into understanding patterns across taxa. In particular, generalizations derived from understanding such mechanisms in natural systems have immediate applications in altering patterns of human use of natural and synthetic chemicals for pest control.

I thank Thomas Eisner and Jerrold Meinwald for asking me to think in broad terms about chemical defenses and for serving as an inspiration to me for the past two decades, and I thank Arthur Zangerl and James Nitao for their comments, insights, and unique good cheer. This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant DEB 91-19612.

REFERENCES

1. Czapek, F. (1921) Biochemie der Pflanzen (Fischer, Jena, Germany), 1 Aufl. 3 Bd.

2. Lehninger, A. L. (1970) Biochemistry (Worth, New York).

3. Blum, M. (1981) Chemical Defenses of Arthropods (Academic, New York).

4. Berenbaum, M. R. & Seigler, D. (1993) in Insect Chemical Ecology, eds. Roitberg, B. & Isman, M. (Chapman & Hall, New York), pp. 89-121.

5. Murray, R. D., Mendez, H.J. & Brown, S. A. (1982) The Natural Coumarins: Occurrence, Chemistry and Biochemistry (Wiley, Chichester, U.K.).

6. Simsová, J. & Blazek, Z. (1967) Çesk. Farm. 16, 22-28.

7. Zangerl, A. R. & Berenbaum, M. R. (1990) Ecology 71, 1933-1940.

8. Berenbaum, M. R. (1981) Oecologia 49, 236-244.

9. Nitao, J. K. & Zangerl, A. R. (1987) Ecology 68, 521-529.

10. Berenbaum, M. R. & Zangerl, A. R. (1986) Phytochemistry 25, 659-661.

11. Zangerl, A. R., Nitao, J. K. & Berenbaum, M. R. (1991) Evol. Ecol. 5, 136-145.

12. Zangerl, A. R., Berenbaum, M. R. & Levine, E. (1989) J. Hered. 80, 404-407.

13. Luckner, M. (1980) J. Nat. Prod. 43, 21-40.

14. Rodriguez, E. & Levin, D. (1976) Rec. Adv. Phytochem. 10, 214-271.

15. Nordlund, D. (1981) in Semiochemicals: Their Role in Pest Control, eds. Nordlund, D., Jones, R. & Lewis, W. (Wiley, New York), pp. 13-30.

16. Stowe, M. K. (1988) in Chemical Mediation of Coevolution, ed. Spencer, K. (Academic, New York), pp. 513-580.

17. Rice, E. (1977) Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5, 201-206.

18. Nielson, W. A., ed. (1936) Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language (Merriam, Springfield, MA).

19. Seigler, D. S. & Price, P. (1976) Am. Nat. 110, 101-105.

20. Seigler, D. S. (1977) Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5, 195-199.

21. Berenbaum, M. R. (1987) ACS Symp. Ser. 339, 206-216.

22. Bernays, E. A. & Graham, M. (1988) Ecology 69, 886-892.

23. Jones, C. G. & Firn, R. D. (1991) Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 333, 273-280.

24. Jermy, T. (1993) Entomol. Exp. Appl. 66, 3-12.

25. Dumbacher, J. P., Beehler, B. M., Spande, T. F., Barraffo, H. M. & Daly, J. W. (1992) Science 258, 799-801.

26. Pawlik, J. R. (1993) Chem. Rev. 93, 1911-1922.

27. Andersen, K. K. & Bernstein, D. T. (1975) J. Chem. Ecol. 1, 493-499.

28. Bakus, G. J., Targett, N. M. & Schulte, B. (1986) J. Chem. Ecol. 12, 951-987.

29. Lindquist, N., Hay, M. E. & Fenical, W. (1992) Ecol. Monogr. 62, 547-568.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement