive the most precipitation (up to 400 cm/yr) of any mountain range in the Pacific Northwest (Muckleston, 1993), and the rivers draining the western slopes are large relative to their watershed areas. South of Gray's Harbor, Wash- ington, the Coast Range consists of relatively low-elevation, highly erodible mountains of moderate relief extending southward to the Coos River, Oregon. Rivers originating in the Coast Range and flowing to the ocean tend to be short, but some larger rivers, such as the Chehalis in Washington and the Umpqua in Oregon, cross the mountains from the Willamette-Puget Lowland. In southern Oregon and northern California, the Klamath-Siskyiou Mountains are character- ized by steep topography. The headwaters of the Rogue and Klamath rivers are in the southern Cascade Mountains and cut across the coastal mountains. Farther south in California, the Coast Range again consists of low-elevation mountains dominated by erosive sedimentary deposits. Further south, precipitation is much lower along the northern California coast, with annual rainfall often less than 100 cm/yr. The Sacramento River passes through these mountains, draining the southern Cascades and western Sierra Nevada. 432

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APPENDIX D 433 Willamette-Puget Lowland This broad valley separates the Olympics and Coast Range from the Cascade Mountains. Rivers on the western side of the Willamette-Puget Lowland drain coastal mountains, and those on the eastern side drain the Cascades. In general, the eastern river basins are larger and more-important salmon-producing systems than the smaller western rivers. Cascade Mountains These mountains in Washington, Oregon, and northern California and with the coastal mountains above support most of the existing Pacific salmon popula- tions. Annual precipitation of 200 cm/year is common in the North; river basins west of the Cascade crest produce two-thirds of the total runoff for the Pacific Northwest region although they drain less than one-fourth of the area (Muckleston 19931. The backbone of the Cascades is a series of intermittently active and extinct volcanoes extending from Glacier Peak and Mt. Baker in northern Wash- ington to Mt. Lassen in northern California. Volcanic activity has has effects on salmon. Most recently, the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens caused a major debris flow that dammed the mouths of several Toutle River tributaries and formed three new lakes. Many Cascade volcanoes experience eruptions every 100-1,000 years. Short-term effects of such events on salmon have been devastating, but the long-term consequences have included the creation of many new and productive . . spawning and rearing areas. A series of large river basins drain the northwestern Cascades to Puget Sound. Some, such as the Skagit River's, support all seven Pacific salmon and are the only U.S. drainages in the Pacific Northwest to do so. Two large, lower Columbia River tributaries, the Cowlitz and Lewis, drain much of the western Cascades in southern Washington. In western Oregon, steelhead and chinook are produced in the Clakamas, Santiam, McKenzie, and upper Willamette rivers, which drain the western Cascades to the Willamette Valley. Farther south, the Cascades are drained by the Umpqua, Rogue, and Klamath. Some headwaters of the Sacramento River originate in the southernmost part of the Cascades. Along the eastern slopes of the Cascades, precipitation dwindles rapidly, and major river basins become less numerous. The northern Cascade Range in Wash- ington contains several important salmon-producing tributaries of the upper Co- lumbia River. The Yakima River subbasin in central Washington flows from the eastern Cascades and constitutes one of the most important drainages for salmon in the middle Columbia. In Oregon, the eastern Cascade slopes are drained mostly by the Deschutes River and to a small extent by the Klamath River in the South. Precipitation in those river basins ranges from greater than 200 cm/yr at some high elevations less than 20 cm/yr at lower elevations (Jackson and Kimerling, 19933.

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434 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Columbia Intermountain Region The three major divisions of this region are the Columbia River Basin, the Central Mountains (which include the Blue, Wallowa, and Ochoco mountains), and the high lava plains of central Oregon and the Snake River (Rosenfeld, 19933. Fewer salmon occur in this region, but historical populations included large runs of chinook, coho, sockeye, and steelhead. The region receives little precipitation, often less than 10 cm/yr in the plains and only 40-80 cm/yr in the Central Moun- tains (Jackson and Kimerling, 1993~. Major river basins are few. The upper Columbia River has several salmon-producing tributaries fed mainly by snow- melt from the northern Rocky Mountains. Two important tributaries of the Snake River, the Clearwater River and portions of the Salmon River, drain eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Several major Columbia and Snake River subbasins including the John Day, Grande Ronde, Malheur, and Owyhee riv- ers flow from the Central Mountains. Parts of the high lava plains (Harney basin and upper Snake River) have historically been inaccessible to salmon. Northern Rocky Mountains These mountains, which extend into Canada, contain headwaters of the Fraser, and Columbia, and Snake rivers in the United States. and include part of eastern British Columbia, northeastern Washington, northern and central Idaho, and western Montana. The geology is dominated by granitic rocks (Rosenfeld, 1993~. They can be highly erosive. Tributaries of the Thompson River, a major subbasin of the Fraser River in British Columbia, support substantial populations of sockeye and steelhead. Sockeye were historically abundant in the Salmon River Mountains of central Idaho but are now nearly extinct there. Chinook and steelhead are the only other salmon returning to rivers in the northern Rocky Mountains of Washington and Idaho. Great Basin These southernmost areas of eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and northeast- ern California contain internally draining basins with no outlets to the Pacific Ocean. Thus, these river basins support no anadromous salmon.

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APPENDIX E International Treaty Considerations in Operation of the Columbia River System In September 1943, the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce requested that the Corps of Engineers undertake a comprehensive survey of the Columbia River basin in the United States. This was succeeded in March 1944 by a reference by the Canadian and U.S. governments to the International Joint Commission (UC) calling for a determination as to "whether a greater use than is now being made of the waters of the Columbia River system would be feasible and advantageous." The urgency of such an analysis was underlined by the disastrous flooding in the basin in 1948, especially in the vicinity of Portland. The need for Canadian involvement is evident: about 30% of the Columbia River flow originates in the loo of the river basin in that country. The need for Canadian storage for effec- tive flood control, as well as for optimum regulation of the river for power generation, was obvious. Extensive studies of the river system, especially the portion within Canada, were carried out under the auspices of the IJC during the 1950s. However, it was not until 1959 that the commission made its report to the two governments on the "principles" for cooperative use of Columbia River storage in Canada. Negotia- tions on a Columbia River ~ Italy began in 1960, and final approval of a treaty and protocol was obtained in January 1964. Under the terms of the treaty, Canada has constructed three storage facilities on the mainstem and tributary of the Columbia and has committed to operate 15.5 MAF of that storage under the operating terms of the treaty. The treaty also authorized the construction of the Libby Dam on the Kootenai River in Montana, whose reservoir floods into Canada and provides an additional 5 MAF of storage. 435

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436 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETY IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST Hence, the treaty has permitted the construction and operation of about 20.5 MAF of usable storage 55% of the total storage within the Columbia basin. During the negotiations of the IJC principles and the treaty itself, additional power and flood control were the major objectives. The tenor of the discussion during this period is well illustrated by the following paragraph from the intro- ductory pages of the IJC "Principles": The principle [sic] benefits in the downstream country from cooperative use of storage of waters within the Columbia River System are improvements in hy- droelectric power production and prevention of flood damage. Although other benefits would also be realized from such cooperative use, the outlook at this time is that their value would be so small in comparison to the power and flood control values that formulation of principles for their determination and appor- tionment would not be warranted. Similarly, the Columbia River Treaty itself is an international agreement that sets forth the obligations and the sharing of benefits from the operation for power and flood control. The fourth paragraph of the preamble of the document reflects the total focus on those benefits: Recognizing that the greatest benefit to each country can be secured by cooper- ative measures for hydroelectric power generation and flood control, which will malice possible other benefits as well.... it is apparent from this brief history of events that neither the benefits from other uses, such as navigation, nor the effects of the treaty on the fish population of the region form part of the international agreements that were reached. Studies might well have been carried out by each of the two parties involved concerning the fishery effects of projects or of the overall operating regime, but no remedial requirements are contained in the treaty documents, other than the maintenance of minimum flow levels at various projects. The basic obligations are as follows: For Canada: To provide 15.5 million acre feet of usable storage at the Mica, Arrow Lakes and Duncan Lake sites and to operate that storage in accordance with operating plans designed to achieve optimum power generation downstream in the United States. For the United States: To maintain and operate the hydroelectric facilities . . . in the United States of America in a manner that makes the most effective

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APPENDIX E 437 use of the improvement in streamflow resulting from operation of the Cana- dian storage for hydroelectric power generation in the United States of America power system and to discharge that obligation by reflecting in the determination of downstream power benefits to which Canada is entitled the assumption that the facilities . . . were maintained and operated in accordance therewith.

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APPENDIX F Reservoir-System Operation ~2, The motivation for construction and operation of a system of reservoirs is to smooth the natural variability of streamflows. If one considers the extreme case of an ephemeral stream (for instance, a small tributary of the lower Snake or middle Columbia River) in periods of no flow, it is clearly impossible to extract water for so-called beneficial uses, such as water supply. During periods of storm flow, withdrawals might be unnecessary or impossible; in fact, flood dam- ages can result from the high flows. In such situations, upstream reservoir stor- age might serve the dual purpose of flood protection and water supply. In the Columbia River Basin, only a few streams, which contribute mini- mally to the flow of the major tributaries, are ephemeral (these streams are generally in the middle and lower Snake River drainage and the middle Colum- bia). However, the natural flow of all streams is variable both from one year to another and from one season to another. Geographically, the within-year vari- ability tends to be highest for streams that drain high-elevation areas, where much of the winter precipitation is stored as snow and runs off in the spring and summer. Between-year variability of major Columbia River tributaries tends to be lowest for streams close to the Pacific Coast and generally declines from south to north. It also tends to be lower for high-elevation streams than low-elevation streams and decreases with increasing drainage area. Contrary to common per- ception, the interannual variability of the Columbia River, which is dominated by high-elevation runoff from the Cascade Mountains and the interior of British Columbia, is among the lowest of major world rivers. Also, expressed as runoff per unit area (or depth), the flow of the Columbia River is much higher than that 438

