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GLOSSARY American marten: Martes americana anadromous salmon: salmon that spawn in freshwaters and migrate to the ocean bald eagle: HaZiaeetus ZeucocephaZus Barrow's goldeneye: BucephaZa isZandica biodiversity: the number and genetic variability of plant, animals, and microbial species that live in a given location biomass: broadly, all of the organic material on a given area; in a more narrow sense, burnable vegetation to be used for fuel in a combustion system black bear: Ursus americanus canadensis black-backed woodpecker: Picoictes arcticus boar~foot: unit of measurement for lumber and saw logs; refers to a 12 x 12 x ~ inch board or a segment of a log that will produce boards with these dimensions borealowI: AegoZiusfunereus buffer strip (or zone): strip of land varying in size and shape, intended to preserve or enhance aesthetic values around recreation sites and along roads, trails, or water brown-headed cowbird: MoZothrus ater butt rot: decay or rot characteristically confined to the base or lower bole of a tree California red-backed vole: CZethrionomys caZifornicus 254

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Glossary 255 canopy: more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by adjacent tree crowns canyon live oak: Quercus chrysolepis chestnut-backed chickadee: Parus ruiescens chinook: Oncorhynchus tschawylscha choker: short length of flexible wire, rope, or chain used to attach logs to a winch line or directly to a tractor chum: Oncorhynchus keta clearcut: a logging method in which ah trees in an area are harvested, regardless of age or size climax forest: plant community dominated by trees representing the culminating stage of natural succession for that specific locality and environment climax species: plant species that wit! remain essentially unchanged in terms of species composition for as long as the site remains undis- turbed coastal cutthroat trout: Oncorhynchus cZarki coho: Oncorhynchus kisutch common nighthawk: ChordeiZes minor competition: struggle among trees and other vegetation, generally for limited nutrients, light, and water present on a site conifer: tree that is a gymnosperm, usually evergreen, with cones and needle-shaped or scalelike leaves, producing wood known commer- cially as softwood controlled burning: use of fire to destroy logging debris, reduce buildups of dead and fallen timber, control tree diseases, and clear land crown ~inning: removing live growth in a tree crown to admit light, reduce weight, and lessen wind resistance density: number of trees per unit area of land dbh: diameter at breast height; measure of a tree at 4.5 feet above ground level Dolly Varden trout: SaZveZinus maZma Douglas-fir: Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir bark beetle: Dend~roctonus pseudlotsugae down wood: large logs on the forest floor dwarf mistletoe: Arceuthobium spy.

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256 Pacific Northwest Forests Eastside: area from the Cascade crest east through eastern Washington and Oregon and central Idaho; much drier than the Westside ectomycorrhizal relationship: a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the external roots of certain plants effective population size: the number of breeding adults that would provide the rate of inbreeding observed in a population if mating were random and the sexes were equal in number Engelmann spruce: Picea engeZmannii even-aged stand: stand of trees in which there are only small differ- ences in age among the individual trees extensive margin: forests previously economically unsuitable for harvesting extractive jobs: jobs related to timber harvesting and removal fel~field: rocky soil-less slopes at high elevations FEMAT: Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team, created by President Clinton in 1993 fiber: wood volume produced by a tree or trees that can be converted into wood products, such as lumber, paper, or cardboard; also known as pulpwood financial rotation: rotation of tree crops determined solely by financial considerations to obtain the highest monetary values over time, in terms of optimum net present value or return on investment fireweed: Epilobiumangustifolium fisher: Martespennanti flammulated owl: Otusflammeolus flicker: CoZaptes auratus forest floor: general term for the surface layer of soil supporting forest vegetation; includes all dead vegetation on the mineral soil surface in the forest as well as litter and unincorporated humus golden chinquapi: Castanea pumila golden-crowned king:let: ReguZus satrapa "olden-crowned sparrow: ZonotrichioatricapiZZa goldeneye: BucephaZacZanguZa goshawk: AccipitergentiZis grand fir: Abiesgrandis gray wolf: Canis lupus

