Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 211
REFERENCES Aber, l., N. Christensen, T. Fernandez, l. Franklin, L. Hidinger, M. Hunter, l. MacMahon, D. MIadenoff, l. Pastor, D. Perry, R. Slangen and H. van Miegroet. 2000. Applying Ecological Principles to Management of the U.S. National Forests. Issues in Ecology 6:~-20. Adams, D.M. and R.W. Haynes. 1980. The 1980 Softwood Timber Assessment Market Model: Structure, projections, and policy simulations. Forest Science Monograph No. 22, Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 64 pp. Adams, D.M., K.C. Jackson, and R.W. Haynes. 1988. Production, Consumption, and Prices of Softwood Products in North America: Regional Time Series Data, 1950 to 1985 (later extended to 1993~. Resource Bull. PNW-RB-151. Portland OR.: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 49 pp. Adams, D.M., A. Alig, B.A. McCarl, J.M. Caliaway, and S. Winnett. 1996. An analysis of the impacts of public timber harvest policies on private forest management in the U.S. Forest Science 42~3~:343-358. Agee, J.K. 1981. Fire effects on Pacific Northwest forests: flora, fuels, and fauna. Northwest Fire Council Proc. 54-66. Agee, l.K. 1991. Fire history along an elevational gradient in the SiskiyouMountains,Oregon. Northwest Science. 65~4~:~-199. Agee, l.K. 1993. Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Washing- ton, D.C.: Island Press. Aizen, M.A. and P. Feinsinger. 1994. Habitat fragmentation, native insect pollinators, and feral honey bees in Argentine "Chaco Serrano." Ecological Applications 4~2~:378-392. 277
OCR for page 212
272 Pacific Northwest Forests Akcakaya, H.R., M.A. Burgman, and l~.R. Ginzburg. 1999. Applied Population Ecology: Principles and Computer Exercises Using RAMAS EcoLab 2.0, 2nd Ed. Sunderiand, Mass.: Sinauer Associates. Amaranthus, M. P. , l. M. Trappe, L. Bednar, and D. Arthur. 1 994 . Hypogeous fungal production in mature Douglas-fir forest fragments and surrounding plantations and its relation to coarse woody debris and animal mycophagy. Can. l. For. Res. 24~: 2157-2165. Andersen, M.C. and D. Mahato. 1995. Demographic models and reserve designs for the California spotted owl. Ecological Applica- tions 5~3~:639-647. Anderson, H.M. and l.T. Olson. 1991. Federal Forests and the Economic Base of the Pacific Northwest. Washington, D.C.: The Wilderness Society. Anderson, To., C.E. CarIson and R.H. Wakimoto. 1987. Forest fire frequency and western spruce budworm outbreaks in western Montana. For. Ecol. Manage. 22~3-4~:251-260. Anderson, R.~. 1990. Effects of global climate change on tree survival and forest pest in the South. Pp. 176-~80 in: Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters National Convention. Paper presented at the meeting on, "Are Forests the Answer", held July 29-Aug 1, 1990, Washington DC. Bethesda, MD: The Society. Andrews, H.~. and R.W. Cowlin. 1940. Forest Resources of the Douglas- fir Region. Misc. Publ. 389. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 169pp. Anthony, R.G., M.G. Garrett and C.A. Schuler. 1993. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River Estuary. l. WildI. Manage. 57~:10-19. Arno, S.F. 1980. Forest fire history in the northern Rockies. l. For. 78~:460-465. Arno, S.F., E.D. Reinhardt, and l.H. Scott. 1993. Forest Structure and Landscape Patterns in the Subalpine Pine Type: A Procedure for Quantifying Past and Present Conditions. Gen. Tech. Report INT 294. Og~en, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Tntermountain Research Station. Arnolds, E. 1991. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Europe. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 35~2/3~:209-244. Barett, R. 1987. Tourism employment in Montana: quality versus quantity? Western Wildiands 13~2~:~-21.
OCR for page 213
References 213 Bawa, K.S. 1990. Plant-poBinator interactions in tropical rain forests. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21: 399-422. Beale, C. 1993. Pp. 22-27 in: Poverty is Persistent in Some Rural Areas. AgriculturalOutiook. U.S.Departmentof Agriculture. September 1993. Becerra, l.X. 1994. Squirt-gun defense in Bursera and the chrysomelid counterploy. Ecology75~7~:1991-1996. Bechtold, W.A., W.H. Hoffard, and R.~. Anderson. 1992. Summary Report: Forest Health Monitoring in the South, 1991. Gen. Tech. Report SE-~. Asheville, N.C.:USDA, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station. Beuter, l.H. 1990. Social and Economic impact of the Spotted Owl Conservation Strategy. Tech. Bull. No. 9003. Washington, D.C.: American Forest Resource Alliance. 37pp. Beuter, J.H., K.N. Johnson, and H.~. Scheurman. 1976. Timber for Oregon's Tomorrow--An Analysis of Reasonably Possible Occur- rences. Oregon State Univ. For. Res. Lab. Res. Bull.19. Corvallis, OR. 111 pp. Blahna, Do. 1990. Social basis for resource conflicts in areas of reverse migration. Pp. 159-178 in: Community and Forestry: Continuities in the Sociology of Natural Resources, R.G. Lee, D.R. Field, and W.R. Burch Jr., eds. Boulder, CO: Westview. Bliss, l.C., C. Bailey, G.R. Howze, and L. Teeter. 1992. Timber Depend- ency In the American South. SCFER Working Paper No. 74. South- eastern Center for Forest Economics Research, Research Triangle Park, NC. 15 pp. Bolsinger, C.~. and J.M. Berger. 1975. The Timber Resources of the Blue Mountain Area, Oregon. USDA Forest Service Resource Bulletin PNW 57. U.S. Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experi- ment Station, Portland, OR Bolsinger, C.~. and K.~. Waddell. 1993. Area Of Old-Growth Forests In California, Oregon, end Washington. Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-197. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. December. Bonnicksen, T.M. 1993. An Analysis of a Plan to Maintain Old-Growth Forest Ecosystems. A report to the American Forest & Paper Association, Washington, D.C. Department of Forest Science, Texas A& M University, Texas.
