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Index A Abandonment of nourishment project, 12, 120-121 of shore buildings, 17, 27-28 Accountability, 13, 104-105 Accretion of sediment design considerations, 141-142 recommendations for research, 157 Adjacent areas considerations in project site selection, 145 in cost-benefit analysis, 5, 47-48, 153 effects of hard structures in nourishment projects, 89-91 in project and program planning, 8, 31, 148 property values, 47-48, 138, 257-258, 262-263 See also Spreading losses Adjustable structures, 90 Advanced fill, 8, 102, 142, 193, 194, 200-201, 212-213 Alaska, 179 Alon~shore spreading. See Sediment transport; Spreading losses 317 Amenity values, 47-48, 258 Arctic coast, 22 Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. (USAGE) Beach Erosion Board, 59 Coastal Engineering Research Board, 59 Coastal Engineering Research Center, 59, 100, 193 contracting for technical services, 9, 150 coordination of navigation projects and shore protection projects, 39 cost-benefit analysis methodology, 5, 45, 47, 137, 152-154, 251-252, 260-262 credentialing of coastal engineers, 105 current shore protection strategies, 60 design procedures and standards, 6, 102-103, 191, 311-313 evaluation of nontraditional devices, 12, 145 evolution of shore protection strategies, 59, 311-312 FEMA and, 73

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318 legislative authority, 59-60 major projects, 18 modeling techniques, 177, 182 navigation projects, 153-154 project decision-making, 43-45 recommendations for, 143, 145, 150, 152-154, 157 reconnaissance study, 29 research budget, 18 responsibilities, 18, 58-59 sand bypass system, 215, 291 Shore Protection Manual, 6, 142-143, 199 spending on shore protection, 18 storm modeling methodology, 199, 312-313 wave studies, 304 Assateague Island, 29-30, 39 Atlantic coast, physical characteristics of, 21-22 Australia, 223-225 B Backpassing, 269-270 Bahama Islands, 100, 273 Barrier islands, 19 Beach profile analysis, 303 construction profile, 84, 204 construction template, 194 design profile, 194-199, 203-204 design standards, 6 difficulties of modeling, 93-94 disequilibrium, 167 equilibrated, 84-87, 93, 142 equilibration equations, 169-172 evolution after nourishment, 82, 195- 196, 206-210 grain size as factor in, 208 historical development of design concepts, 190- 191 modeling techniques in design process, 95-97 INDEX monitoring, 84, 131 - 132, 299-304 nourishment profiles, 205-206 numerical modeling of evolution of, 181-182 offshore bar, 209-210 optimum cross-section design for storm protection, 208 perched beach, 217-218, 225-226 profile nourishment approach, 209 public understanding, 54-55 recommendations for research, 156 seasonal variation, 87 subaerial, 301, 303 subaqueous, 301 survey techniques, 300-301 underwater beach, 54-55 Benefits of beach nourishment. See Cost-benefit analysis; Recreation; Social costs and benefits; Storm damage reduction Berm, 72 design beach, 194-199 profile equilibration, 84 as variable in probabilistic design, 231-233 Biological resources in borrow sites, 10, 115-120, 151 criticism of nourishment practice, 17 government agency for protection of, 18 monitoring, 134- 136 preconstruction monitoring, 129 project monitoring, 10, 150-151 project planning, 151 responses to nourishment activities, 39 subaerial habitats, project effects on, 107-112 subtidal habitats, project effects on, 112-115 Bird populations, 110, 112 Bulkheads. See Revetments/seawalls/ bulkheads

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INDEX C Caldwell section, 102, 312-313 California, 31-32, 209-210, 222, 270, 272-273 Climate change, 23, 40 Clinton administration, 43-44, 67 Closure depth borrow sites within, 8-9, 145 defined, 8 as design concept, 93 determination, 301 meaning, 87 offshore nourishment mound in, 210 Coastal Barrier Improvement Act of 1990, 19 Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982, 19 Coastal Barrier Resources System, 19 Coastal processes Arctic coast characteristics, 22 Atlantic coast characteristics, 21 -22 current understanding, 6, 16, 141 design considerations, 141-142, 194 Great Lakes region, characteristics of, 21 Gulf coast characteristics, 21 monitoring, 128-129, 130-134 Pacific coast characteristics, 20-21 physical definition of beach, 20 professional understanding of, for project design, 104-105 research needs, 10, 156-157 simulation in risk analysis, 233-235 U.S. Geological Survey research, 69 See also Sediment transport Coastal Zone Management Act, 61, 62 Commercial fisheries, 113 Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994, 67 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, 48, 254 319 Computers geographic information systems, 308- 309 modeling systems, 177-181, 193, 234, 296 Coney Island, 16, 191, 267 Construction profile, 84, 204 Construction standards for shoreline buildings elements of, 77 long-term considerations, 76, 77-78 recommendations for, 155-156 relaxation of, 13, 76-78 as requirement of beach nourishment projects, 31 setback requirements, 72, 78 as source of long-term uncertainty, 41 Continental shelf, 147 Contingency planning in beach nourishment planning, 9, 141 recommendations, 141, 148 Contingent valuation, 138, 251, 255 Contractual arrangements for emergency nourishment, 290 for nourishment projects, 286-288 Cost-benefit analysis benefit factors in, 46 conceptual development, 253-254 consideration of alternative scenarios in, 51 contingent valuation, 138, 251, 255 cost factors in, 46 of design beach, 198-200 development-induced risk, 260 distribution of project costs and benefits, 43, 44-45, 139, 251, 252 economic development factors, 45, 48-49 environmental issues in, 48 follow-up studies, 137 funding strategies as factor in, 52 future considerations, 50 infrastructure burdens as factor in, 260

