controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving male moths, this includes the chemistry of pheromone transportation in antennal olfactory hairs (binding proteins and sensillar esterases) and the chemistry of signal transduction, which includes specific dendritic pheromone receptors and a rapid inositol triphosphate second messenger signal. A fluctuating plume structure is an integral part of the signal since the antennal receptors need intermittent stimulation to sustain upwind flight. Input from the hundreds of thousands of sensory cells is processed and integrated with other modalities in the central nervous system, but many unknown factors modulate the information before it is fed to motor neurons for behavioral responses. An unknown brain control center for pheromone perception is discussed relative to data from behavioral-threshold studies showing modulation by biogenic amines, such as octopamine and serotonin, from genetic studies on pheromone discrimination, and from behavioral and electrophysiological studies with behavioral antagonists.

I thank Drs. Russell Jurenka and Charles Linn for their assistance in preparing this manuscript and for their role, along with many other excellent scientists in my laboratory, for conducting much of the research discussed in this paper. Recent research has been sponsored by National Science Foundation Grants IBN-9108743 and IBN-9017793, National Institutes of Health Grant AI-32498, and a grant from the Cornell Center for Advanced Technology in Biotechnology.

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