OCR for page 214
214 Pacific Northwest Forests Booth, D.E. 1991. Estimating prelogging old-growth in the Pacific Northwest. J. For. 89~10~:25-29. Booth, D.E. 1994. Valuing Nature: The Decline and Preservation of Old- Growth Forests. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Bork, l. 1985. Fire History in Three Vegetation Types on the East Side of the Oregon Cascades. Ph.D. Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 94pp. Bormann, F.E. and G.E. Likens. 1979. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. New York: Springer-VerIag. Boyle, l.R., l.E. Warila, RAT. Beschta, M. Reiter, C.C. Chambers, W.P. Gibson, S.V. Gregory, l. Grizzel, l.C. Hagar, l.~. Li, W.C. McComb, T.W. Parzybok, and G. Taylor. 1997. Cumulative effects of forestry practices: an example framework for evaluation from Oregon, Biomass and Bioenergy 13~4/5~:223-245. Brooks, D., H. Pajuoja, T.~. Peck, B. Solberg, and P.A. Wardle. 1996. Long-term trends and prospects in worId supply and demand for wood. Pp. 75-106 in: T~ong-term Trends and Prospects in WorId Supply and Demand for Wood and Tmplications for Sustainable Forest Management. B. Solberg, ed. Research Report 6. Joensuu, FinIand: European Forest Institute. Brown, l.H. and A.C. Gibson. 1983. Biogeography. St.l~ouis, Missouri: Mosby. 644pp. Brown, R.B. 1993. Rural community satisfaction and attachment in mass consumer society. Rural Sociology 58~3~:387-403. Brown, T.C. 1999. Past and Future Freshwater Use in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service Assessment. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMR~GTR-39. Fort Collins,CO: USDA, Forest Service. 47pp. Brubaker, L.B., S. Vega-Gonzalez, E.D. Ford, C.A. Ribic, C.~. EarIe and G. Segura. 1992. Old-growth Douglas-fir in western Washington. Ecolog~cal Studies: analysis and synthesis. 97: 333-364. Brundrett,M. 1991. Mycorrhizasinnaturalecosystems. Adv.Ecol.Res. 21:171-313. Buchanan, l.B., L.~. Trwin and E.~. McCutchen. 1995. Within-stand nest site selection by spotted owls in the eastern Washington Cascades. I. WildI. Manage. 59~2~:301-310. Bull, E.~. and R.E. Holthausen. 1993. Habitat use and management of
OCR for page 215
References Z75 pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. l. WildI. Manage. 57~2~:335-345. Bull, EAT. and A.D. Partridge. 1986. Methods of killing trees for use by cavity nesters. Wildlife Society BuDitin. 14~2~:142-146. Bull, EAT., R.S. Holyhausen and M.G. Henjum. 1992. Roost trees used by pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon. l. WildI. Manage. 56~4~:786-793. Campbell, R.W. and T.R. Torgersen. 1982. Some effects of predaceous ants on western spruce budworm pupae in north central Washington. Environ. Entomo1. 11~:~-~14. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. 1997. Compendium of Canadian Forestry Statistics, 1996. National Forestry Database Program. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. 234 pp. Carde1lichio, P.A., Y.C. Yuon, C.S. Binkley, l.R. Vincent, and D.M. Adams. 1988. An Economic Analysis of Short-Run Timber Supply Around the Globe. CINTRAFOR Working Paper 1S, Seattle, WA.: University of Washington. 153 pp. Carey, A.B. 1995. Sciurids in Pacific Northwest managed and old- growth forests. Ecolog~calApplications 5~3~:648-661. Carey, A.B., l. Kershner, B. Biswell, and L. Dominquez de Toledo. 1999. Ecological Scale and Forest Development Squirrels, Dietary Fungi, and Vascular Plants in Managed and Unmanaged Forests. Wildlife Monographs. No. 142. Bethesda, MD: The Wildlife Society. 71 pp. CarIson, C.E. and l.E. Lotan. 1988. Using Stand Culture Techniques Against Defoliating Insects. Pp. 275-277. Gen.Tech. Report INT-243. Ogden, UT.: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Carter, C. 1988. Assessment of Oregon's forest resource economy: fish and wildlife. Pp.153-158 in: Assessment of Oregon's Forests. Salem, OR.:Oregon State Department of Forestry. Carter, M.F. and K. Barker. 1993. An interactive database for sewing conservation priorities for western neotropical migrants. Pp.120-144 in: Status and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds, D.M. Finch and P.W. Stangel, eds. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-229. Fort CoBins, CO.: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Castle, E.N. 1993. Rural diversity and American asset. Annals AAPSS 529 (Sept.~:12-21.