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320 long-term maintenance considerations, 147 of market vs. nonmarket items, 252, 255 methodological problems, 4-5, 152 monitoring for, 136-139 navigation projects as factor in, 4, 5, 151-152, 153-154 obstacles to, 46, 47-49 opportunities for improving, 4-5, 260 262 opportunity costs, 259 preconstruction monitoring, 129 price of sand, projections for, 7 project scope considerations in, 8 property values as factor in, 47-48 proposed for water resource development projects, 44 public good considerations, 51-52 quality issues in, 47 quality of life issues in, 259 recommendations for, 151-154, 157 recreational values in, 5, 46, 47, 137 138, 152, 153, 199-200, 258 research needs, 157 storm damage reduction as factor in, 46-47, 152 time horizon issues, 50-51 travel cost models, 251, 252, 255-256 uncertainty and risk in, 264 unintentional effects in, 47-49 USACE methodology, 5, 45, 47, 152 154, 251-252, 260-262 vs. economic analysis, 46 See also Social costs and benefits Cost of beach protection, 15 CRAB survey system, 301 Criticism of nourishment projects, 16 17, 43, 215-216 Currents, monitoring, 133, 305 Cutter-suction dredge, 101, 275-277, 278, 282-283, 287 INDEX D Design of project advanced fill, 102, 193, 194, 200-201, 212-213 analysis of, 190 analytical modeling techniques, 32 baseline profile, 87, 134 biological resource considerations, 10, 151 borrow site characteristics as factor in, 281, 285 as budget of littoral sediments, 235 237, 298-299 calculating nourishment quantity, 194-196 conditions for success, 3 construction profile, 84, 204 cost-benefit analysis in, 198-200 criteria for engineered beach status, 13, 154-155 cross-section profiles, 102-103, 194, 196, 203-204 design profile, 194-199, 203-204 detached breakwaters, 218-219 detailed phase, 96-97 development of design beach, 194 200 dredging and delivery considerations, 284 effects of fixed structures, 196-198 engineering and technical standards, 6, 142-143 environmental impacts, 120, 189-190 erosion measurements, 141-142 estimating sand volume, 194-198, 203-204 federal guidelines, 102-103 German method, 211-212 groins, 219-221 historical development, 16, 191-193, 311-312 hybrid projects, 144, 217-218 individual differences, 190 invariants, 185

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INDEX judgment in, 190 local conditions as factors in, 6, 88, 94, 141, 142, 143 long-term considerations, 189 methods, 194 Netherlands method, 211 objectives, 83-84, 189, 190, 311 opportunities for improvement, 6-7, 212-213, 216 perched beach, 225-226 performance monitoring and, 295 postcons~uction refinement, 103-104 preliminary phase, 95-96 process, 32-34, 83, 190 professional accountability, 104-105 profile equilibration, 84-87 public access considerations, 286 public awareness/involvement, 7, 146, 147, 190 recommendations for, 141-143, 157 research needs, 6, 10-11, 157 revetments/seawalls/bulkheads, 222 225 review phase, 190 risk analysis in, 226, 227-229 safety factors, 142 sand bypass operation, 214, 215, 290 291 sand compatibility, 201-203, 213 sand source considerations, 97-98 sand-tight jetties, 221-222 sea-level rise considerations, 213 sediment characteristics as factor in, 281 sediment placement, 204-205, 285 286 technical basis, 82 uncertainty and risk in, 34, 40-41, 94, 264 USACE strategies, 59, 60, 311-313 use of hard structures with nourishment, 89-91, 104 use of nontraditional devices, 91-92 veneer beach fills, 237-242 wave characteristics as factor in, 132 321 Detached breakwaters, 218-219 Deterministic design, 227-228 Differential global positioning systems, 308 Disaster assistance programs design standards for qualification under, 13 federal, 63 recommendations for, 154-155 Dredging back bay sand deposits, 272-273 biological impacts, 1O, 115, 118-12O, 151 borrow site characteristics, 282-283, 285 computer modeling of effects, 179 180 contingency planning for, 9 deepwater, 283, 288 disposal of sand from federal navigation projects, 5, 39, 153 effects of sediment characteristics, 281 equipment and techniques, 101, 274 280 future needs, 288-289 industry characteristics, 287-288 local conditions as factor in, 284-285 project design consideration, 284 sand bypass operation, 213-215 stockpiling material, 289, 290 Dry beach width, 54-55, 150 equilibration equations, 169-172 in equilibrium profile, 87 as indicator of project performance, 4, 87 project planning, 32 Dunes migration process, 72 modeling behavior of, in design process, 96-97 modeling movement of, 192, 199 nourished profile for storm protection, 208-209