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Glossary great gray owl: Strix nebuZosa grizzly bear: Ursus arctos horribiZis 257 hardwood: dicotyledonous trees, usually broad-leaved and deciduous harvesting: removing merchantable trees hermit warbler: Dendroica occiclentaZis Indian Paint fungus: Echinodontiumlinctorium intensive margin: forests that already have been supplying wood to markets ISC: Interagency Scientific Committee kestrel: FaZco sparverius legacies: changes that occur or remain as a result of disturbance, e.g., residual debris, seed banks, advanced regeneration, and surviving plants and animals that influence future change Lewis' woodpecker: MeZanerpes lewis Isobaric oregona: a nitrogen-fixing lichen lodgepole pine: Pinus contorta loggerhead shrike: Lanius Zudovicianus lynx: Eynxcanadensis manzanita: ArctostaphyZos marbled murrelet: Brachyramphus marmoratus mineralization: the process by which elements present in organic compounds are eventually converted into inorganic forms, ultimately to become available for a new cycle of plant growth moose: AZces vices mountain bluebird: Sialia currucoides mountain chickadee: ParusgambeZi mountain hemlock: Tsuga mertensiana Multiple-use forestry: concept of forest management that combines two or more objectives, such as production of wood or wood-derivative products, forage and browse for domestic livestock, proper environ- mental conditions for wildlife, landscape effects, protection against floods and erosion, recreation, and protection of water supplies

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258 NFP: Northwest Forests Plan noble fir: Abies procera northern spotted owl: Strix occidentaZis caurina Pacific Northwest Forests olive-sided flycatcher: Contopus cooper) Option 9: one of the management choices presented to President Clinton by FEMAT in 1993; it has since been revised and termed the Northwest Forests Plan OSB: oriented strand board osprey: Pandion haZiaetus overstory: tan, mature trees that rise above the shorter immature understory trees Pacific madrone: Arbutus menziesii Pacific silver fir: Abies amabiZZis Pacific-siope flycatcher: Empidonox difi5iciZis Pacific yew: Taxus brevifoZia patchiness: small islands of regenerating trees scattered through a matrix of older trees peregrine falcon: FaZcoperegrinus pileated woodpecker: Dryocopus piZeatus pink salmon: Oncorhynchus gorbuscha plantation: forest stand regenerated artificially either by sowing or planting ponderosa pine: Pinusponderosa Port Orford cedar root rot: PhytopEthora ZateraZis pulp: mechanically ground or chem~caBy digested wood used in manufacturing paper and aDied products pulpwood: wood cut or prepared primarily for wood pulp and subsequent manufacture into paper, fiberboard, or other products, depending largely on the species cut and the pulping process rainbow trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss red alder: AZnus rubra red fir: Abies magnifies red-breasted sapsucker: Sphyrapicus rugar red-eyed vireo: Vireo oZivaceus

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Glossary redwood: Sequoia sempervirens resinosis: exudation of pitch often characateristic of disease ring rot: rot localized mainly in the springwood of the growth rings, giving a concentric pattern of decayed wood in the cross section of a tree or{og rotation: years between establishment of a stand of timber and the time when it is considered ready for final harvest and regeneration roundwood products: logs, bolts, or other round sections cut from trees for industrial or consumer use rufous hummingbird: SeZasphorus rufus sapling: young tree less than 4 inches in dbh SAT: Scientific Analysis Team scree: loose rocks or stones silviculture: science of cultivating (such as with growing and tending) forest crops, based on the knowledge of silvics;.more explicitly, the theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, constitution, and growth of forests Sitka spruce: Picea sitchensis snag: a standing dead tree or portion of a tree from which most of the foliage, limbs, etc., have fallen snowbrush: Ceanothusvelutinus sockeye salmon: Oncorhynchus nerka southern pine beetle: Dendroctonusirontalis sporocarp: the fruit cases of certain non-seed-producing plants . . ~ containing sporang~a or spores spruce budworm: Choristoneura occidentaZis stand: a tree community that possesses sufficient uniformity in composition, constitution, age, spatial arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from adjacent communities steelhead trout: Oncorhynchus mykiss stocks: salmon: geneticaDydistinctlines subalpine fir: Abies Zasiocarpa substrate: a surface on which a plant or animal grows or is attached Swainson's thrush: Catharus ustuZatus 259 - 1- tanoak: Lithocarpus dlensi.forus