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272 Pacific Northwest Forests Akcakaya, H.R., M.A. Burgman, and l~.R. Ginzburg. 1999. Applied Population Ecology: Principles and Computer Exercises Using RAMAS EcoLab 2.0, 2nd Ed. Sunderiand, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Amaranthus, M. P. , l. M. Trappe, L. Bednar, and D. Arthur. 1 994 . Hypogeous fungal production in mature Douglas-fir forest fragments and surrounding plantations and its relation to coarse woody debris and animal mycophagy. Can. l. For. Res. 24~: 2157-2165. Andersen, M.C. and D. Mahato. 1995. Demographic models and reserve designs for the California spotted owl. Ecological Applica- tions 5~3~:639-647. Anderson, H.M. and l.T. Olson. 1991. Federal Forests and the Economic Base of the Pacific Northwest. Washington, D.C.: The Wilderness Society. Anderson, To., C.E. CarIson and R.H. Wakimoto. 1987. Forest fire frequency and western spruce budworm outbreaks in western Montana. For. Ecol. Manage. 22~3-4~:251-260. Anderson, R.~. 1990. Effects of global climate change on tree survival and forest pest in the South. Pp. 176-~80 in: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters National Convention. Paper presented at the meeting on, "Are Forests the Answer", held July 29-Aug 1, 1990, Washington DC. Bethesda, MD: The Society. Andrews, H.~. and R.W. Cowlin. 1940. Forest Resources of the Douglas- fir Region. Misc. Publ. 389. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 169pp. Anthony, R.G., M.G. Garrett and C.A. Schuler. 1993. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River Estuary. l. WildI. Manage. 57~:10-19. Arno, S.F. 1980. Forest fire history in the northern Rockies. l. For. 78~:460-465. Arno, S.F., E.D. Reinhardt, and l.H. Scott. 1993. Forest Structure and Landscape Patterns in the Subalpine Pine Type: A Procedure for Quantifying Past and Present Conditions. Gen. Tech. Report INT 294. Og~en, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Tntermountain Research Station. Arnolds, E. 1991. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Europe. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 35~2/3~:209-244. Barett, R. 1987. Tourism employment in Montana: quality versus quantity? Western Wildiands 13~2~:~-21.

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220 Pacific Northwest Forests Flather, C.H. and T.W. Hoekstra. 1989. An Analysis of the Wildlife and Fish Situation in the United States: 1989-2040. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM- 178. Fort Collins, CO: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station. 147 pp. Flather, C.H., I. Brady and M.S. Knowles. 1999. Wildlife resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 RPA assessment. Gen. Rep. RMR~GTR-33. Fort CoHins, CO: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 79pp. Fogel, R. and l.M. Trappe. 1978. Fungus consumption (mycophagy) by small animals. Northwest Sci. 52~:~-31. Foley, P. 1997. Extinction models for local populations. Pp.215-246 in: Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution. I.A. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Force, l.E., G.E. Machlis and T~.Zhang. 1994. Understanding Social Change in Resource-Dependent communities. Paper presented at Forestry and the Environment: Econom~c Perspectives Conference. October 12-15, 1994. Banif, Alberta, Canada. Force, J.E., G.E. Machlis, L. Zhang, and A. Kearney. 1993. The relation- ship between timber production, local historical events, and commu- nity social change: A quantitative case study. For. Sci. 3944~:722-742. Forestry Canada. 1993. The State of Canada's Forests, 1992: Third Report to Parliament Forestry Canada, Ottawa. 112 pp. Forsman, E.D., S. Destefano, M.G. Raphael and R.~. Gutierrez, eds. 1996. Demography of Northern Spotted OwI. Studies in Avian Biology 17. Los Angeles: Cooper Ornitholog~cal Society. 122pp. Frank, S.A. 1997. Spatial processes in host-parasite genetics. Pp.325-352 in: Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution, I.A. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, eds. San Diego: Academ~c Press. Frank, D.A. and S.~. McNaughton. 1991. Stability increases with diversity in plant communities: empirical evidence from the 1988 YeBowstone drought. Oikos. 62~3~:360-362. Franklin, l.F. 1979. Vegetation of the Douglas-fir reg~on. Pp. 93-~12 in: Forest Soils of the Douglas-Fir Reg~on, P.E. Heilman, H.W. Anderson, and D.M. Baumgartner, eds. Pulman, WA: Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service. Franklin, l.F. 1991. Old growth and the new forestry. Pp.~-11 in: Proceedings of the New Perspectives Workshop, 1990 July 17-20, Petersburg, Alaska, M.~. Copenhagen, ed. Juneau, AK: USDA, Forest Service, Alaska Region.

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References 227 Franklin, 1.F. 1993b. The fundamentals of ecosystem management with applications in the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 127-144 in: Defining Sustainable Forestry. G.H. Aplet, N. Johnson, l.T. Olson and V.A. Sample, eds. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Franklin,l.F. 1993a. Preserving biodiversity:species,ecosystems,and landscapes? Ecological Applications. 3~2~:202-205. Franklin, l.F., and C.T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PAWN. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 pp. Franklin, J.F. and M.A. Hemstrom. 1981. Aspects of succession in the coniferous forest of the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 212-229 in: Forest Succession: Concepts and Application, D.C. West, H.H. Shugart and D.B. Botkin, eds. New York: Springer-VerIag. Franklin, l.F. and T.A. Spies. 1984. Characteristics of Old-Growth Douglas-fir Forests. Pp. 328-334 in: New Forests For a Changing World. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters. Franklin, J.F. and T.A. Spies. 1991a. Ecological definitions of old- growth Douglas-fir forests. Pp. 61-71 in: Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-Fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Franklin, J.F. and T.A. Spies. 199Ib. Composition, function, and structure of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Pp. 71-80 in: Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-Fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific North- west Forest and Range Experiment Station. Franklin, l.F., D.R. Berg, D.A. Thornburgh and l.C. Tappeiner. 1997. Alternative silvilcultural approaches to timber harvesting: variable retention harvest systems. Pp. 111-139 in: Creating a Forestry for the 21th Century, K.A. Kohm andJ.F. Franklin. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Franklin, l.F., K. Cromack, Jr., W. Denison, A. McKee, C. Maser, l. SedeD, F. Swanson and G. Juday. 1981. Ecological Characteristics of Old- Growth Douglas-fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. POW-. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experi- mentStation. 4Spp. Franklin, l.F., D.A. Perry, T.D. Schowalter, M.E. Harmon, A. McKee and T. Spies. 1989. Importance of ecological diversity in maintaining

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