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ENV/RONMENTAL ISSUES IN PAC/F/C NORTHWEST FOREST MANAGEMENT Committee on Environmenta/ issues in Pacific Northwest Forest Management Board on Biology Commission on Life Sciences Nationa/ Research Counci/ NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NA IIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. 53-3187-3-02 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, by Grant No. 955-0585 from the Ford Foundation, and by funds from the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 00-106115 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05328-5 Photograph courtesy of the Forest History Society, Durham, N.C. Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800~24 6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council I.... A: ...... ......... A ~ (I C,,, ~...,).- The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineenng was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recogruzes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON ENV/RONMENTAL ISSUES IN PAC/F/C NORTHWEST FOREST MANAGEMENT NORMAN L. CHRISTENSEN, IR. (Chair), Duke University, Durham, North Carolina STANLEY V. GREGORY, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Wayland, Massachusetts THOMAS A. HEBERLEIN, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin JOHN C. HENDEE, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho JEFFREY T. OLSON, Peekskill, New York JAMES M. PEEK, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho DAVID A. PERRY, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon TIMOTHY D. SCHOWALTER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon KATHLEEN SULLIVAN, Sustainable Ecosystems Institute, Portland, Oregon G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota KRISTINA A. VOGT, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff LEE R. PAULSON, Project Director PATRICIA PEACOCK, Program Officer ERIC FISCHER, Principal Staff Officer KATHRINE IVERSON, Project Assistant MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Information Specialist STEPHANIE PARKER, Graphics and Layout v

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BOARD ON BIOLOGY PAUL BERG, Chairman, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA JOANNA BURGER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ MICHAEL T. CLEGG, University of California, Riverside, CA DAVID ETSENBERG, University of California, Los Angeles, CA DAVID I. GALAS, Keck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, CA DAVID V. GOEDDEL, Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, CA ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA, University of California, Riverside, CA COREY S. GOODMAN, University of California, Berkeley, CA CYNTHIA K. KENYON, University of California, San Francisco, CA BRUCE R. LEVIN, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ELLIOT M. MEYEROWITZ, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA ROBERT T. PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle, WA RONALD R. SEDEROFF, North Carolina StateUniversity, Raleigh, NC ROBERT R. SOKAL, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY SHIRLEY M. TILGHMAN, Princeton University, Princeton, N) RAYMOND L. WHITE, University of Utah, Salt LakeCity, UT RALPH DELL, Executive Director vi

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COMM/SS/ON ON L/FE SCIENCES MICHAEL T. CLEGG (Chair), University of California, Riverside, CA PAUL BERG Vice Chair), Stanford University, Stanford, CA FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, DC JOANNA BURGER, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ JAMES E. CLEAVER, University of California, San Francisco, CA DAVID EISENBERG, University of California, Los Angeles, CA JOHN EMMERSON, ~Fishers, IN NEAL FIRST, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI DAVID J. GALAS, Reck Graduate Institute of Applied Life Science, Claremont, CA DAVID V. GOEDDEL, Tularik, Inc., South San Francisco, CA ARTURO GOMEZ-POMPA, University of California, Riverside, CA COREY S. GOODMAN, University of California, Berkeley, CA JON W. GORDON, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY DAVID G. HOEL, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC BARBARA S. HULKA, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC CYNTHIA KENYON, University of California, San Francisco, CA BRUCE R. LEVIN, Emory University, Atlanta, GA DAVID LIVINGSTON, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA DONALD R. MATTISON, March of Dimes, White Plains, NY ELLIOT M. MEYEROWITZ, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA ROBERT T. PAINE, University of Washington, Seaffle, WA RONALD R. SEDEROFF, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC ROBERT R. SOKAL, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY CHARLES F. STEVENS' The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA SHIRLEY MO TILGHMAN, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey RAYMOND L. WHITE, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Staff WARREN R. MUIR, Executive Director JACQUELINE K. PRINCE, Financial Officer BARBARA B. SMITH, Administrative Associate LAURA T. HOLLIDAY, Senior Program Assistant . . vll