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322 as sand source for replenishment, 270-271 E Economic development, 1, 3 benefits of tourism, 14- 15, 48-49 in cost-benefit analysis of projects, 26, 45, 48-49, 258 infrastructure burdens, 49, 260 negative effects, 49 rationale for project, 31 valuation of, as project effect, 138- 139 Economics analytical scope, 45 contractor payment, 286-287 cost of feasibility/reconnaissance studies, 29 cost of nourishment material, 7, 100- 101, 147-148 cost of offshore disposal of navigation project sand, 5, 153 distribution of project costs, justification for, 43-45 dredging industry, 287 economies of scale in project planning, 31, 290 efficient use, 251 federal funding process, 9, 28, 150 flood protection role of projects, 12- 13 hedonic analysis, 138, 256 impacts vs. value, 256 long-term considerations, 23, 53-54, 147-148 measures of project success, 149 monitoring, 129, 136-139, 213 national flood insurance program, 76 preconstruction monitoring, 129 project evaluation criteria, 4 public understanding of beach nourishment implications, 36, 37, 53-54, 55 rationale for government intervention, 45-46, 51-52 INDEX risk analysis, 229, 231 sand placement, 36-37 social benefits of project related to financing, 253 spending on beach protection, 15, 18 tourism benefits, 48-49 of transporting nourishment material, 275, 282, 283 use of fixed structures, 143-144 value of beaches, 14- 15 See also Cost-benefit analysis EDUNE modeling tool, 192, 193, 199 Effectiveness of projects conditions for success, 3, 140 current professional assessment, 2 design factors, 141 design invariants, 185 design objectives, 83-84 detached breakwaters, 218-219 determinants of, 98 with fixed structures, 11-12, 143 grain size as factor in, 97 measures of success, 4, 41-43, 54-55, 149-150, 215-217 nontraditional devices and techniques, 92 opportunities to improve, 2-3 placement of sand as factor in, 32-34 public expectations and, 2, 34-38, 55 veneer beach fills, 239-242 Emergency maintenance, 9, 148 cost considerations, 288 federal assistance programs, 155 preprocessed contracts for, 290 Endangered species, 110, 112 Engineered beach, 13, 154-155 Environmental concerns beach recovery from nourishment activities, 39 borrow source areas, 115- 120 coastal areas, 14 criticism of nourishment practice, 17- 18 current status, 107

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INDEX as factors in cost-benefit analysis, 48, 259 fixed structures, 144 legal and regulatory issues, 39 monitoring biological resources, 128 129, 134-136 monitoring physical resources, 130 134 monitoring previous history of site, 131 in project design, 189- 190 project monitoring, 10, 150- 151 restoration of abandoned projects, 120-121 risk assessment, 226 subaerial habitats, 107-112 subtidal habitats, 112-115 turbidity effects, 40 U.S. Geological Survey research, 69 Environmental Protection Agency, 19, 253-254 Equations for predicting project evolution effect of wave refraction, 176 equilibration dry beach width, 169- 172 equilibrium profile, 192 erosional hot spots, 176- 177 fill performance with uniform background rate, 175 longevity for simplest case, 174 planform evolution, 172- 174 residual bathymetry, 176-177 simple analytical procedures, 168-169 storm frequency, 230-231 Equilibrium profile as design concept, 93, 95-96, 143 dynamic nature of, 87 equilibration process, 84, 86-87, 194, 206 evolution of modeling concepts, 192 prediction and evaluation, 87 prediction dry beach width, 87 time scales, 84, 95, 167, 169 323 Erosion, 2, 72 background assessment, 32, 94 definition, 24 design considerations, 3, 6-7, 141 - 142 effects of fixed structures, 11, 144 effects of navigation projects, 152, 153-154 federal agencies concerned with, 18,. 64, 72-73 hot spots, 6, 101-102, 103-104, 141 142, 157, 176-177, 180 human factors in, 15- 16, 29 littoral drift gradients, 200 National Flood Insurance Program planning basis, 65-67 natural processes, 15, 72 potential community responses to, 27 28 predictive modeling techniques, 192 193 public understanding of, 53 rate after nourishment, 189 regional characteristics, 20, 21, 22-23 relevance of sea-level rise, 15, 146 research needs, 10-11, 157 USACE responsibilities, 58-59 Evaluation of beach background erosion, 32 previous history, 131, 299 reconnaissance/feasibility study, 29 Evaluation of project performance alongshore spreading, 87-88 definition, 24 difficulties of, 62 equilibrium dry beach width, 87 FEMA accreditation of nourishment projects as hazard-reducing, 73-74, 7g-80 measures of success, 41-43, 54-55, 149-150, 215-217 media coverage, 37-38 methodology, 4, 144 under National Flood Insurance Program, 64-65, 67, 68, 73, 156

