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Index in, A Active restoration, 210-211 Adams River, 155 Adaptive management, 11, 12, 299, 323, 336- 340, 353-356, 373-374, 375, 376 Agriculture and farming, 174, 187, 191 - 192 early settlers, 47-48 wetland losses, 71, 184- 185 see also Grazing; Irrigation Alaska Current, 41-42 Alaska fisheries, 255, 269-272, 290, 292 Aleutian Islands, 262 Aleutian Low Pressure Index, 41 Alevins, 30, 166, 175, 186 Aluminum industry, 134 American Indians, 18, 23, 46 importance of salmon in culture, 23, 49, 123 nontreaty tribes, 259-260 participation in salmon management, 131, 258-259, 333, 334, 376 see also Treaties and treaty rights Anadromy, 7-8. 29 Anglers, see Recreational fishing Anthropogenic changes, see Human activities Army Corps of Engineers, 129, 132, 134, 244, 349 Section 10 permits, 183 441 Artificial propagation, see Hatcheries and hatchery programs; Hatchery-raised fish Attraction flows, 232, 238 Avalanches and landslides, 60, 169, 170- 171, 176-177, 195, 197 on Fraser River, 78, 83, 169, 266, 267 B Ballard locks, 42, 89, 261 Barge transport, 240-241, 367 Beavers, 49, 172-173 Belloni decision, 49, 131, 259 Benthic invertebrates, 38, 184 Biodiversity, see Genetic diversity Birds, 234, 261 Boldt decision, 49, 131, 255, 259 Bonneville Dam, 63, 65, 226, 233, 238, 239, 240, 241 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), 134, 136, 138, 237, 244, 245-246, 259, 333 334, 349, 378 Breeding populations, see Local populations Buffers and management zones, 190- 191, 192, 193, 199, 220-221, 225, 364-365 Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 55, 56, 378 Bureau of Reclamation, 68, 134, 245

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442 Bypasses to dams, 65, 96, 129, 231-234, 238 240 C California coastal salmon stocks, 86-87, 103, 105, 106, 107 economic values, 121 wetland losses, 71, 185 California Current, 35, 41-42 California Undercurrent, 35 Canada Columbia River system dams, 435-437 fisheries, 265-267, 273 relations with Japan, 262-263 relations with U.S., 140, 258-259, 265-273, 291, 292 Canneries and packers, 49-50, 254-255 Carcasses, 29-30, 37-38, 113, 114, 123, 313 Carey Act, 68 Catch, 41, 257-258 Columbia River stocks, 90-91, 255 Fraser River stocks, 83-86, 257-258, 265 269, 273 hatchery-raised fish share of, 44-45 historical records, 78 Puget Sound, 257 quotas, 122, 262, 263 trawl fisheries, 260-261 Celilo Falls, 94 Channelization, 181-182? 196 Chehalis River, 36, 195, 198 Chief Joseph Dam, 64, 65, 231 Chinook salmon, 149-150, 151, 156-159, 230, 259-260, 268-269, 291 cannery operations, 49, 50 geographic distribution, 32, 86, 88, 91-94, 96-99, 102, 103- 104. 264 and hatchery programs, 53, 54, 92 life cycle, 30, 31 Chittenden (Ballard) locks, 42, 89, 261 Chum salmon, 44, 260 geographic distribution, 32, 86, 88-89, 99, 102, 106-107 and hatchery programs, 53, 54 life cycle, 30-31 Clackamas River, 50 Clean Water Act, 191, 197 Clearcutting, 187 INDEX Climate change, 174-175, 230 impacts on ocean environment, 5, 39, 40-44 streamflow effects, 40 Coho salmon, 182- 184, 184, 185, 197, 257, 258, 268-269, 291 geographic distribution, 32, 86, 88, 99, 104- 105 and hatchery programs, 53, 88, 102, 310 life cycle, 30-31 Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee (CBIAC), 132 Columbia River Basin, 33, 34 canneries, 49-50, 255 catch, 90-91, 255 dam removal, 252-253 dams, 60-61, 62, 63, 64, 93, 94, 129, 132, 133-139, 226-228, 231, 238, 239-240, 246, 367-368, 435-437, 439 fishery declines, 50, 51, 53, 75-76, 78, 90, 255 fishery management, 259-260, 346 hatchery programs, 50, 52-53, 54, 92, 99- 101, 102, 320-321 species interactions, 36 status of stocks, 90-103 wetland losses, 72, 184 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 334 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, 129, 146 Columbia River Compact, 259, 260 Columbia River Fish Management Plan, 259 Columbia River Treaty, 436 Commercial fisheries, 34, 257-258 Canada-U.S. relations, 140, 258-259, 265- 273, 291, 292 economic value, 120, 121- 122 elimination of, 287-291 existence values in, 121 history, 49-50, 254-256, 268 limited entry, 122, 284, 291-292 participation in management. 285, 334, 335 southeastern Alaska, 255, 269-272, 290, 292 terminal fisheries, 292-293, 370 see also Canneries and packers; Catch; Ocean commercial fishing Common-mode effects, 329, 340 Compensation issues, 141-142, 339 Competition among species 36, 194 Conservation easements, 223 Continental shelf, 35

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INDEX Contingent valuation, 121 Cooperative management, 140-141, 332-336, 339-340, 342, 343, 345-346, 362, 376, 377 American Indian participation, 131, 333 Fraser River, 140 Puget Sound' 259 Coos Bay, 347 Copepods' 41, 235 Cost-sharing programs, 223 Culture, see Social values Culverts, 197 Cutthroat trout, 184 geographic distribution, 33, 90, 102-103, 108-109 life cycle, 30 D Dalles Dam, 65, 94, 238, 240, 242 Dams, 9-11, 60-66, 127, 133, 196-197, 205, 226-231 barge and truck transport around, 10, 240 241, 253, 351-352, 367, 368 bypasses, 65, 96, 129, 231-234, 238-240 flow augmentation and management, 10, 137-138, 141, 243-246, 350-352, 367 368 habitat losses, 63-65, 66, 67, 231 and hatchery programs, 52-53, 231, 246 and predation, 232-233, 234, 240 removal of, 10, 88, 248-253 reservoir drawdown, 246-248 screens, 10, 197, 237, 238-239, 240 spill and spillways, 65-66, 229, 241-242, 253 see also Hydroelectric power; Splash dams Data collection and analysis, 82, 260 to determine surplus population, 283-285 discrepancies among status reports, 79-82 for hatcheries, 52, 53, 129, 302' 304, 320- 321 on smolt survival, 236-237 status assessment, 77-79 in watershed analyses, 215-216 see also Historical records Davidson Current, 35 Deaths, see Mortality of salmon Debris torrents, 170-171, 174, 195 443 Declines of stocks, 1, 2, 3, 128, 161 - 162, 254, 258-259, 359 in Columbia River Basin, 50, 51, 53, 75-76, 78, 90, 255 geographic distribution, 75-77, 167- 168, 199 and habitat loss, 165-166 Demes, see Local populations Density dependence, 39, 44-45, 276, 277 Descaling, 232 Desert Land Act, 68 Desired future conditions (DFCs), 220 Dewatering, 188 Diet of juvenile salmon, 37 in ocean environment, 40-41 Dikes and diking, 71, 72, 183-186 Direct economic values, 119- 122 Diseases and parasites, 311-312, 322, 372 Distinct population segments, 21-22, 80, 159 160 Ditches, 71, 187, 189 Diversion dams, 70, 197, 237 Domestication, 307-310 Drainage basins, see River basins and watersheds Draining and drainage systems, 71, 183- 185 Drift dams, 195 Drift nets, 263, 265 Dworshak Dam and Reservoir, 231, 243, 246 E Earth slumps, 169, 172-173 Economic development, 34, 129, 133, 360. See also Commercial fisheries; Fishing; Hydroelectric power; Logging and forestry; Urban development Economic value and valuation, 7, 80, 119-122, 138, 142, 335-336 and ESA listing decisions, 140-141 Ecosystems, see Geographic distribution; Habitat alteration and loss; Habitat management; Ocean environment; River basins and watersheds; Streams; Wetlands Edge effects, 329 Eggs, 30, 166, 175, 186, 313 Electric power, see Hydroelectric power El Nino conditions, 35, 121 Elwha Dam, 249-253

