BOX 1

Characteristics of Kalundborg Symbiosis

  • The participating industries are different but benefit mutually from utilizing each other's waste.

  • The individual industry agreements are based on commercially sound principles.

  • Environmental improvements, resource conservation, and economic incentives go hand in hand.

  • The development of the symbiosis is voluntary but occurs in close cooperation with government authorities.

  • Short physical distances between participating plants are advantageous.

  • Short "mental" distances are equally important. Visions of possible beneficial links are critical.

  • Mutual management understanding and cooperative commitment is essential.

  • Effective communication between participants is required.

  • Significant side benefits are achieved in other areas, such as safety and training.

activity may lead to fewer environmental impacts. The key lies in carefully selecting processes and combining industries that together may effectively utilize waste materials as production inputs and thus reduce environmental impacts. Kalundborg is an ideal situation that will be difficult to duplicate. Nevertheless, Kalundborg provides a vision of what can be achieved locally, regionally, and globally.


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