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324 need for, 17 nontraditional devices and techniques, 12,92, 144 of project scope, 8, 149 as public investment, 257 public participation in, 55 recommendations for methodology, 144, 149-150 relevance of sea-level rise, 146 scope of economic analysis, 45, 251 social costs and benefits, 251, 252 spreading losses, 200-201 See also Cost-benefit analysis; Monitoring Exxon Valdez, 256 F Failure of projects causes of, 16 sources of uncertainty and risk:, 40-41 Feasibility study, 29 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) accreditation and certification by, 13, 73-74, 79-80 authorities and responsibilities, 18, 62 beach nourishment policy, 73 Community Rating System, 78 disaster assistance program, 13, 154- 155 engineered beach criteria, 13, 154- 155 flood insurance program, 13, 18, 62, 64-68, 154, 156 recommendations for, 154-155, 156 risk assessment methodology, 13, 41 shore protection spending, 18 USACE and, 73 Federal government agencies involved in coastal management, 58. See also specific agencies construction standards in nourishment projects, 31 INDEX coordination of navigation projects and shore protection projects, 39 cost-benefit analysis methodology, 46, 52, 260-262 criticism of nourishment programs, 16-17, 43 design procedures, 102-103 determinants of federal interest in support of projects, 28 distribution of project costs, justification for, 43-45 erosion impacts of navigation projects, 4, 152, 153-154 funding for feasibility/reconnaissance studies, 29 management of national seashores, 18, 39 objectives for nourishment projects funded by, 83 opportunities for agency coordination in shore protection, 71-73, 79-80 planning requirements, 9, 150 project funding, recommendations for, 9, 150 proposed participation in shore protection projects, 44 rationale for intervention, 45-46, 51 52 in securing long-term sand source, 7, 147 shore protection activities/ responsibilities, 18-19 social cost-benefit analysis mandated by, 253-254 spending for beach protection, 15, 18 FEMA. See Federal Emergency Management Agency FIRMS. See Flood Insurance Rate Maps Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S., 18 Fish populations, 113, 114, 135 Fixed structures, 55 adjustable, 90 current application, 18 design of nourishment project with, 11, 89-91, 104, 196-198, 217-218

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INDEX detached breakwaters, 218-219 Grain size, 6 downdrift placement, gO effectiveness of, 11 fill, 6, 12, 144 groins, 55, 90-91, 219-221 historical development, 16, 59 interior placement, 90-91 maintenance of beach nourishment project and, 12, 144 monitoring, 133, 307 predicting effects of, 90, 91, 93-94, 182-185 recommendations for, 143-145 restoration of abandoned projects, 120-121 retention structures, 183 revetments/seawalls/bulkheads, 1, 16, 183-185, 196-198, 222-225 role of, 11-12, 144 sand-tight jetties, 221-222 traditional applications, 1, 16 USACE strategies, 59 Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMS), 65, 67, 76 Floods. See National Flood Insurance Program; Storm damage reduction Florida, 31, 39, 40, 48, 54, 67, 88, 100, 113, 114, 180, 195-196, 200-201, 217, 218-219, 221, 222, 240-241, 268, 272, 273, 298 G GENESIS modeling tool, 178-181, 193, 201 Geographical information systems, 308 309 Geological Survey, U.S. authorities and responsibilities, 18, 68 National Marine and Coastal Geology Program, 68-70 recommendations for, 157 Germany, 15, 211-212 Ghost crabs, 109 Global positioning systems, 308 325 design consideration, 142 distribution on beach, 306 dune sand, 270-271 effects on dredging and construction, 281 effects on project performance, 93, 201 in evaluating equilibrium profile, 87 evaluation of borrow material, 97 evolution of design concepts, 191 in evolution of nourished profile, 208 as factor in alongshore spreading, 88, 202 in modeling of sand movement, 93, 95-96 monitoring, 133-134 offshore sand sources, 268 colitic sands, 273 overfill method of design modeling, 201-202 recommendations for research, 156 sediment movement and, 93 Great Lakes Region, physical characteristics of, 21 Green Book, 253 Groins, 55, 90-91, 219-221. See also Fixed structures Gulf coast, 113 physical characteristics, 21 H Harbor protection, 104 Hawaiian islands, 22-23 Hedonic analysis, 138, 256 Historical development of shore protection, 16, 311-312 Hopper dredge, 101, 275, 277-278, 282, 287 Housing and Urban Development Act of 1987, 28 I Indiana, 39 Insurance