OCR for page 216
276 Pacific Northwest Forests Chapman, H.H. 1931. Forest Management. Albany, NY: l.B. Lyon. 544pp. Chen, J., l.F. Franklin and T.A. Spies. 1992. Vegetation response to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applica- tions. 2~4~:387-396. Chen, l., J.F. Franklin and T.A. Spies. 1993. An empirical model for predicting diurnal air-temperature gradients from edge into old- growthDouglas-firforest. Ecol. Modell. 67:179-198. Christensen, N.~. 1985. Schrubland fire regimes and their evolutionary consequences. Pp. 85-100 in: The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics. S.T.A. Pickett and P.S. White, eds. New York: Academic Press. Christensen,N.T~. 1988. Succession and naturaldisturbance: Paradigms, problems, and preservation of natural ecosystems. Pp. 62-86 in: Ecosystem Management for Parks and Wildernesses, l.K. Agee and D.R. Johnson, eds. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. Christensen, N.~., I.K. Agee, P.F. Brussard, l. Hughes, D. H. Knight, G.W. Minshall, l.M. Peek, A. Pyne, F.~. Swanson, S. Wells, l.W. Thomas, S.E. Williams and H.A. Wright. 1989. interpreting the Yellowstone fires of 1988. BioScience. 39~10~:678-685. Christensen, NIT., A.M. Bartuska, l.H. Brown, S. Carpenter, C. D' Antonio, R. Francis, l.F. Franklin, l.A. MacMahon, R.F. Noss and D.~. Parsons. 1996. The report of the Ecological Societv of America .,, ,~ . ..,. ~ . , committee on tne sclennnc oasis tor ecosystem. Ecological Applica- tions 6~3~:665-691. Cissel, l.H., A. Swanson, G.E Grant, D.H. Olson, S.V. Gregory, SIT. Garman, L.R. Ashkenas, M.G. Hunter, l.A. Kertis, l.H. Mayo, M.D. McSwain, S.G. Swetland, K.A. Swindle, and D.O. Wallin. 1998. A Landscape Plan Based on Historical Fire Regimes for a Managed Forest Ecosystem: The Augusta Creek Study. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW- GTR-422. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Clawson,M. 1976. The nationalforests. Science. 191~4227~:762-767. Clawson, M. 1979. Forest in the long sweep of American history. Science 204~4398~:~168-~174. Clemens, F.E. 1916. Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. Pub. 242. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington. 512pp.
OCR for page 217
References 277 Clemens, F.E. 1928. Plant Succession and Indicators. New York: Wilson. 453pp. Cohen, W.B., T.A. Spies and G.A. Bradshaw. 1990. Sem~variograms of digital imagery for analysis of conifer canopy structure. Remote Sens. Environ. 34~3~:167-178. CoIciasure P. l. Moen, and Cot. Bolsinger. 1986. Timber Resource Statistics for the Northern Interior Resource Area of California. Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-135. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Committee of Scientists Report. 1999. Sustaining the People's Lands. Recommendations for Stewardship of the National Forests and Grasslands into the Next Century. Washington, DC.: USDA. 193pp. Connell, l.H. and R.D. Slatyer. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role In community stability and organization. Am. Nat. I11~982~:~19-~144. Cook, R.E. 1969. Variation in species density of North American birds. Syst. Zool. 18:63-84. Cordray, S. and K. Goetz. 1994. Comparison of rural and urban melts in a Pacific Northwest county. Annual Meeting of the Rural Sociolog~- cal Society, August 11-14, Portland, OR. Courtney, S.P. 1985. Apparency in coevolving relationships. Oikos 44~1~:91-98. Covington, W.W. and M.M. Moore. 1994. Postsettlement changes in natural fire regimes and forest structure: ecological restoration of old- growth ponclerosa pine forests. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 2~1/2~:153-181. Covington, W.W., RET. Everett, R. Steele, T.. Irwin, T.A. Daer and A.N.D. Auclair. 1994. Historical and anticipated changes in forest ecosystems of the inland west of the United States. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 2~1/2~:13-63. Cowles, H.C. 1910. The Fundamental Causes of Succession Among Plant Associations. Report of the Seventy-ninth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1909:668-670. Cowlin, R.W., P.A. Briegleb and F.~. Moravets. 1942. Forest Resources of the Ponderosa Pine Region of Washington and Oregon. Misc. Publ. 490. Washington, D.C.: USDA, Forest Service. 99 pp. Crane, M.F., l.R. Habeck, and W.C. Fischer. 1983. Early Postfire Revegetation in Western Montana Douglas-fir Forest. Res. Pap. TNT-
OCR for page 218
218 Pacific Northwest Forests 319. Ogden, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 29 pp. Cromartie, J. 1994. Statement: Before the House Committee on Natural Resources Hearing on "The Changing Needs of the West" Salt Lake City Utah, April 7, 1994. Pp. SI-108 in: The Changing Needs of the West, Oversight Hearing before Committee on Natural Resources House of Representatives, 103 Congress, Second Session, Serial No. 103-80. Washington, D.C.: GAO. Cubbage, F.W., T.G. Harris, Jr., D.N. Wear, R.C. Abt, and G. Pacheco. 1995. Timber supply in the South: Where is aD the wood? l. For. 93~7~:16-20. Culotta, E. 1994. Ecologists gather for mix of Policy, Science in Nashville. Science265~5176~:~178-~179. Darr, D.R. 1989. RPA Assessment of the Forest and Rangeland Situation in the United States, 1989. Washington DC: USDA, Forest ~ . service. Davis, D. D., M. it. Torsello and I.R. McClenahen. 1 997. influence of Cryphonectria parasitica basek cankers on radial growth of scarlet oakin Pennsylvania. Plant Dis. 81~4~:369-373. Delcourt, H.R. and P.A. Delcourt. 