• Recall early PHN practice, where health problems were related to poor sanitation

  • Detection, assessment, evaluation, treatment of hazardous substances' toxic effects

  • Accident prevention and elimination of hazards

  • Pollutants from health care industry

  • Practicing with the unit of analysis being the community rather than the individual

Psycho-social Issues
  • Inner city violence and poverty at epidemic levels (**mentioned by almost all)

  • Hostile, life threatening environments created by crime

  • Psychological effects of overcrowding, high density living (condos)

  • Cultural issues around food and water contamination

  • Environmental racism (burden of environmental hazards greatest on poor and minorities)

  • Violence—family, community and workplace

Public Awareness
  • Heightened public awareness about environmental hazards

  • Teaching kids to recycle, but not health effects

  • Media interest, expense

Legal and Ethical Concerns
  • Conflicts between business and well-being of community

  • EH legislation without funding to enforce

  • Control and dissemination of information

  • Conflict in consumer values—want technology, but not risks

  • Cost of intervention vs. prevention

  • Rights of the individual—to live in environment of choice, NRA and gun control

  • Refer and forget—lack of accountability and continuity in addressing these issues

Scientific/Research Issues
  • Cause and effect not often clear.

  • Problems identifying causative agent(s) for illnesses that appear environmentally related.

  • What is burden (or degree) of human illness/dysfunction that is associated with environmental conditions?

  • Interaction of various conditions that result in illness

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