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APPENDIX F 439 of other major rivers of the western United States, such as the Colorado and Missouri rivers. That has important implications for reservoir operation, as dis- cussed below. Reservoirs can, and usually are, operated for a variety of purposes, including water supply (agricultural, municipal, and industrial), hydropower generation, cooling of thermal electric-power plants, navigation, recreation, and fishery pro- tection and enhancement. Reservoirs can be of two types: storage or run-of-the- river. The difference between the two depends on the size of active storage capacity (the water stored behind the dam that can be controlled, i.e., total storage minus dead storage) relative to the mean annual or seasonal flow of the river. If the total storage capacity is equivalent to only a small part of the mean annual flow, such as the flow of a few days, the reservoir is run-of-the-river. Otherwise, it is considered a storage reservoir. In the Columbia River Basin, there are 36 major dams, of which nine (Libby, Hungry Horse, Kerr, Albeni Falls, Grand Coulee, and Dworshak in the United States and Mica, Duncan, and Arrow in Canada) have reservoirs with over 1 MAF of usable storage. In the case of the U.S. reservoirs, most (including Grand Coulee, the largest) were originally au- thorized for agricultural water supply. In the Columbia River Basin, the federal Columbia Basin Reclamation Project provides irrigation water to about 500,000 acres, primarily of Columbia River water diverted from Roosevelt Lake (formed by Grand Coulee Dam), some of which returns to the river above McNary Dam. In the Snake River Basin, the Minidoka Project irrigates over 1 million acres in the upper Snake River plain. This water is stored by a system of six reservoirs, of which American Falls is the largest. Notwithstanding their primary purpose (water supply), operation of the U.S. mainstem Columbia River reservoirs is based mainly on hydropower demand. Although the amount of water diverted for agricultural water supply increased substantially during the 1950s and 1960s, it has since dropped somewhat and remains a relatively small fraction of the mean flow of the river at Grand Coulee Dam. In addition, the peak agricultural water demand is only slightly out of phase with the natural hydrograph of the river (which peaks in mid-June on the average). The basic objective of the hydropower operation policy is to maximize the amount of "firm" power that can be generated by the reservoir system. Firm power is the amount of power that could have been generated by the present power and storage system every year in a specified historical period. (Today, 1928-1958 is specified by the Columbia River Treaty.) The firm power is deter- mined by hydrologic conditions in a 42.5-month critical period-from September 1, 1928, to February 29, 1932. A set of rule curves specify the amount of water that would be released from each of the storage reservoirs during each month of the critical period. The rule curves are the basis for operation of the reservoir system; each year is assumed to be the first year of the critical period, and the storage reservoirs are not drawn below the rule curve corresponding to the first

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440 UPSTREAM: SALMON AND SOCIETYIN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST year of the critical period unless the reservoirs did not refill the previous spring, in which case the second-year rule curve is used, and so on. Within the confines of the rule curves, releases are made to maximize hydro- power generation at the time of the year when it is most highly valued and to meet flood-control requirements. In the Pacific Northwest, the seasonal peak electric power demand is in the winter for space-heating. From the standpoint of electric- power generation, then, the ideal system operation would result in a "shaped" hydrograph due to the reservoirs that peaked in midwinter. That is almost pre- cisely out of phase with the natural hydrograph, which peaks in early summer. Although the regulated Columbia River hydrograph peaks in the summer, rather than winter, as would be the "ideal" case, the regulated hydrograph is clearly much less peaked than the natural one and has the effect of greatly increasing winter flows (by storing spring and summer runoff for later release) relative to the natural hydrograph. In the Columbia system, flood-control objectives are more or less compatible with hydropower generation; for flood-control purposes, some of the storage capacity needs to be available in the spring to store peak runoffs. Winter releases for hydropower generation have the effect of providing for the required storage during this period. The above considerations dictate some of the characteristics of the reservoir- system operation. Hydropower generation is proportional to the product of rate of release (discharge) and the elevation difference between the tailwater and the reservoir level (head). Most major dams have several turbines, each of which has an efficiency that depends on head and discharge. Generally, turbine efficiency is highest at discharges near the maximum. There are therefore some operational considerations in ensuring that each unit is operating close to its maximum effi- ciency. However, because run-of-the-river reservoirs have no appreciable stor- age, they are essentially always operated at maximum head, except for minor fluctuations due to turbine-efficiency considerations, as noted above, and diurnal fluctuations in hydropower demand.