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444 Elwha River, 87-88, 158, 231 dam removal, 88, 249-253 Emergency fishing bans, 287 Endangered and extinct species, 1, 3, 75-77, 161-162, 199, 293 classification, 75, 80, 81-82, 159-160 management requirements, 136, 138, 140 141, 159-161, 244, 245, 246, 260 Endangered Species Act (ESA), 1, 136, 140, 244,246,260,293,324,328,330,337 biological opinion, 244, 245 criteria for listing, 43, 81, 160, 341 distinct population segments, 21-22, 80, 159-160 preemptive recovery plans, 15, 342-346, 376-378 Enhancement projects, 212, 218 Erosion, 169, 176-177, 195 human causes, 169, 170-174, 180-181 stream banks, 180-181 Escapements, 13, 148, 276-277, 368-369 minimum sustainable (MSE), 294-298, 363, 369 Estuaries, 35 dam impacts, 234-235, 237 losses of, 71-72, 184, 185, 235 Ethics, see Values Euro-American settlement, 23, 46-48, 127 Evolutionarily significant units (ESU), 159- 160 Evolutionary units (EU), 160 Existence values, 119, 121 Extinction, see Endangered and extinct species Exvessel prices and values, 121-122, 255, 256 F Farming, see Agriculture and farming Federal Columbia River Power System, 134 Federal court decisions, treaty rights, 49, 131, 259 Federal government hatchery programs' 50, 129' 245 management policies, 127,132,133-139,214 see also Army Corps of Engineers; Bonneville Power Administration; Bureau of Land Management; Bureau of Reclamation; Grazing Service; National Marine Fisheries Service; National Planning Board Federal lands, see Public lands Federal Power Commission, 132 INDEX Filling, 183- 185 Fish-Guidance Efficiency (FGE), 239, 240 Fish ladders and fishways, 10 65, 231 -232, 238-240 Fishery management and policies, 12-14, 38 39, 139-142, 258-260, 285-301, 314, 324-326 adaptive management, 11, 12, 299, 323, 336-340, 353-356, 373-374, 375, 376 bioregional scales for, 79, 326-332, 339, 342, 361-362, 374, 375 control strategies, 122, 128, 284-285, 291 293, 299-300 cooperative management, 140-141, 332 336, 339-340, 342, 343, 345-346, 362, 376, 377 data collection and analysis, 82, 260 monitoring and evaluation, 129-130, 298 299, 337, 373-374 objectives and planning, 15, 129, 136-137. 296-299 and ocean conditions, 39, 44-45, 361 status quo, 285-287 Fishing, 34 elimination of, 287-291 genetic impacts, 162 and salmon mortality, 12, 254, 260-261, 263, 265, 268, 270, 272 see also Catch; Commercial fisheries; Fishery management; Gillnetting; Ocean commercial fishing; Recreational fishing; Treaties and treaty rights; Trolling Flip-lips, 242 Flood control, habitat impacts, 185-186 Floodplains, 185- 186 Floods, 60, 166, 176-177 Flows and flow changes, 164, 166, 205, 439- 440 augmentation, 10, 137-138, 141, 243-246, 350-352, 367-368 dam impacts, 228-229 and irrigation return flows, 69 management and rights issues, 141, 349- 352, 365-366 Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT), 214, 221, 378 Forestry, see Logging and forestry Fraser River Basin, 31-32. 78, 140 Canada fisheries, 265-267 catch, 83-86, 257-258, 265-269, 273

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INDEX dams, 83 fishery management, 140, 259 Hell's Gate rockslides' 78, 83, 169, 266, 267 status of stocks, 82-86 Fremont expedition, 47 Freshwater environments, see River basins and watersheds; Spawning areas; Streams Fry, 30, 154, 186 Full value principle, 124- 125 Future benefits, 7, 125 G Gas supersaturation, 229, 241, 242 Gatewells, 239 General Mining Law, 127 Genetic adaptation, 8, 146, 147-148, 150. 152 155, 156, 160-161, 166 Genetic diversity, 4, 7-8, 146-148, 161-162 among individuals, 146, 148, 306-307 among local populations, 146, 148-150, 296, 305-306, 363 conservation policies and values, 140- 141, 159-161, 360, 363, 369 and disease susceptibility, 311-312 hatchery impacts, 11, 53-54, 162, 305-310. 319-320, 321, 322, 372, 373 homing reduction of, 29, 148-150 metapopulation dynamics, 8, 149, 155-159 and productivity, 146, 162- 163, 296 Geographic distribution, 30-35 declines over, 75-77, 167-168, 199 of individual species, 31-33, 76 over life cycle, 29-31 Gillnetting, 122, 257, 263 Glines Canyon Dam, 249-253 Grand Coulee Dam, 64, 65, 226, 231, 243 Grande Ronde River, 346 Gravel removal, 183 Grays Harbor, 198 Grazing, 55-56, 127, 180, 189 Grazing Service, 55 Groundwater, 189- 190, 206 H Habitat alteration and loss, 8-9, 26, 164-166, 199-203 frequency of disturbances, 168, 170-175, 201 -202 445 genetic impacts, 162 human causes of, 9, 46-74 passim, 165- 166, 168-175, 176-177, 180-199 passim, 364 from natural disturbances, 165, 166- 167, 170-175, 176-177, 178 productivity impacts, 166- 169. 201 recovery times and mechanisms, 168- 169, 176-177, 178 see also Flows and flow changes; Sedimentation; Thermal regime and temperature changes; Vegetation and cover; Water quality; Woody debris Habitat Conservation Plans'(HCPs), 345 Habitat management, 9, 204-225, 300 artificial enhancement, 207, 209, 212, 366 burden of proving damage, 224-225 on private land, 202-203, 221-224 protection of intact areas, 206, 207, 208, 364-366 rehabilitation, 27, 207, 209, 211, 315-316, 364, 366 restoration, 26, 204-211 passim substitution of new sites, 207, 209, 213 watershed analysis, 213-217 Hanford Reach, 97-98 Harbor seals, 40 Hatcheries and hatchery programs, 50, 52-55, 129, 275-276 catch-augmentation, 274, 319, 321, 372 ecological problems, 313-316, 319, 371 as mitigation strategy, 11-12, 52-53, 302, 315, 320 monitoring and data collection, 52, 53, 129, 302, 304, 320-321 and ocean conditions, 44-45 as part of rehabilitation strategy, 315-318, 321-322, 371-372 supplementation strategy, 137, 321 temporary, 318-319 Hatchery-raised fish, 3, 77, 303 behavioral traits, 310 diseases and parasites, 311-312, 322, 372 genetic risks, 162, 305-310 marking of, 322-323, 372 mixed-population problems, 95, 281-283, 305 physiology, 312-313 as share of catch, 44-45 smoltification, 312-313 straying, 305-306, 322 Hell's Canyon dams, 64, 231

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446 Historical records of catch, 78 of human impacts, 73, 216 on smolt survival, 236 on status of: stocks, 77-78 Homing, 8, 20, 29, 235 and genetic diversity, 29, 148-150 Human activities, 46-74 causing erosion, 169, 170- 174, 180- 181 flow alterations, 181-182, 186-189 frequency of occurrence, 168, 170-175, 178, 201-202 genetic diversity impacts, 161 - 162 groundwater impacts, 189 historical records, 73, 216 and natural disturbances, 165, 167, 201- 202, 205, 366 offsetting technologies, 129- 130 productivity impacts' 165, 168- 169, 201 recovery from, 168-169, 176-177, 178 species composition impacts, 165 wetland losses, 70-72, 184- 185 see also Agriculture and farming; Dams; Dikes and diking; Draining; Filling; Fishery management and policies; Fishing; Flood control; Grazing; Habitat management; Hatcheries and hatchery programs; Irri cation; Logging and forestry; Mining; Roads Humboldt; Bay, California, 71, 72 Hydroelectric power, 60-62, 133-134, 226, 436- 437, 439-440 and fishery restoration, 134-136, 238, 243- 246, 259, 331, 375 fish losses, 53, 97, 136, 231, 366 Hydrograph, see Flows and flow changes I Idaho fishery management, 259-260 watershed analysis projects, 214 wetland losses, 71 Imnaha River Basin, 306 Inbreeding depression, 307 Indians, see American Indians Indirect values, 120-121, 122-124 Individual preferences, 116- 117 Industrial economies, 123-124 Instream mining, 182- 183 INDEX Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (IHOT), 320 Interdisciplinary approaches, 7, 142-143, 362, 375 International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean, 262 International Joint Commission (IJC), 435, 436 International North Pacific Fisheries Commission, 262 International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission (Sockeye Commission), 140, 259 Introduced fish species, 36, 194, 202, 234 Irrigation, 45, 66-70, 197, 229 J Japan fisheries, 262-265 John Day Dam and Reservoir, 65, 238, 239, 240, 