1991. Quaternary Ecology: A Paleoecolog~cal Perspective. New York: Chapman & Hall. Diamond, l.M. 1972. Biogeographic kinetics: estimation of relaxation times for avifaunas of Southwest Pacific Islands. Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. USA. 69~11~:3199-3203. Diamond, H.L. and P.F. Noonan. 1996. Land Use in America. Wash- ington, DC: Island Press. 351pp. Doak, D. 1989. Spotted owls and old growth logging in the Pacific Northwest. Conserv. Biol. 3~4~:389-396. Drielsma, l.H. 1984. The Influence of Forest-Based Industries on Rural Communities. Yale University Ph.D. Dissertation. Ann Arbor: University Dissertation Services. Drury, W.H. and I.C.T. Nisbet. 1973. Succession. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 54:331-368. Edwards,l.S. 1987. Arthropods of alpine aeolian ecosystems. Annul Rev. Entomol. 32:163-179. Egan, T. 1994. Oregon, foiling forecaster, thrives as it protects owls. New York Times. Oct.ll:Al,C20. Egler, F.E. 1977. The Nature of Vegetation, Its Management and
OCR for page 219
References 2~9 Mismanagement: An Introduction to Vegetation Science. Norfolk, Conn.: Egler. Ehrlich, P.R. and A.H. Ehrlich. 1981. Extinction. The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. New York: Random House. Ellefson, P.V., A.T. Cheng, and R.S. Moulton. 1995. Regulation of Private Forest Practices by State Governments. Minnesota Agricul- tural Experimental Station Bulletin 605-1995. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 225pp. Elo, I.T. and C.~. Beale. 1984. Natural Resources and Rural Poverty: An Overview. Washington D.C.: Resources for the Future. Elton, C.S. 1958. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. London: Methuen &Co. 181pp. Endicott, E. 1993. Land Conservation Through Public/ Private Partnerships. Washington,D.C.: Island Press. Ewel, A.. 1986. Designing agricultural ecosystems for the humid tropics. Annul Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17:245-271. Ewel, I.~., M.~. Mazzarino and C.W. Berish. 1991. Tropical soil fertility changes under monocultures and successional communities of different structure. EcologicalApplications 1~3~:289-302. Fahnestock,G.R.andl.K.Agee. 1983. Biomass consumption and smoke production by prehistoric and modern forest fires in western Washington. l. For. SI(10~:653-657. Farnum, P., R. Timmis and A. Kuip. 1983. Biotechnology of forest yield. Science 219~4585~:694-702. FEMAT (Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team). 1993. Forest Ecosystem Management: An Ecological, Economic, and Social assessment. Report of the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, U.S. Depart- ment of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Thank Management, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Finch, D.M. 1991. Population Ecology, Habitat Requirements and Conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds. Gen. Tech. Report RM- 205. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33pp.
OCR for page 220
220 Pacific Northwest Forests Flather, C.H. and T.W. Hoekstra. 1989. An Analysis of the Wildlife and Fish Situation in the United States: 1989-2040. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM- 178. Fort Collins, CO: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station. 147 pp. Flather, C.H., I. Brady and M.S. Knowles. 1999. Wildlife resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 RPA assessment. Gen. Rep. RMR~GTR-33. Fort CoHins, CO: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 79pp. Fogel, R. and l.M. Trappe. 1978. Fungus consumption (mycophagy) by small animals. Northwest Sci. 52~:~-31. Foley, P. 1997. Extinction models for local populations. Pp.215-246 in: Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution. I.A. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Force, l.E., G.E. Machlis and T~.Zhang. 1994. Understanding Social Change in Resource-Dependent communities. Paper presented at Forestry and the Environment: Econom~c Perspectives Conference. October 12-15, 1994. Banif, Alberta, Canada. Force, J.E., G.E. Machlis, L. Zhang, and A. Kearney. 1993. The relation- ship between timber production, local historical events, and commu- nity social change: A quantitative case study. For. Sci. 3944~:722-742. Forestry Canada. 1993. The State of Canada's Forests, 1992: Third Report to Parliament Forestry Canada, Ottawa. 112 pp. Forsman, E.D., S. Destefano, M.G. Raphael and R.~. Gutierrez, eds. 1996. Demography of Northern Spotted OwI. Studies in Avian Biology 17. Los Angeles: Cooper Ornitholog~cal Society. 122pp. Frank, S.A. 1997. Spatial processes in host-parasite genetics. Pp.325-352 in: Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution, I.A. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, eds. San Diego: Academ~c Press. Frank, D.A. and S.~. McNaughton. 1991. Stability increases with diversity in plant communities: empirical evidence from the 1988 YeBowstone drought. Oikos. 62~3~:360-362. Franklin, l.F. 1979. Vegetation of the Douglas-fir reg~on. Pp. 93-~12 in: Forest Soils of the Douglas-Fir Reg~on, P.E. Heilman, H.W. Anderson, and D.M. Baumgartner, eds. Pulman, WA: Washington State University Cooperative Extension Service. Franklin, l.F. 1991. Old growth and the new forestry. Pp.~-11 in: Proceedings of the New Perspectives Workshop, 1990 July 17-20, Petersburg, Alaska, M.~. Copenhagen, ed. Juneau, AK: USDA, Forest Service, Alaska Region.