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326 flood, 13, 18, 154, 156. See also National Flood Insurance Program risk assessment, 41 Interior, U.S. Department of, 19, 147 See also Minerals Management Service International comparison, 25 spending for beach protection, 15 Interval between renourishments accuracy of projections, 54 cost of fixed structures and, 144 first renourishment, 7, 142 as measure of project performance, 43 performance predictions, 83 public awareness, 146 risk analysis, 229-230 statistical modeling, 235 Italy, 225 Japan, 15 L Land-use plans, 49, 263 Land values, 14 Laws and regulations affecting beach nourishment projects, 43 NOAA authorities, 61 project planning process, 39-40 USACE authority, 59-60 on use of dredged sand from navigation projects, 314-315 on use of fixed structures, 11, 18, 143-145 valuation of environmental effects, 48 See also specific legislation Licensing of engineers, 105 Littoral Environment Observation Program, 305 Local conditions baseline profile, 87, 129, 134, 296 INDEX design considerations, 6, 94, 141, 142, 143, 295 distribution of project benefits and, 45 history of site, 299 implications for dredging operations, 284-285 measurement of project success and, 41 -42 potential settings for nourishment projects, 88 preconstruction monitoring, 129, 296 predictability of project performance affected by, 94-95 project formulation for, 32-33 Long-term considerations accreditation of nourishment projects as hazard-reducing, 74-75, 79-80 in beach nourishment program, 9 biological resource degradation, 10 climate shifts, 23, 40 construction standards for shore buildings, 76-78 in cost-benefit analysis, 50-51 cost projections, 53-54 environmental effects of dredging, 115, 118-120 federal agency coordination, 79-80 measures of project success, 149- 150 placement of sand, 32-34 in project design, 189 project monitoring, 297 public awareness and understanding of, 38, 53 research and development needs in dredging industry, 288-289 restoration of abandoned projects, 120-121 sand placement technique, 32-34 sea-level rise, 213 social effects of projects, 252-253, 263-264 socioeconomic factors, 23

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. INDEX sources of nourishment material, 7-8, 23, 97-98, 100-101, 147-148 uncertainty in assumptions, 23 Louisiana, 69-70, 180, 241-242 M Maintenance availability of nourishment material, 7-8, 147-148 design of projects, 211 -212 emergency, 9, 148, 155, 288, 290 fixed structures, 12, 144 long-term commitments, 9, 147-148 need for, 17 postconstruction refinement, 103-104 recommendations, 141 relaxation of construction standards and, 77 Maryland, 29-30, 37-38, 39, 180, 182, 206, 223, 269, 280, 297 Media coverage, 37-38 Michigan, 67 Mineral rights, 147 Minerals Management Service, 18, 70 71, 147 Modeling, 32 advanced-fill design, 212-213 alongshore shoreline performance, 177-181 budget of sediments, 235-237 current and wave effects on underwater sand source, 71 data needs, 296 design role of, 190 dune recession, 192- 193, 199 erosion rate of nourished beach, 192- 193 limitations of, 93-94 numerical, 177- 182, 193 profile evolution, 181- 182 for risk analysis, 227-229, 233-234 sand compatibility, 201-202 USACE methodology, 60 wave tank experiments, 92 327 See also Equations for predicting project evolution Monaco, 225-226, 274 Monitoring activities of, 127, 135 beach profiles, 84, 299-304 biological, 10, 134-136, 150-151 borrow areas, 307 closure, 87 construction phase, 84, 129, 296 currents, 305 definition, 24 duration, 130, 296-297 economics, 129, 136-139, 213 environmental, 10, 120, 128-129, 150-151 fixed structures, 307 global positioning systems for, 308 good design of program for, 10 nontraditional devices and techniques, 92 objectives, 127-128, 129 operational, 129, 296 performance, 129, 295, 296 phases, 129-130, 296 photographic documentation, 134, 305, 309 physical processes of beach, 130- 134, 294-295, 297-299 postconstruction, 103- 104, 129, 296 preconstruction, 129, 296 quality control in construction, 289, 296 recommendations for, 150-151, 157 role of, 294, 295-296 sand movement, 87 scale, 130, 296-297 sediment budget, 298-299 sediment characteristics, 306 special studies, 308 storms, 301-303 subaerial life forms, 109-110 survey frequency, 132 third-party, 10, 157, 309

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328 types of, 128-129 water level, 133, 306 waves, 304-305 N National Economic Development plan, 8, 45, 149 National Flood Insurance Program accreditation of nourishment projects as hazard-reducing, 73-74, 79-80 construction standards for shore buildings, 76-78 evaluation of nourishment projects, 64-65, 67, 68, 73, 156 hazard zones, 64, 65-66, 78 opportunities for improved management of, 66-68 planning basis, 65-66 premium and rate setting, 13, 78-79, 154 as subsidization of beachfront property owners, 67-68 National Marine and Coastal Geology Pacific coast Program, 68-70 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 18 authorities and responsibilities, 18, 61-62, 133, 306 recommendations for, 157 Navigation projects disposal of sand, calculating cost of, 5, 153-154 as factor in cost-benefit analysis, 4, 5, 151-152, 153-154 planning in conjunction with nourishment project, 39 sand bypass systems and, 104, 213 214 as sand source for nourishment project, 272 stockpiling dredging material from, 290 Netherlands, 15, 209, 211 New Jersey, 58, 67, 179, 199, 220, 269 270 INDEX New York, 220 Nontraditional projects and techniques, 11, 12,89 defined, 89 n.1 evaluation of, 92 potential problems of, 92 recommendations, 144-145 research needs, 92 sand sources, 273-274 types of, 92 North Carolina, 28, 29, 39, 109, 191 o Ohio, 179, 219, 274 Oil Pollution Act, 48, 254 Colitic sands, 273 Opportunity costs, 259 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 70 Ozone layer, 23 p nourishment sources, 101 physical characteristics, 20-21, 30-31 Perched beach, 217-218, 225-226 Photographic documentation, 134, 305, 309 Placement of sand advanced-fill designs, 201 on beach face, 36, 84-86 construction monitoring, 129 design considerations, 32-34, 84, 284, 285-286 equipment and methods, 101, 274- 280 evolution of design concepts, 191 initial construction, 86 nourishment profiles, 84, 205-206 obstacles to, 281 offshore, 84, 209-210 for profile equilibration, 84-87 as project performance variable, 32- 34 in projects with hard structures, 90-91

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INDEX public access to beach during, 286 quality control, 289, 296 selection of methods, 204-205 technical capabilities, 284 Policy making analysis of public good, 51-52, 257 distribution of project costs, 43-45 as source of uncertainty, 41 technical basis for, 3, 17 Population trends, 14 Prediction of project performance advanced-fill design, 200-201 alongshore spreading, 88 cross-section design for storm protection, 208-209 in design process, 32, 83, 95-96 design profile, 203-204 in detailed design phase, 96-97 determinants of accuracy in, 88, 94- 95 equilibrium dry beach width, 87 evolution of techniques for, 191 - 193 expected accuracy of, 83 with fixed structures, 90, 91, 182- 185, 183 limitations, 93-94 obstacles to, 167-168 previous history of site as indicator for, 131, 299 risk assessment, 226 sediment transport patterns, 167 simple analytical procedures, 168-169 storm effects, 199 USACE methodology, 191 See also Equations for predicting project evolution; Modeling Probabilistic design, 228, 231-233 Profile equilibration. See Equilibrium profile Program planning availability of nourishment material, 7-8, 23, 147-148 commitments for long-term maintenance in, 9 329 consideration of adjacent areas, 148 decision-making process, 27-32, 294- 295 funding sources, 53 participants in, 28-29 reconnaissance study, 29 regional cooperation, 31-32, 148, 290 research needs, 156-157 Project planning assumptions, 23 biological monitoring, 134 construction contracts, 286-288 cost-benefit analysis, 51 definition process, 32 duration, 9, 150 federal agencies concerned with, 58 initiation of, 27 legal and regulatory environment, 39- 40, 150 local government in, 9 methodology, 141 navigation project planning and, 39 public expectations, 34-38 public involvement, 7, 146-147 public participation, 28-29 recommendations for, 140-141, 150 sand bypass operation, 6-7, 215, 291- 292 sand source considerations, 98, 267 scope of project, 8, 148-149 site selection, 145 terminology, 23 See also Design of project Property values amenity values, 47-48, 258 as factor in cost-benefit analysis, 47- 48, 262-263 hedonic analysis, 138, 256 storm damage reduction and, 47, 138, 257-258 Public awareness and expectations contingent valuation issues, 138 design process and, 34-38, 190 economic behavior in response to perceived damage reduction, 262- 264