242 Joint planning groups, 222, 223 Juveniles, 37, 175, 186, 188, 197 migration, 30, 70, 137, 153, 154, 197, 232, 234, 235-236, 239, 243 in stock-recruitment theory, 278 K Key watersheds, 199, 200, 327 King County, Washington, 203 Klamath River, 33, 104, 149- 150 dams, 231 irrigation projects, 68 Kokanee, 30' 155 Korea, 263 L Lake Aldwell, 251 Lake Mills, 250-251 Lake Roosevelt, 243 Lake trout, 317 Lake Washington, steelhead runs, 42-43 Landings, see Catch; Commercial fisheries Landslides, see Avalanches and landslides Larvae, see Alevins Lewis and Clark expedition, 46-47 License restrictions, 122, 284, 291-292

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INDEX Life cycle and life history, 5-6, 30-31, 153-154, 155, 167 and natural disturbances, 166 see also Alevins; Eggs; Juveniles; Smolts; Spawners Limited entry, 122, 284, 291-292 Limiting-factor analyses, 219-220 Live-catch fleshing, 13, 292, 370 Local populations, 79, 163, 363 adaptation to local conditions, 150, 152- 155 as distinct from "stocks", 78-79, 148 genetic differentiation between, 146, 148- 150, 296, 305-306, 363 metapopulation dynamics, 8, 79, 149, 155- 159, 363-364, 3?0 stock-recruitment functions, 276-285, 286- 287 see also Status of stocks Logging and forestry, 34, 56-60, 127, 169, 180- 181, 187, 191, 221 and watershed analysis projects, 213-215 see also Splash dams Lower Granite Dam, 238, 240, 241, 246 Lower Snake River Compensation Plan, 129 M Mackerel, 40 Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 139, 255, 258, 262 Marine mammals, 42-43, 261 Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA), 43, 140, 261 Marine residence, see Ocean environment Maturation, 30-31 Maximum sustained yield (MSY), 277, 281, 283-286, 292, 295 McKenzie River, 346 McNary Dam and Reservoir, 65, 238, 239, 241 Metapopulations, 8, 79, 149, 155-159^ 160, 161, 163, 363-364, 370 Migration, 153-154, 367 barriers, 9, 169, 196- 197, 226, 366 extinction of runs, 196-197 transport around, 10, 240-241, 253, 351- 352, 367, 368 woody debris seen as, 195 and climate change, 40 through coastal waters, 30, 35 individual species' patterns, 31-33 447 of juveniles, 30, 154 blockages and dangers, 70, 197, 232, 239 timing and delays, 137, 153, 234, 235- 236, 243 mortality during, 235-237 of smolts, 30, 240 and dams, 10, 65-66, 226, 232-233, 240, 367, 368 predation, 36, 40, 232-233, 240 timing, 153, 235-237 of spawners, 30-31 straying, 8, 149-150, 155, 156, 166, 235 timing and delays, 40, 65, 152- 153, 188- 189, 232 Minimum sustainable escapement (MSE), 294- 298, 363, 369 Mining, 182- 183, 199 water quality impacts, 198-199 Mitchell Act of 1938, 52-53 Mitigation, see Substitution and mitigation strategies Mixed populations, 95, 281-283, 305 Monitoring and evaluation, 129-130, 298-299, 337, 373-374 of hatchery programs, 52, 53, 129, 302, 304, 320-321 public involvement in, 222, 223-224 of smolt survival, 236-237 use of watershed analyses in, 214, 215, 216 Mortality of salmon, 12, 16, 276, 293, 379 and climate change, 41 dam-related, 65-66, 68, 231-237 hatchery-raised fish, 310, 312 related to fishing, 12, 254, 260-261, 263, 265, 268, 270, 272 after spawning, 29-30 see also Predation N National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), 159-160, 234, 258, 260, 324-325, 341, 343, 344, 349, 376-377 National Planning Board (NPB), 132 Natural disturbances, 165, 166- 167, 176- 177 frequency of occurrence, 170-175, 178, 201 human activities hindering, 165, 167, 201 - 202, 205, 366 productivity impacts, 166- 167, 178 recovery from 176-177, 178

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448 see also Avalanches and landslides; Climate change; Debris torrents; Earth slumps; Erosion; Floods; Storms; Volcanoes; Wildfires; Windthrows Natural economies, 124 Natural restoration, 210 Navigational improvements, 195-196 Nisqually River, 347 Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, 131, 259 Northwest Power Act' 134-135, 136, 238, 259, 333-334 Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC), 135, 136, 137n, 138, 139, 243, 244, 259, 333-334, 343, 376-378 Nutrient transport via groundwater, 189- 190 via natural disturbances, 166 via spawners' carcasses, 29-30, 37-38, 113, 114, 123, 313 o Ocean commercial fishing, 78, 255, 258 associated mortality, 260-261 bans and limits, 290-291, 292 Canada-U.S. relations, 268-273 diversification of activities, 122 by Japan, 262-265 Ocean environment, 23, 29, 35, 39-45 density-dependent growth and survival, 39, 44-45 duration of residence, 30-31 interdecadal climate changes, 5, 39, 40-44 productivity impacts, 3, 5, 122, 361 Old-growth forest, 56-60, 195 Option values, 120-121, 123 Oregon coastal salmon stocks, 86-87, 103-109 passe, 184 economic values, 120, 121 fishery management, 128, 259 gravel removal operations, 183 hatchery programs, 50, 51, 306 tax incentive program, 223 watershed analysis projects, 214 wetland losses, 71 Oregon and Washington Fish Propagating Company, 50 INDEX p Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC), 139-140, 258, 260, 285, 287, 331, 333, 335, 344 Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Planning Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 134-135, 136, 238, 259, 333-334 Pacific Northwest Index, 40 Pacific Northwest Regional Planning Commission, 132 Pacific Northwest River Basin Commission (PNRBC), 132, 328 Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, 334 Pacific Ocean, see Ocean environment Pacific Salmon Commission, 140, 258-259, 290, 344, 370 Pacific Salmon Treaty, 86, 139, 140, 265, 272 273, 274, 370 Packers, see Canneries and packers Parasites, 311-312 Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags, 237, 323, 367, 372 Phenotypic plasticity, 161 Pink salmon, 44 Canada fisheries, 267, 268, 273 geographic distribution, 31, 83, 86, 89, 107 and hatchery programs, 53 life cycle, 30-31 Pinnipeds, 40 Plants, see Vegetation and cover Poaching, 232 Political pluralism, 116, 130, 135n Pollution, 176-177, 197-199, 366 Pools, 175-176, 188, 196 Population growth (human), 47, 48, 73-74, 360 Populations of salmon, see Declines of stocks; Local populations; Status of stocks Predation, 36, 40, 198 at dams, 232-233, 234, 240 by introduced species, 194, 234 by marine mammals, 42-43, 261 Preemptive recovery plans, 15, 342-346, 376 378 Priest Rapids Dam, 238, 240, 246 Private property, see Property rights Productivity, 24, 276, 282-283 enhancement projects, 218 and genetic diversity, 146, 162- 163, 296

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INDEX impacts of human activities, 165, 168- 169, 201 impacts of natural disturbances, 166-167, 178 impacts of ocean environment, 3,5, 122, 361 Property rights, 125, 126, 142 and conservation incentives, 222, 223 and habitat protection, 221-223 and treaty rights, 48 Public lands, 127, 191, 199 :,razing, 55-56, 127 timber harvest, 56 Public opinion surveys, 116-117, 118, 119, 120 Public trust doctrine, 131, 141 Public values, 7, 116-117, 124-125 Puget Sound Basin, 34, 255, 257 dams, 231 fish species, 36 fishery management, 259 hatchery programs, 88, 89 status of stocks, 78, 86-90 wetland losses, 71 -72, 184, 185 R Ranges (of fish), see Geographic distribution Ranges (grassland), see Grazing Reclamation Act, 68 Recreational areas, 181 Recreational fishing, 121, 122, 194, 255, 257, 259-260, 290 economic value, 120, 122 Redds, see Spawning areas and reads Redfish Lake, endangered sockeye population, 53 Redside shiners, 194 Refugia, 199 Rehabilitation strategies, 3, 27, 207, 209, 211, 315-316, 364, 366 hatcheries' role in, 315-318, 321 -322, 371 - 372 Reproductive units, see Local populations Reservoirs, 9-10, 226, 227, 234, 242, 438-440 drawdowns, 246-248 and introduced fish species, 36 temperature changes, 229-230 Resource planning, 131 - 139 Restoration programs, 26, 204-211 passim costs to hydropower customers, 134- 136, 238, 243-246, 259, 331, 375 involving property owners, 224 449 Riparian Tax Incentive Program (RIPTIP), 223 River basins and watersheds, 34-39, 327-329 habitat assessment, 213-217 juvenile adaptability to conditions, 37 species interactions, 35-36 see also Columbia River Basin; Fraser River Basin; Puget Sound Basin; Sacramento River Basin Rivers, 35, 327. See also Estuaries; Streams; and specific rivers and waterways Roads, 60, 169, 174, 187, 189 Rockfish, 122 Rock Island Dam, 238, 240 Rocky Reach Dam, 238, 240 Rogue River, 182- 183, 231, 347 S Sacramento River Basin, 34, 104, 105, 107, 195 canneries, 49, 183, 254-255 dams, 231 fish species, 36 hatchery programs, 105 Salmon River, 34, 72, 231 Salmon species' see Chinook salmon; Chum salmon; Coho salmon; Kokanee; Pink salmon; Sockeye salmon Salt marshes, 71, 72, 184, 235 Salvage logging, 57-58, 60 San Joaquin Delta, 104 Scientific advisory board, proposal, 15, 353 357, 373 Screens, 10, 197, 237, 238-239, 240 Sea lions, 40, 42, 43, 89, 261 Seals, 261 Sedimentation, 168, 169-180, 198-199, 365 and dams, 205, 248, 250-251 flushing of, 187 and spawning areas, 175, 179- 180 Semelparity, 29-30 Sewage and wastewater discharges, 197- 198 Sexual selection, 308-309 Shasta Dam, 231 Shoshone-Bannocktribe, 131, 140 Size selection, 309, 310 Skagit River, 37, 185 Smith River, 106

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450 Smolts, 30 and dams, 10, 65-66, 226, 232-233, 240, 367, 368 migration, 30, 153, 235-237, 240 and pollution, 198 predation of, 36, 40, 232-233, 240 Snags, see Woody debris Snake River, 33, 92, 94, 95-96 dam removal, 252-253 dams, 61, 62, 64, 94, 95, 129, 137-138, 226, 228, 238, 239, 246-248 hatchery programs, 53, 95, 245 irrigation projects, 229 Snake River Salmon Recovery Team, 221, 248, 253 Snow accumulation and melting, 187, 205, 350 Social values, 7, 122- 123, 124- 125, 217 Sockeye salmon, 44, 152-154, 197 Canada fisheries, 265-267, 273 geographic distribution, 31-32, 78, 83, 86, 89, 95-96 and hatchery programs, 53 life cycle, 30, 31 Soviet Union, 262 Spatial scales, for fishery management, 79, 326-332, 339, 342, 361-362, 374, 375 Spatial scales and analysis, 28, 45, 215, 219 Spawners, 30, 31, 38, 44 in stock-recruitment theory, 276-281 see also Escapements; Homing Spawning areas and reads, 29, 30, 34, 35, 188. 313 losses to dams, 63-65, 230 and sedimentation, 175, 179- 180 Species interactions, 35-36, 194 Spill, 229, 241-242, 253 Spillways, 65-66, 242 Spiny dogfish, 40 Spiritual values? 123 Splash dams, 58, 59, 195, 231 Sport fishing, see Recreational fishing Squawfish, 36, 198, 232, 234, 240 Squid, 263* 265 State governments hatchery programs, 50, 129 resource management, 343-344 Status of stocks, 2-3, 75-77 coastal rivers, 2-3, 76, 103-114 Columbia River Basin, 90-103 INDEX Fraser River Basin, 82-86 Puget Sound Basin, 78, 86-90 risk assessments, 75, 77, 79-82 use of historical records, 77-78 Steelhead trout, 194, 260 geographic distribution, 33, 83, 89, 94, 95, 102, 107-108, 264-265 and hatchery programs, 53, 89, 99- 101 life cycle, 30, 31 Stem elects, 329-332, 340, 344 Step changes, 43-44 Stock-recruitment functions, 276-285, 286-287 Stocks, as management units, 12- 13, 78-79, 148. see also Local populations? Status of stocks Storms, 166, 170-171, 180, 205 Strait of Georgia, hatchery programs, 54 Straying, 8, 149-150, 155, 156, 166, 235 Streams, 34-35, 438 armored banks, 181 - 182 bank erosion, 180- 181 buffers and management zones, 190- 191, 192, 193, 199, 220-221, 364-365 channelization? 