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PREFACE in response to a congressional request, the Board on Biology convened the Committee on Environmental issues In Pacific Northwest Forest Management ~1993 to review information concerning the status of resources of the Pacific Northwest and the relationship of those to supply and demand for forest products in other regions of the country. Committee members were selected for their expertise in forestry practices, public lands issues, biology, vertebrate and invertebrate ecology, rural sociology, and multiple-use land management. The committee grappled with many contentious questions. What activities ought to be included under the rubric of "forest management?" What was the presettlement character of Pacific Northwest forest landscapes and how have those forests and landscapes been altered by human activities? What are the ecological and economic consequences of changes in forest management practices? How are changes in forest management policy and practice in the Pacific Northwest influencing forest management outside that region? The definition and assessment of old-growth forests and their associated biodiversity and the implications of changing modes of management for their future were a particularly important part of the committee's deliberations. Nine meetings with guest presentations were held, including meetings in Portland, Oregon; Seattle, Washington; end Post Falls, Idaho. The public was invited to briefings in Washington, D.C., and Portland, Oregon. The original request for this study came from Congress In 1992, and lX

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much has changed in between then and now. There is now little debate over the value and importance of conserving important areas of old growth forest. Conflict over forest-resource management continues, of course, but it is no longer polarized along such simple axes as "owls versus jobs." However, the basic question of how we are to achieve sustainable management of Pacific Northwest forests, as well as the forests of other regions in the context of increasing demand for the goods and services forests provide remains. How such specific initiatives as the Northwest Forest Plan fit into that objective is also unclear. It was clear throughout our study Mat few institutions exist to resolve the increasingly complex conflicts between the needs and aspirations of local communities and regional visions for the health of forest ecosystems. Improvement in communication, institutional learning, and institutional performance is badly neecled among government agencies, environmental groups, the business sector and the academic world. The problems presented in our charge are highly interdisciplinary, ranging from such fundamental natural science problems as the presettlement dynamics of forests and the implications of forest fragmentation for the management of species populations to very human impacts of changes in forest management on regional economies and rural communities. Furthermore, the committee was constantly aware of the reality that forest management in all regions is being undertaken with an increasingly diverse array of objectives across an increasingly complex array of ownerships. When the committee began its work, FEMAT (1993) had just been published and the President's Northwest Forest Plan just released. Over these several years, a number of the ~nanagement challenges and our understanding of a number of particular issues have changed. We have worked hard to incorporate those changes into this document. T am grateful to the committee for their willingness, indeed eagerness, to work across traditional disciplinary lines and perseverance in a process that became more drawn out than any of us expected. The committee would like to acknowledge the generous assistance of numerous persons who made presentations or in other ways enlightened the committee regarding the complex issues facing the Pacific Northwest, including Senator Mark Hatfield, U.S. Senate; Mark Walker, staff to Senator Hatfield; lack Ward Thomas, U.S. Forest Service; x

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Davic! Darr, U.S. Forest Servicer Nancy Foster, NationalMarine Fisheries Services; Donal Knowles and Donald Barry, U.S. Department of the Interior; Stuart McKenzie, U.S. Geological Survey; Mike Penfold, Bureau of Land Management; lames E. Brown, Oregon Department of Forestry; Kaleen Cottingham, State of Wahsington; Robert Ewing, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection; lay O'haughlin, University of Idaho; CharIey Grenier, Plum Creek, Columbia Falls, Montana; Kevin Bolling, PotIach Corporation, Lewiston, Idaho; Ted Strong, Columbia River Inter-Tribal Commission, Portland, Oregon; Si Whitman, Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai Idaho; Gary Morishima, Intertribal Timber Council, Portland, Oregon; Terry Williams, Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, Olympia, Washington; lack Shipley and km Neal, Applegate Partnership, Grants Pass, Oregon; and l eah Wills and km Wilcox, Plumas Corporation, Quincy, California. A grant frown the Ford Foundation provided important support to complete this project. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures for reviewing NRC reports approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candle! and critical comments that assist the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the final report is the responsibility of the NRC and the study committee and not the responsibility of the reviewers. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals, who are neither officials nor employees of the NRC, for their participation in the review of this report: Ellis Cowling, North Carolina State University; Paul Ellefson, University of Minnesota; ferry Franklin, University of Washington; and John Lapin, Oregon State University. The individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions. Nevertheless, the responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the NRC. Several NRC staff members contributed in important ways to the committee's deliberations and to the assembly of this final report. Patricia Peacock and Eric Fischer each played important roles in our Xl

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early discussions and the assembly of many early report draft reports. We also thank Gordon Orians for his thoughtful review of and comments on the draft report that was sent to review. We are especially grateful to Lee Paulson whose writing, editorial, diplomatic, and motivational skills contributed mightily to this find product. Norman Christensen, Chair . . xll