OCR for page 221
References 227 Franklin, 1.F. 1993b. The fundamentals of ecosystem management with applications in the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 127-144 in: Defining Sustainable Forestry. G.H. Aplet, N. Johnson, l.T. Olson and V.A. Sample, eds. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Franklin,l.F. 1993a. Preserving biodiversity:species,ecosystems,and landscapes? Ecological Applications. 3~2~:202-205. Franklin, l.F., and C.T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PAWN. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 417 pp. Franklin, J.F. and M.A. Hemstrom. 1981. Aspects of succession in the coniferous forest of the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 212-229 in: Forest Succession: Concepts and Application, D.C. West, H.H. Shugart and D.B. Botkin, eds. New York: Springer-VerIag. Franklin, l.F. and T.A. Spies. 1984. Characteristics of Old-Growth Douglas-fir Forests. Pp. 328-334 in: New Forests For a Changing World. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters. Franklin, J.F. and T.A. Spies. 1991a. Ecological definitions of old- growth Douglas-fir forests. Pp. 61-71 in: Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-Fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Franklin, J.F. and T.A. Spies. 199Ib. Composition, function, and structure of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Pp. 71-80 in: Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-Fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific North- west Forest and Range Experiment Station. Franklin, l.F., D.R. Berg, D.A. Thornburgh and l.C. Tappeiner. 1997. Alternative silvilcultural approaches to timber harvesting: variable retention harvest systems. Pp. 111-139 in: Creating a Forestry for the 21th Century, K.A. Kohm andJ.F. Franklin. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Franklin, l.F., K. Cromack, Jr., W. Denison, A. McKee, C. Maser, l. SedeD, F. Swanson and G. Juday. 1981. Ecological Characteristics of Old- Growth Douglas-fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. POW-. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experi- mentStation. 4Spp. Franklin, l.F., D.A. Perry, T.D. Schowalter, M.E. Harmon, A. McKee and T. Spies. 1989. Importance of ecological diversity in maintaining
OCR for page 243
References 243 Seastedt, T.R. 1984. The role of m~croarthropods in decomposition and mineralization processes. Annul Rev. Entomol. 29:25-46. Seiko, R.A. and D. Botkin. 1997. Using forest plantations to spare natural forests. Environment 39~10~:14-20, 30. Senge, P.M. 1990. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, fist Ed. New York: Doubleday/ Currency. 424pp. Seymour, R.S. and M.~. Hunter, Jr. 1992. New Forestry in Eastern Spruce-Fir Forests: Principles and Applications to Maine. Orono, Me: College of Forest Resources, University of Maine. Shaffer, M.~. 1981. Minimum population sizes for species conservation. BioScience. 31~2~:131-134. Shugart, H.H. and S.W. Seagle. 1985. Modeling forest landscapes and the role of disturbance in ecosystems and communities. Pp. 353-368 in: The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics, S.T.A. Pickett and P.S. White, eds. Orlando, FI: Academic Press. Simard, S. and E. Vyse. 1994. Paper birch: Weed or crop tree in the interior cedar-hemlock forests of South British Columbia. Pp.309-316 in: Interior Cedar-Hemiock-White Pine Forests: Ecology and Management, D.M. Baumgartner, l. E. Lotan, and l. R. Tonn, eds. Pullman, WA: Dept of Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State Univ. SimberIoff, D. 1976. Experimental zoogeography of islands: effects of islands size. Ecology 57~4~:629-648. SimberIoff, D. 1984. Mass extinction and the destruction of moist tropical forests. Zh. Obshch. Biol. 45~6~:767-778. Simpson, G.G. 1964. Species density of North American recent mammals. Syst. Zool. 13~2~:57-73. SIocombe, D.S. 1993. Implementing ecosystem-based management- development of theory, practice and research for planning and managing a region. BioScience 43~9~:612-622. Smith, D.M. 1962. The Practice of Silviculture, 7th Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Smith, D.B. 1986. The Practice of Silviculture, Sth Ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Smith, A.T. 1974. The distribution and dispersal of pikes: consequences of insular population structure. Ecology. 55~5~:~12-~19. SNEP (Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project). 1996a. Status of the Sierra
OCR for page 244
244 Pacific Northwest Forests Nevada. Vol. I. Assessment summaries and management strategies. Final Report to Congess. Wildiand Resources Center report No. 36. Centers for Water and Wildiand Resources. University of California at Davis. Davis, CA. SNEP (Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project). 1996b. Status of the Sierra Nevada, Vol. TI. Assessments and scientific basis for management options. Final Report to Congess. Wildiand Resources Center Report No. 37. Centers for Water and WildIand Resources. University of California at Davis. Davis, CA. 1528 pp. Soule, M.E. 1983. What do we really know about extinction? Pp. 111- 124 in: Genetics and Conservation: A Reference for Managing Wild Animal and Plant Populations, C.M. Schonewald-Cox, S.M. Chambers, B. MacBryde and W.~. Thomas, eds. MarIo Park, CA: Benjamin/ Cummings. Soule, M.E. 1986. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderiand, MA: Sinauer Associates. 584pp. SouTe, M.E. 1987. Where do we go from here? Pp. 175-~83 in: Viable Population for Conservation. M.E. Soule, ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Soule, M.E and B.A. Wilcox. 1980. Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-ecological Perspective. SunderIand, MA: Sinauer Associates. Sousa, W.P. 1984. Intertidal mosaics: patch size, propagule availability, and spatially variable patterns of succession. Ecology 65(6):1918-1935. Spies, T.A. 1991. Plant species diversity and occurrence in young, mature, and old-growth Douglas -fir stands in western Oregon and Washington. Pp. 111-121 in: Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR 285. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Spies, T.A. and I.F.Franklin. 1991. The structure of natural young, mature and old-growth Douglas-fir forests in Oregon and Washington. Pp. 91-110 in: Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. Gen. Techn. Rep. PNW-GTR-285. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Spies, T.A., l.F. Franklin and M. Klopsch. 1990. Canopy gaps in Douglas-fir forests of Cascade Mountains. Can. l. For. Res. 20~5~:649- 658.