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330 of effects of fixed structures, 11 elements of campaign for, 38, 53-55 initial sediment losses after nourishment, 36-37, 208 interest in shoreline protection, 14 of National Flood Insurance Program, 67-68 participation in project planning, 7, 28-29, 141 project costs, 53-54, 55 project performance and, 2, 34-38, 55 recommendations for, 141, 146-147 survey of, 34-36, 137-138 Public Law 71-520, 58-59 Public Law 94-s87, 315 R Rainfall, 41 Reconnaissance study, 29 Recreation contingent valuation of, 255 as factor in cost-benefit analysis, 4-5, 46, 52, 137-138, 152, 153, 199- 200, 255, 258, 261-262 monitoring, 137- 138 travel cost valuation of, 255 valuation in USACE cost-benefit analysis, 47, 251-252 value of beaches for, 1, 14-15 Research activities Geological Survey, U.S., 68-70 Minerals Management Service, 71 USACE, 59 Research needs coastal processes, 10-11, 156-157 correlation of closure with depth of closure, 87 cost-benefit distribution, 139 for decision-making, 10- 11 design and prediction methodologies, 6, 10-11, 157 directional wave data, 10, 157 evaluation of nontraditional projects, 12, 144-145 INDEX for National Flood Insurance Program planning basis, 65-66 for policy making, 17 recommendations, 156-157 Revetments/seawalls/bulkheads, 16, 183-185, 196-198, 222-225. See also Fixed structures Risk analysis/assessment current practyice, 41 data needs, 227, 234 in design process, 227-229 elements of, 226-227 FEMA evaluation of nourishment projects, 64-65, 78 FEMA flood hazard surveys, 64 public understanding of project risks, 34-36 relevance to nourishment projects, 226 simulation techniques, 228, 233-235 storm-related, 229-231 River and Harbor Act of 1968, 59-60 Rivers as sand sources, 270 S Safety factors in project design, 6, 142 Sand bypass operation, 8-9, 145 definition, 24 design of, 214, 215, 290-292 nature of, 99-100 navigation projects and, 104 need for, 213 as source of sand for nourishment, 100-101, 270 systems for, 214-215, 291 Sand-tight jetties, 221-222 Sand volume accuracy of predictions, 83 advanced-fill design, 200-201, 212- 213 calculating nourishment quantity, 6, 194-195 design determinants, 194-198, 203- 204- 212

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INDEX design profile, 194 estimating, in profile analysis, 303 grain size as determinant of, 202 as measure of project success, 4, 149 150, 216-217 monitoring, 54-55, 131 - 132, 150 Netherlands method, 211 nourishment design as managing budget of, 235-237, 298-299 overburden distribution, 109 preliminary design calculations, 96 subaqueous, 4 thickness of veneer beach fills, 238 SBEACH modeling tool, 181, 182, 192 193, 199, 208 Scheduling of construction, 286 Sea level. See Water level Sea turtles, 17, 110-112, 128-129, 190 Seawalls. See Revetments/seawalls/ bulkheads Sediment characteristics, 133-134 compatibility, 102-103 design consideration, 6-7, 97-98 implications for dredging and construction, 281 monitoring, 306 colitic sands, 273 settling velocity, 306 social value, 46 surveying, 97 See also Grain size Sediment transport closure depth and, 8, 87 design considerations, 6-7, 95-97, Size of project 141, 142 effect of fixed structures on, 89-91, 183-185, 196-198 environmental effects, 113- 114 equilibrium state, 167 in erosional hot spots, 101-102 grain size as factor in, 93, 202 groin effects, 219-220 measurement of, 87 modeling, 93-94, 95-97, 177- 181 331 natural processes, 15 offshore mounds, 210 patterns in project evolution, 167 public understanding of, 36-37, 208 recommendations for research, 156 seawall effects, 196-198 shoreline recession, definition of, 24 time scales, 169 wave action in, 304 See also Spreading losses Seismic survey, 98, 268 Setback requirements, 13, 72, 78 Shore buildings abandonment strategy, 27-28 elevated, 77 federal policy, 19, 72-73 FEMA insurance requirements, 64- 65, 68 nourishment program as subsidy for, 16-17 as rationale for nourishment project, 53 trends, 1, 59 See also Construction standards Shore Protection Manual, 6, 142-143, lg9 Shore protection structures. See Fixed structures Side-scan sonar, 98 Site selection, 145 as cause of project failure, 16 major USACE projects, 18 previous history of site, 131 design consideration, 34 monitoring needs, 130 policy problems, 8 profile equilibration, 84 recommendations, 148-149 regional planning, 31-32, 148, 290 Social costs and benefits analytical challenges, 49, 254, 257 beach nourishment evaluation, 252- 253, 257, 262-264

