TABLE D-1: Environmental Agents, Their Sources and Potential Exposures, and Adverse Health Effects: Metals and Metallic Compounds, Hydrocarbons, Irritant Gases, Chemical Asphyxiates, and Pesticides

Agent

Exposure

Route of Entry

Systems(s) Affected

Metals and Metallic Compounds

Arsenic

Alloyed with lead and copper for hardness; manufacturing of pigments, glass, pharmaceuticals; byproduct in copper smelting; insecticides; fungicides; rodenticides; tanning

Inhalation and ingestion of dust and fumes

Neuromuscular Gastrointestinal Skin

Pulmonary

Arsine

Accidental byproduct of reaction of arsenic with acid; used in semi-conductor industry

Inhalation of gas

Hematopoietic

Beryllium

Hardening agent in metal alloys; special use in nuclear energy production; metal refining or recovery

Inhalation of fumes or dust

Pulmonary (and other systems)

Cadmium

Electroplating; solder for aluminum; metal alloys, process engraving; nickel-cadmium batteries

Inhalation or ingestion of fumes or dust

Pulmonary Renal

Chromium

In stainless and heat-resistant steel and alloy steel; metal plating; chemical and pigment manufacturing; photography

Percutaneous absorption, inhalation, ingestion

Pulmonary Skin



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