OCR for page 245
References 245 Spurr, S.H. and B.V. Barnes. 1973. Forest Ecology, 2n~ Ed. New York: Ronald Press. 571pp. Stanton, M.~. 1983. Spatial patterns in the plant community and their effects upon insect search. Pp. 125-157 in: Herbivorous Insects: Host- seeking Behavior and Mechanisms, S. Ahmad, ed. New York: Academic Press. Steen, H.K. 1976. The U.S. Forest Service: A History. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. Steffan-Dewenter, T. and T. Tscharntke. 1997. Bee diversity and seed set in fragmented habitats. Pp. 231-234 in: Pollination: from Theory to Practise, 7th International Symp. on Pollination, K.W. Richards, ed. Leiden,The Netherlands: ISHS. Stickney, P.F. 1986. First Decade Plant Succession Following the Sundance Forest Fire, Northern Idaho. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-197. Ogden, Utah: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26pp. Stone, L. 1897. The artificial propagation of salmon on the Pacific Coast of the United States with notes on the natural history the quinnat salmon. BuH.U.S.FishComm. 16:203-235. Strong, D.R., l.H. I~awton and S.R. Southwood. 1984. Insects on Plants: Community Patterns and Mechanisms. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. Swanson, F.~., and l.F. Franklin. 1992. New forestry principles from ecosystem analysis of Pacific Northwest forests. Ecol. Applic. 2~3~:262-274. Swetnam, T.W.. 1993. Fire history and climate change in giant sequoia groves. Science 262~5135~:885-889. Swetnam, T.W. and A.M. Lynch. 1989. A tree-ring reconstruction of western budworm history in the southern Rocky Mountains. For. Sci. 35~4~:962-986. Tappeiner, l.C., D. Huffman, D. Marshall, T.A. Spies, and l.D. Bailey. 1997. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young- growth forests in coastal Oregon. Can. l. For. Res. 27~5~:638-648. Teensma, D.A., l.T. Rienstra and M.A. Yeiter. 1991. Preliminary Reconstruction and Analysis of Change in Forest Stand Age Classes of the Oregon Coast Range from IS50 to 1940. USDI Bureau of Land Management Technical Note TIN OR-9. Portland, OR: Oregon State University. 9pp plus maps.
OCR for page 246
246 Pacific Northwest Forests Temple, S.A. 1977. Plant-animal mutualism: coevolution with dodo leads to near extinction of plant (Calvaria major). Science 197~4306~:~85-~86. Terborgh, J. 1974. Preservation of natural diversity; the problem of extinction prone species. Bioscience 24~12~:715-722. Thomas, C.D. 1990. What do real population dynamics tell us about minimum viable population sizes? Conserv.Biol. 4~3~:324-327. Thomas, C.D. and I. Hanski. 1997. Butterfly metapopulations. Pp.359- 386 in: Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution, I.A. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Thomas, l.W., A. Parker, R.A.Mowrey, G.M. Hanson and A. BeD. 1979. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forest: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. Agriculture Handbook 553. Washington D.C.: USDA, Forest Service. Thomas, l.W., E.D. Forsman, l.B. Lint, E.C. MesIow, B.R. Noon and l. Verner. 1990. A conservation Strategy for the Northern Spotted Owl: A Report of the Interagency Scientific Committee. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Park Service. 427pp. Thomas, T.W., et al. 1993. Forest Ecosystem Management: An Ecolog~- cal, Economic, and Social Assessment Report of the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team. US Government Printing Office 793- 071. Tilman, D. 1996. The Benefits of Natural Disasters. Science 273~5281~:1518. Tilman, D. and l.A. Downing. 1994. grasslands. Nature 367~64611 36:3-365 Biodiversity and stability in \ , Tilman, D., D. Wedin and l. Knops. 1996. Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Nature 379~6567~:718-720. Tilman, D., R.M. May, CAT ehman and M.A. Nowak. 1994. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371~:65-66. Tobalske, B.W., R.C. Shearer and Rib. Hutto. 1991. Bird Population in Logged Western Larch/ Douglas Fir Forests in Northwestern Montana. Res. Pap. TNT-442. Ogden, Utah: USDA, Forest Service, Tntermountain Research Station. 12pp. Torgersen, C.E. 1993. Spatial Variability of Soil Organisms, pH, Moisture, O-horizon Depth, and Temperature in Differentiated
OCR for page 247
References 247 Conifer Stands in an Old-Growth Forest Stand in Western Cascades, Oregon. B.A. Thesis Eugene, OR: University of Oregon. 62pp. Torgersen, T.R., R.R. Mason and R.G. Campbell. 1990. Predation by birds and ants on two forest insect pests in the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 14-19 in: Studies in Avian Biology. No.13. Avian Foraging: Theory, Methodology and Applications. MAT. Morrison et al, eds. Taos Angeles, CA: Cooper Ornithological Society. Toumey, l.W. and C.F. Korstian. 1937. Foundations of Silviculture Upon An Ecological Basis. New York: Wiley & Sons. ToweiD, D. and P.~. Hanna. 1985. Elk Management Plan, 1986-1990. Boise, Idaho: Idaho Dept. of Fish And Game. Trappe, l. M. 1 962. Fungus associates of ectotrophic mycorrhizae . Bot. Rev. 28:538-606. Trappe, l.M. and Did. Luoma. 1992. The ties that bind: fungi in ecosystems. Pp. 17-27 in: The Fungal Community. Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem, 2n~ Ed., G.C. Carroll and D.T. Wicklow, eds. New York: Marce! DeLker. Trombulak, S.C. and C.A. FrisselI. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads onterrestrialand aquatic communities. Conserv. Biol. 14~):~- 30. Tuchmann, E.T., K. P. Connaughton, L. E. Freedman, and C. B. Moriwaki. 1996. The Northwest Forest Plan: A Report to the President and Congress. M.H. Brookes, ed. Portland, OR: USDA, Office of Forestry and Economic Assistance. Turner, M.G., W.W. Hargrove, R.H. Gardner and W.H. Romme. 1994. Effects of fire on landscape heterogeneity in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Journal of Vegetation Science. 5~5~:731-742. Unsworth, l.W. et al. 1991. Elk Management Plan, 1991-1995. Boise: Idaho Dept. Fish & Game. 62pp. Ure, D.C. and C. Maser. 1982. Mycophagy of red-backed voles in Oregon and Washington USA. Can. l. Zool. 60~12~:3307-3315. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1978. Census of Manufactures, 1978. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990. Census of Population: 1990. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1991. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1991. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. USDOI (U.S. Department of the Interior). 1989. 1985 National Survey