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CONTENTS Executive Summary 7 The Promised Land: The Land of Promise Introduction, 15 Loss of the Frontier, 16 Changing Knowledge Base, 16 Changing Social Values, 17 The Study Area, 21 Other Major Studies and Reports, 22 This Report, 26 2 The Region and its Forests Introduction, 27 A Brief History, 27 Demographics and the Economy, 33 Population Growth, 33 Economic implications of Population Growth, 35 The Region's Forests, 36 Westside Forests, 36 Eastside Forests, 38 Northern Rocky Mountains, 39 Regional Ownership Patterns, 40 Summary, 42 . . . x/// 75 ~7

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O/d-Growth Forests Introduction, 44 What is Vegetative Succsession?, 44 What Is an Old-Growth Forest?, 45 Time Required for Old-Growth Development, 53 Old-Growth Landscapes, 53 Managed Forests and Old-Growth Characteristics, 59 Stand Size, 60 Biologicai Functions of Old-Growth anct Late-Successional Forests, 61 Species Diversity, 62 Logs and Woody Debris, 64 Susceptibility to Disturbance, 65 Aquatic Ecosystems, 66 Extent and Status of Old-Growth Forests, 67 Summary, 72 4 44 The Status and Functioning of Pacific Northwest Forests introduction, 73 Forest Condition, 73 General Criteria of Condition, 73 The Role of Biological Diversity, 75 Resistance and Resilience, 78 Landscape Change and Threats to Biodiversity, S! Diseases ancl Pests, 85 Incidence of Pest and Disease Outbreaks, 87 Status of Other Plant Species, 91 Status of Wildlife, 92 Salmon and Other Fisheries, 93 Invertebrates, 101 Fungi, 102 Viable Populations and the Conservation of Biodiversity, 103 Demographic Factors, 105 Genetic Factors, 106 Population Viability Analysis, 107 73 5 Forest Succession, Fire, and Landscape Dynamics 7 08 xiv

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Introduction, 108 Concepts of Succession and Landscape Dynamics, 109 Fire and Landscape Dynamics, IJ2 Presettlement Fire Regimes and Successional Change, I13 Human Alteration of Fire Regimes, 116 Natural Disturbance and Human Management: An Ecological Comparison, I18 Landscape Considerations, I18 Fuels, I19 Nutrient Fluxes, 120 Biological Diversity, 121 6 Products from the Forests Pacific Northwest Woocl Products in the National Economy, 123 Products In National and International Markets, 129 Effects of Changes in Federal Timber Harvests In the Pacific Northwest, 129 Increased Harvests at the Extensive Margin, 135 Increased Harvests at the Intensive Margin, 136 Increased Use of Hardwoods, 137 Technology Changes, 138 Materials Substitution, 138 Environmental Effects, 139 Implications for Other Regions, 141 Effects on Regional and National Income, 144 Change and Incentives, 145 Nonwood Products from Forests, 146 Wildlife-Related Recreation, 147 Other Forest-Related Recreation, 151 Fisheries, 153 Mushrooms, 155 Water, 156 Effects of Changes in Management of PNW Forests on Nonwood Products, 157 Regional Economic Effects, 158 Summary, 159 722 xv

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Forest Management and Rura/ Communities in the Pacific Northwest 7 60 Rural Economic WeD Being and Natural-Resource Industries, 160 Timber Dependency and Community Well Being, 162 Diversification in Rural Communities of the Pacific Northwest, 1 65 In-Migration, 168 Poverty and PlentyAnger and Hope in the Pacific Northwest, 1 69 Summary, 170 A Framework for Sustainable Forest Management 7 77 Introduction, 171 Elements of Forest Management, 171 Land ADocation, 172 Rationing Uses, 174 Harvesting, 176 Investment, 1 79 Examples of Forest Investment, IS0 Positive and Negative Incentives to Forest Investment, 181 Meeting the Goals of Sustainable Forest Management, IS2 A Framework for Sustainable Forest Management, 184 Operational Goals, IS4 Managing in Context and Across Scales of Space and Time, IS5 Approaches to Managing for Diversity: General Considerations, 186 Reserves, 189 Logging to Improve Forest Health, 190 Management for Complexity and Diversity, 191 Variabilitr and Change, 192 Uncertainty and Surprise, 193 Humans as Ecosystem Components, 194 Making Management Adaptable, 195 Resolving Conflicts, 197 9 Conclusions and Recommendations Forestry Practices in the Pacific Northwest, 200 What Is Old-Growth?, 205 Old-Growth Management, 206 Forest Products Substitution, 206 Research Recommendations, 208 xv/ 799

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References Glossary 277 254 . ~ xvll

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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST FOREST MANAGEMENT

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