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332 behavior affected by perceptions of, 262-264 benefit categories, 257-259 cost categories, 259-260 current cost-benefit analysis methodology, 4-5, 45-46, 260-262 distribution of, 45, 51-52, 252 future considerations, 254, 256, 258- 259, 262, 263-264 hedonic analysis, 256 as measure of economic efficiency, 251 project financing and, 253 recommendations for assessing, 152- 153 valuation methodology in analysis of, 252, 253-256 value of sand, 46 vs. economic value, 256 See also Cost-benefit analysis Sources of sand assessing, 98, 268 back bay deposits, 272-273 beach ridges, 271-272 biological resources in borrow sites, 10, 115-120, 151 borrow site characteristics, implications for dredging, 282-283, 285 within closure depths, 8-9, 97, 145 contaminated, 97 continental shelf, 147 cost projections, 7, 46, 50-51 crushed rock material as, 274 deepwater, 283, 288 definition, 24 as determinant of project success, 98 distance from shore, 97 distant sites, 283, 289 dunes, 270-271 for emergency nourishment, 9, 148, 155 evaluation in design process, 97-98, 142 INDEX evolution of design concepts, 191 excavation equipment and methods, 101, 274-280 federal management, 18, 70-71, 147 future potentials, 101, 283 historical nourishment practice, 267 inland, 270-273 inlets, 269 littoral drift, 269-270 locating, 8-9, 98, 268 long-term consideration, 23, 50-51, 147-148 monitoring, 130-131, 151, 307 navigation projects, 5, 39, 153-154, 273-273 offshore, 97, 98, 115-118, 267-269 colitic sands, 273 project planning, 32, 98, 267 project site selection and, 145 recommendations for, 142, 147-148 regulatory restrictions, 39-40 sand bypassing as, 99-101, 270 sediment compatibility as design factor, 201-202, 213 silt/clay content, 97, 108, 114 stockpiling, 289, 290 uncertainties about, in planning process, 7-8, 40-41 unconventional, 147 upland areas, 115 South Carolina, 60, 67, 113, 300 Spain, 15 Spreading losses alongshore equilibration, 84 current understanding, 169 design consideration, 6, 142 determinants of, 88 federal design guidelines for calculating, 102-103 grain size as factor in, 202 littoral drift gradients, 200-201 as measure of project performance, 87-88 predictive modeling techniques, 193

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INDEX time scales, 169 use of hard structures to contain, 89- 91 See also Sediment transport State governments NOAA activities and, 61, 62 in securing long-term sand source, 7, 147 Stochastic design, 228, 233-235 Storm damage reduction in cost-benefit analysis, 46-47, 52, 152, 198-199, 262-264 cross-section design for, 208-209 design consideration, 83, 142 disaster assistance qualifications for projects, 13, 155 dune protection, 17 economic behavior in response to perception of, 262-264 federal assistance programs for beach nourishment, 155 federal flood insurance program, 13, 18, 154, 156 FEMA accreditation of nourishment projects, 13, 73-74, 79-80 FEMA authorities and responsibilities, 62 FEMA flood insurance premiums and, 12-13, 154 FEMA responsibilities, 18, 62 long-term planning, 23 National Flood Insurance Program policies, 64-68 poststorm damage assessment as project performance criterion, 4, 150 property values and, 138, 257-258 public understanding of, 37-38 risk analysis for project design, 229 230 role of beaches in, 1, 16 role of underwater beach in, 54 valuation of, 138 Storm surge, 199, 203 333 Storms beach erosion process, 72 contingency planning, 148 during dredging operations, 284-285 grain size as response factor, 202-203 monitoring, 301-303 natural beach response, 15 predicting effects of, 97, 192, 199 predicting frequency and severity, 40 probability calculations, 230-231 probability data, 199 project planning considerations, 40 regional characteristics, 20-21, 22, 23 response of nourished beaches, 207- 208 USACE modeling methodology, 60, 312 water level during, 306 See also Storm damage reduction T Taxes and taxation property value increases from nourishment project, 263 public understanding of beach nourishment implications, 36, 37 Terminology of beach nourishment, 23 Texas, 223, 239-240 Tourism/travel cost-benefit analysis, 48-49 foreign revenues, 49 popularity of beaches, 49 value of, 14-15 Turbidity, 40 biological effects, 114 construction-induced, monitoring, 129 replenishment sand as source of, 97, 108 Turtles. See Sea turtles U USACE. See Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. User fees, 52

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334 V Veneer beach fills applications, 237 design, 237-238 examples, 239-242 performance, 242 types, 237 Vibracore samples, 268 W Washington, 236-237, 272 Water level beach erosion and, 15, 145-146 design considerations, 192, 213 determinants of, 306 monitoring, 133, 306 rainfall effects, 41 wave setup effects, 132 Water Resources Council, 260 Water Resources Development Act of 1976, 150, 314 Water Resources Development Act of 1986, 311, 314 INDEX Water Resources Development Act of 1988, 314 Water Resources Development Act of 1992, 9, 43, 315 Wave characteristics, 16 berm width and, 232-233 data for design, 199 as design factor, 88 effects on beach profile, 86-87 effects on underwater sand sources, modeling of, 71 in erosional hot spots, 102 as factor in alongshore spreading, 88 grain size as factor in, 203 modeling, 176-177 in modeling of sand movement, 96 monitoring, 132, 304-305 National Flood Insurance Program planning basis, 65-66 recommendations for research, 157 refraction around project, 176 residual bathymetry, 176- 177 risk analysis, 227 setup effects, 132 tank experiments, 92