181 - 182, 196 management approaches, 219-221 spawners' impacts on, 37-38 Subpopulations, see Local populations Substitution and mitigation strategies, 26-27 artificial habitat enhancement, 207, 209, 212, 366 hatcheries as part of, 11-12, 52-53, 302, 315, 320 new habitat sites, 207, 209, 213 payment issues, 141-142 Supplementation strategy, 137, 321 Supreme Court cases, treaty decisions, 48-49 Survival, see Mortality of salmon Sustainable fishery management, 274, 275 Swamps, 72 Symbolic values, 80, 122- 123 System planning, 136- 137 Systems Operation Review, 246, 247 T Taiwan, 263 Tax incentives, 223 Taylor Grazing Act (TGA), 55 Technological optimism, 127, 129-130

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INDEX Temporary hatcheries, 318-319 Terminal fisheries, 13, 258, 282, 292-293, 370 Thermal regime and temperature changes, 191- 194, 202 dam and reservoir impacts, 229-230 <,roundwater, 189 in ocean environments, 35, 40, 42-44 of spawning sites, 152, 165 and species interactions, 194 see also Climate change Thornton Creek, 184 Tidal marshes, 71, 72, 184, 235 Tillamook Bay, 106- 107 Timber harvest, see Logging and forestry Time and temporal scales of genetic adaptation, 160- 161 of human impacts, 73, 74 ocean and climate change, 5, 39, 40-44 and policy, 5, 28, 45, 125, 136, 375 and resource values, 125 in watershed analyses, 215-216 Tourism, 34 Toutle River, 102 Transport around dams? 10, 240-241, 253, 351 - 352, 367, 368 Trapping, 47, 49 Trawling, 255, 260-261 Treaties and treaty rights 131, 255, 257. 274 319 court decisions, 49, 131, 259 and fishing bans, 290 negotiation, 47-48 and private property rights, 48 Treaty of Medicine Creek, 48, 255 Trees, 190 Tributaries, see Streams Trolling, 122, 255, 257, 258 Canada-U.S. competition, 268-269 Trout species, see Cutthroat trout; Steelhead trout Truck transport around dams, 240-241 Turbidity, see Sedimentation Turbines, 231, 232, 236, 239, 240, 242, 440 U United States v. Oregon (Belloni decision), 49, 131, 259 United States v. Washington (Boldt decision), 49, 131, 255, 259 Upwelling, 188, 189 451 Urban development, 34, 71 -72, 132, 181, 184 U.S. agencies, see Federal government; and . ~ . specific agencies V Values, 6-7, 25, 115-116, 142-143 biodiversity and endangered species, 123, 140-141 institutional, 126-139, 217, 324-326, 362, 374-376 of management organizations, 139-142 public and private choices, 116- 117, 118, 124-125 salmon as natural capital, 6-7, 117- 125 see also Economic value and valuation; Existence values; Indirect values; Option values; Social values; Symbolic values Vegetation and cover, 164, 206, 216 disturbances of, 165, 180- 181, 184, 190- 191, 194, 205-206 see also Buffers and management zones; Woody debris Vertical barrier screen (VBS), 239 Volcanoes, 102, 174- 175 W Walla Walla River, 68, 99 Wanapum Dam, 238, 240 Washington coastal salmon stocks, 86-87, 103, 104, 107, 109-110 fishery management, 128, 131, 259 watershed analysis projects, 214 wetland losses, 71, 185 Water budget, 137- 138. 243-247 Water quality, 164 pollution sources and impacts. 176-177? 197-199. 366 Water resources development and use, see Dams; Hydroelectric power; Irrigation; Reservoirs Water rights, 127 Watershed analysis (procedure), 213-217 Watersheds, see River basins and watersheds Waterways 2000 program, 203 Water withdrawals. 186, 187- 188, 197 Wells Dam, 238, 239-240

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452 Wetlands, 70-72, 184- 185 Wildfires, 166, 172-173 Willamette River, 34, 195, 197- 198, 322 Willapa Bay, 347 hatchery programs, 110- 111 status of stocks, 110- 114 Windthrows, 166, 172-173 Woody debris, 166, 187, 194- 196, 206 salvage logging of, 57-58, 60 INDEX y Yakima River, 34, 95, 346 hatchery projects, 318-319 irrigation projects, 95 z Zooplankton, 41