OCR for page 248
248 Pacific Northwest Forests of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Associated Recreation. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington DC: GPO. 167 pp. USDOT (U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wild Service). 1993. 1991 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Washing- ton DC: GPO. 124 pp. + app. USDOT (U.S. Department of the Interior) 1998. 1996 national survey of fishing, hunting, and wildlife-associated recreation Washington, D.C.: U.S Deptment of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Available: http: / / www.census. gov/ prod/ www/ abs/ fishing. html. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, D.C.: GPO. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1963. Timber Trends in Western Oregon and Western Washington. Res. Paper 5. Portland OR : USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 154 pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1969. Douglas- Fir Supply Study. U.S. Forest Service Regional Office. Portland OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experi- mentStation. 53 pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service) . ~ 976. Timber Harvest Scheduling Issues Study. Review draft. Washington D.C.: USDA,Forest Service. 282 pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1982. An Analysis of the Timber Situation in the United States: 1952-2030. Forest Resource Report No. 23. Washington D.C.:USDA, Forest Service. 499pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 198Sa. The South's Fourth Forest: Alternatives for the Future. Forest Resource Report No. 24. Washington D.C. 512 pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 198Sb. An Analysis of the Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness Situation in the United States: 1989-2040, a technical document supporting the 1989 RPA assessment. Draft. H. K. Cordell, project leader. Washington D.C.: USDA, Forest Service . USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1990. An
OCR for page 249
References 249 Analysis of the Timber Situation in the United States: 1989-2040: Summary. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-199. Washington D.C.: USDA, Forest Service. 268 pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1991. Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW GTR-285. Portland OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific North- west Research Station. USFS(U.S.Departmentof Agriculture Forest Service). 1993a. Eastside Forest Ecosystem Health Assessment. Volume ITI. Assessment. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. April 1993. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1993b. Region 6 Interim Old Growth Definition for Douglas-Fir Series, Grand Fir/White Fir Series, Interior Douglas Fir Series, Lodgepole Pine Series, Pacific Silver Fir Series, Ponderosa Pine Series, Port-Orford- Cedar and Tanoak(Redwood) Series, Subalpine Fir Series, Western Hemlock Series. Portland, OR: Timber Management Group, USDA, Forest Service. June. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1994. Tree Planting in The United States—1993. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Cooperative Forestry. Washington D.C.: Cooperative Forestry. 17 pp. USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service). 1996. An Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. T. M. Quigley, R. W. Haynes, and Russell T. Graham, tech. eds. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-382. Available: www.fs.fed.us/ pow/ int-col.htm USFS/BEM (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management). 1994. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Habitat for hate -Successional and Old-Growth Forest Related Species Within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl. USDA, Forest Service, U.S. Department of the Interior,Bureau of Land Management. USNRC(U.S.NationalResources Committee). 1938. Forest Resources of the Pacific Northwest. Washington, D.C.:GPO Visser, l.H. 1986. Host odor perception in phytophagous insects. Annul Rev. Entomol. 31: 1251-144. Vogt, D.~.1987. Douglas-fir ecosystems in western Washington: Biomass
OCR for page 250
250 Pacific Northwest Forests and production as related to site quality and stand age. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle. Vogt, K.A. 1991. Carbon budgets of temperate forest ecosystems. Tree Physiol. 9:69-86. Vogt, K.A., RAT. Edmonds, and C.C. Grier. 1981. Dynamics of ectomycorrhizae in Abies amabilis stands: the role of Cenococcum graniforme. Holarctic Ecology 4~3~:167-173. Vogt, K.A., D.A. Publicover and D.~. Vogt. 1991. A critique of the role of ectomycorrhizas in forest ecology. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 35~2/3~:171-190. Vogt, K.A., l. Bloomfield, l.F. Amm~rati, and S. R. Ammirati. 1 992. Sporocarp production by basidiomycetes, with emphasis on forest ecosystems. Pp. 563-581 in: The Fungal Community. Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem, 2nd Ed. G.C. Carroll and D.T. Wicklow, eds., New York.: MarcelDekker. Vogt, K.A., E.E. Moore, D.~. Vogt, M.~. Redlin and R.~. Edmonds. 1983. Conifer fine root and mycorrhizal root biomass within the forest floors of Douglas-fir stands of different ages and site productivities Pseudotsuga menziesu. Can. l. For. Res. 13~3~:429-437. Vogt, K.A., D.~. Vogt, E.E. Moore, B.A. Fatuga, M.R. Redlin and R.l~. Edmonds. 1987. Conifer and ang~osperm fine-root biomass in relation to stand age and site productivity in Douglas-fir forests. l. Ecol. 75~3~:857-870. Vogt, K.A., D.~. Vogt, H. Asbjornsen, and R.A. Dahigren. 1995. Roots, nutrients and their relationship to spatial patterns. Plant and Soil. 168-169:~13-123. Vogt, K.A., D.~. Vogt, P.A. Palm~otto, P. Boon, l. O'Hara, and H. Asbjornsen. 1996. Review of root dynamics in forest ecosystems grouped by climate, climatic forest type and species. Plant and Soi] 187~2~:159-219. Waddell, K.~., D.D. Oswald, and D.S. Powell. 1989. Forest Statistics of the United States, 1987. USFS, Resource Bull. Pacific Northwest-RB- 168.106 pp. Waggener, T.R. 1990. Forest, Timber, and Trade: Emerging Canadian and U.S. Relations Under the Free Trade Agreement. Orono, Me: University of Maine Press. 45pp. Walsh, R.G., D.A. Harpman, l.G. Hof, K.H. lohn and l.R. McKean. 1989. Long-Run Forecasts of Participation in Fishing, Hunting, and
OCR for page 251
References 257 Nonconsumptive Wildlife Recreation. Gen. Tech Rep. SE. Asheville, N.C.: USDA, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Walters, Cal. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: MacMillan. Waring, G.~. and N.S. Cobb. 1992. The impact of plant stress on herbivore population dynamics. Pp.167-226 in: Insect-Plant Tnterac- tions, Vol. 4., E.A. Bernays, ed. Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press. Waring, R.H., and J.F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386. Warren, D.D. 1999. Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest Industries: Fourth Quarter, 1997. Resource Bulletin Pacific Northwest-RB-230. Portland, OR: USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 130 pp. Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. I. Ecol. 35~1-2~:1-22. Weatherspoon, C.P. and C.N. Skinner. 1995. An Assessment of factoras associated with damage to tree crowns from the 1987 wildfires in northern California. For. Sci. 41~3~:430-451. Wells, P.V. 1983. Paleobiogeography of montane islands in the Great Basin since thelastglaciopluvial. Ecol.Monogr. 53~4~:341-382. WelIner, C.A. 1970. Fire history in the northern Rocky Mountains. Pp. 42-64 in: The Role of Fire in the Intermountain West. Missoula, Montana: University of Montana. Welsh, H.H. and A.~. Lind. 1988. Old-growth forests and the distribu- tion of the terrestrial herpetofauna. Pp. 439-454 in: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles and Small Mammals in North America, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. Fort Collins, CO.: USDA, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Weyerhaeuser Company. 1994. Habitat Conservation Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl on the Millicoma Tree Farm, Coos and Douglas Counties, Oregon. Weyerhaeuser Company, Millicoma Operations, North Bend, Oregon. November. Whitford, P.B. 1983. Man and the equilibrium between deciduous forest and grassland Ecosystems, mainly in the Midwestern United States. Geobotany 5:163-172. WhitIock, C. 1992. The history of Larix occidentalis during the last 20,000 years of environmental change. Pp. 83-90 in: Ecology and Management of Larix Forests: A Look Ahead: Proceedings of an
OCR for page 252
252 Pacific Northwest Forests international symposium, Whitefish, Montana. October 5-9, 1992. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT 319. Ogden, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Whittaker, R.H. 1960. Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Eco1. Monogr. 30~3~:279-338. Whittaker, R.H. 1961. Vegetation history of the Pacific coast states and the "central" significance of the KIamath region. Madrono 16:5-23. Wickman, B.E., R.R. Mason and H.G. Paul. 1992. Thinning and nitrogen fertilization in a grand fir stand infested with western spruce budworm. IT. Tree growth response. For. Sci. 38~2~:252-264. Wiens, l.A. 1997. Metapopulation dynamics and landscape ecology. Pp. 43-62 in: Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution, I.A. Hanski and M.E. Gilpin, eds. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Wild, A. and V.G. Breeze. 1981. Nutrient Uptake in Relation to Growth (Crop Plants, Rhizosphere). Pp. 331-344 in: 30th Proceedings-Easter School in Agricultural Science. University of Nottingham. Wilderness Society. 1993. The Thriving Landscape. Vol.2. Pacific Salmon and Federal Lands. A Regional Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Wilderness Society. BoDe Center for Forest Ecosystem Management. Wilkins, D.A. 1991. The influence of sheathing (ecto-) mycorrhizas of trees on the uptake and toxicity of metals. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 35~2/3~:245-260. Williams, M. 1992. Americans and Their Forests. Cambridge University Press. Wilson,E.0.1988. Biodiversity. Washington,D.C.:NationalAcademy Press. Wilson, E.O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Wimberly, M.C., T.A. Spies, C.~. Long and C. WhitIock. 2000. Simulating historical variability in the amount of old forests in the Oregon Coast Range. Conserv.Biol. 14~:167-~80. Winchester, N.N. 1997. The arboreal superhighway: arthropods and landscape dynamics. Can. Entomologist 129~4~:595-599. Wittinger, W.T., W.l . Pengelly, L.1. Irwin, and l.M. Peek. 1977. A 20- year record of shrub succession in logged areas in the cedar-hemlock zone of northern Idaho. Northwest Sci. 51~3~:161-171. Wondolleck, l.M. 1988. Public Lands Conflict and Resolution: Managing National Forest Disputes. New York: Plenum Press.
OCR for page 253
References 253 Yaffee, SIT. 1994. The Wisdom of the Spotted Owl: Policy Lessons for a New Century. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Young, l. and l. Newton. 1980. Taming the timber beast. Pp. 21-56 in: Capitalism and Human Obsolescence: Corporate Control vs. Individ- ual Survival in Rural America. J.A. Young and l.M. Newton, eds. Montclair, Nl: Allanheld, Osmun.
Representative terms from entire chapter: