Index

A

Absenteeism and workdays lost, 29

Accreditation of nursing programs, 18, 72, 99

Active listening, 46, 66

Activism, 17, 49, 256-258

Advanced practice nurses (APNs), 19, 20, 42, 54, 56, 71-72, 74-75

Advocacy

case, 5, 49, 63, 67, 254-255, 258

class, 5-6, 10, 48, 49, 51-52, 63, 66-67, 132-133, 253-262

education and training, 6, 49, 66, 67, 97, 143, 258

resources and references, 258-262

Age, 31, 33.

See also Children

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 93

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 46, 149-150, 155

Newsletter, 77

priority health conditions, 34-35

teaching modules, 64-65, 86, 94, 150

top 10 hazards list, 36-37

Agricultural chemicals, see Fertilizers;

Pesticides

Air quality and contamination, 16, 24, 25, 26, 28, 34, 147

Allergies and allergens, 28, 41

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 65, 71, 74-75, 174

American Association of Critical Care Nurses, 115

American Association of Diabetes Educators, 115

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), 51, 107, 109, 117, 175

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (ABOHN), 53,54, 179

American Nurses Association (ANA), 40-41, 51, 55, 76, 94, 99, 107, 109, 174, 181

Nursing Social Policy Statement, 48, 62

American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), 53, 54



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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Index A Absenteeism and workdays lost, 29 Accreditation of nursing programs, 18, 72, 99 Active listening, 46, 66 Activism, 17, 49, 256-258 Advanced practice nurses (APNs), 19, 20, 42, 54, 56, 71-72, 74-75 Advocacy case, 5, 49, 63, 67, 254-255, 258 class, 5-6, 10, 48, 49, 51-52, 63, 66-67, 132-133, 253-262 education and training, 6, 49, 66, 67, 97, 143, 258 resources and references, 258-262 Age, 31, 33. See also Children Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 93 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 46, 149-150, 155 Newsletter, 77 priority health conditions, 34-35 teaching modules, 64-65, 86, 94, 150 top 10 hazards list, 36-37 Agricultural chemicals, see Fertilizers; Pesticides Air quality and contamination, 16, 24, 25, 26, 28, 34, 147 Allergies and allergens, 28, 41 American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 65, 71, 74-75, 174 American Association of Critical Care Nurses, 115 American Association of Diabetes Educators, 115 American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), 51, 107, 109, 117, 175 American Board for Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. (ABOHN), 53,54, 179 American Nurses Association (ANA), 40-41, 51, 55, 76, 94, 99, 107, 109, 174, 181 Nursing Social Policy Statement, 48, 62 American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), 53, 54

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health American Public Health Association (APHA), 51, 181-182, 262 Anesthetic gases, 137 Antineoplastic agents, 136 Arsenic, 29, 36, 212-213 Asbestos, 16, 24 Assault, see Violence Assessment and referral, 5, 6, 39, 41, 62, 75, 77, 80, 131, 143,144, 243 Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health, 45-46 Associate degree (AD) programs, 19, 20, 71, 72, 73, 78, 79, 98, 146 Association of Community Health Nursing Educators (ACHNE), 71 Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC), 65, 182-189, 262 Asthma, 3, 15, 28, 39, 147 B Baccalaureate degree programs, 6, 19-20, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75-76, 78, 79, 97, 146 Back injuries, 29, 138 Basic nursing education, 7, 19, 66, 71, 72-74, 77-79, 80-82, 98,146, 147 Behavior and lifestyle, 8, 31, 71, 105 Biological hazards, 2, 14, 25, 26. See also Infectious diseases Biologic sanctuaries, 34 Birth defects, 17, 35 Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, 94, 135, 136 Bureau of Health Professions, 40. See also Division of Nursing, HRSA Burnout, 139 C California Public Health Foundation (CPHF), 40, 41, 43, 63 Campaign strategies, 257, 258 Cancer and carcinogens, 16, 35, 147 and children, 33, 112-113 occupational exposures, 18, 29, 231-232 radiation, 29, 31, 112-113, 138 Carbon monoxide, 3, 34, 226-227 Cardiovascular disease, 30, 33, 233 Carpal tunnel syndrome, 29 Case advocacy, 5, 49, 63, 67, 254-255, 258 Case Studies in Environmental Medicine, 150 Cataracts, 31 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 150-151 child lead screening recommendations, 34 invasive procedures recommendations, 135 research support, 109, 110 tuberculosis control recommendations, 136 Certification of nurses, 10, 53-54, 64, 95, 99 Chemicals and chemical hazards, 2, 14, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28-29, 147 and genetic susceptibility, 31, 32 listings, 36-37, 212-229 in nursing, 46, 136-137 see also Carbon monoxide; Lead and lead poisoning; Mercury; Pesticides Children, 15, 18, 33-34, 146 asthma among, 3, 28 and lead poisoning, 3, 15, 33, 34, 147 CINAHL data base, 106 Class advocacy, 5-6, 10, 48, 49, 51-52, 63, 66-67, 132-133, 253-262 Clinical nurse specialists (CNS), 19, 54, 74, 75 Clues Course, 86, 94 Community health nursing, 17, 54, 75-76, 78, 81, 97, 112-113 Community Partnership Initiative in Health Professions Education and in Public Health , 89

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Community settings, 2, 13, 16, 17-18, 42, 63 activism and advocacy, 5-6, 10, 17, 48, 49, 51-52, 63, 66-67, 132-133, 253-262 clinics, 56, 135 education and training for, 19-20, 47, 66, 71, 146 risk communication in, 10, 46-47, 62, 66 Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), 87-88, 100 Computerized information resources, 199-207 Confidentiality, 52, 53 Conflict resolution, 47, 67, 256 Contest strategies, 257-258 Continuing education, 7, 11, 19, 64, 66, 86-88, 95, 98, 100, 101, 132 Cost containment and control, 54, 55, 56 Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH), 76 Credentialing, see Accreditation of nursing programs; Certification of nurses; Licensure of nurses Curricula, see Nursing education Cytotoxic drugs, 136 D Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 45, 152 Dermal exposure, see Skin exposure and dermal absorption Diagnosis, 39, 41, 42, 80 Dialysis facilities and procedures, 135, 137 Diploma programs, 19, 71, 72, 73, 78, 79, 98, 146 Disadvantaged populations, 16, 28 Disasters, 133 Disease clustering, 45, 66 Disinfection, 135, 137 Distance learning, 87, 95 Division of Nursing, HRSA, 89, 92. See also National Advisory Council for Nurse Education and Practice Doctoral-level programs, 19, 112, 113-114, 116 Downsizing, 55 Drinking water, 18, 25-26, 60, 61 E Ecology, 2, 14 Education, see Nursing education Educational Resources Center (ERC) programs, 77, 94, 114, 118, 155-158 Educator and information provider roles, 16, 28-29, 31, 40, 41, 42 , 43, 46-47, 52, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 132, 242, 254 Elderly population, 16, 33 Electromagnetic radiation, 112-113 Emergency department nurses, 16, 135, 136, 139, 140, 147 Emergency Nurses Association, 155 Emergency Room Nursing Foundation, 109, 110 Environmental compatibility, 70 Environmental Council of States (ECOS) directory, 167-173 Environmental health, definition of, 2, 14 Environmental health and hazards, 2-4, 14-15, 23-25, 239-242 classification of, 2, 25, 26, 27-28 as core function of nursing, 10, 13, 15-16, 39, 64 exposure limits and standards, 26, 132, 133 nursing certification, 53-54 in nursing education curricula, 75-78, 79-85 priority areas, 34-35 see also Air quality and contamination; Biological hazards; Chemicals and chemical hazards;

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Food quality and contamination; Global environmental conditions; Housing conditions; Mechanical hazards; Pesticides; Psychosocial hazards; Radiation; Radon; Reproductive health hazards; Risk communication; Soil contamination; Ultraviolet (UV) radiation; Violence; Water quality and contamination; Workplace environment and hazards Environmental health history, 41, 43, 44-45, 55, 64, 263-270 training, 143, 146 Environmental justice, 16, 143, 146, 257 Environmental/Occupational medicine Academic Awards, 158-159 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 3, 25, 152 air quality standards, 26 drinking water standards, 25, 26, 34, 61 Epidemiology, 46, 83, 90, 112-113, 143 Ergonomics, 46, 90, 138 Ethics, 5, 10, 51-52, 62, 63, 64, 67, 240, 258 education in, 53, 80 in nursing research, 10, 53, 67 Ethylene oxide, 136, 220-221 Evaluation, 39, 42-43, 256 nursing education, 95-97 Exploratory Center Award, 117, 118 F Family health, 41, 43, 147 Federal agencies education support, 6, 92-94, 117 information resources, 64, 75, 93, 100, 149-161 research support, 8, 107, 109 see also under names of specific agencies Fertilizers, 26, 60 Fish, 16, 28-29 Food quality and contamination, 13, 16, 27, 28-29, 147 Formaldehyde, 3, 34, 137, 218-219 Fruit, 28, 29 Future of Public Health, The, 88-89 G Gases, 3, 15, 34, 137, 222-225 Generalist certification, 54, 71-72 Genetic factors, 31, 32 Gerontology nurses, 15-16 Global environmental conditions, 4, 30-31 Glutaraldehyde, 137 Gopher servers, 205 Graduate nursing education, 19, 71, 74-75, 76-77, 78, 97, 146-147 H Halothane, 137 Hazardous substances, see Chemicals and chemical hazards Hazardous waste sites, 3, 16, 25 Health care reform, 55-56 Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 92, 153. See also Bureau of Health Professions; Division of Nursing; Maternal and Child Health Bureau; National Advisory Council for Nurse Education and Practice Healthy America: Practitioners for 2005, An Agenda for Action for U.S. Health Professions Schools, 69 Healthy People 2000, 73-74, 103, 104, 116 Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease Heat waves, 4, 30 Hepatitis, 135, 230, 236 History-taking, see Environmental health history

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), 135, 136 Holistic perspective, 8, 13, 14, 104 Hospitals, 13, 72, 75, 134 hazards in, 135, 136, 139 Housing conditions, 3, 13, 16, 18, 27, 34, 147 I Immune function disorders, 31, 33, 35 Independent practice, 19 Individual care, 13-14, 17, 18, 41, 42 advocacy in, 5, 49, 63, 67, 254-255, 258 Indoor air quality, 26, 28, 34 Infectious diseases and global environmental conditions, 30, 31 nursing hazards, 135-136 occupational, 230-231 Information disclosure, 52 Information resources and references, 10, 42, 47, 62, 64, 93, 100 for advocacy practice, 258-261 computerized, 199-207 general texts, 208-210 nursing education, 6, 64-65, 80-82, 83, 84-85, 86, 93, 100 organizations and foundations, 173-197 poison control centers, 175-179 state agencies, 162-163 topical listing, 197-199 Ingestion, 24, 33, 36, 37 Inhalation exposure, 24, 26, 36, 37 Intensive care units, 137, 139 Interdisciplinary approaches education, 5, 11, 50, 65-66, 88-89, 90, 99-100 nursing practice, 4-5, 10, 19, 44, 45-46, 48, 50, 62, 65-66 research, 11, 65, 105-106, 113-114, 118, 119, 120, 256 International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), 51, 191 International Council of Nurses (ICN), 51, 65, 192 environmental health competencies, 62, 131-133 Internet information resources, 199-205 Intervention, 15, 39, 41, 42, 43, 64, 105, 256 Interviewing skills, 46, 66 Investigative role, 40, 41, 43-46, 63 Ionizing radiation, 29, 138-139 J Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, 139 K Kellogg, W. K., Foundation, 89, 92 Kidney dysfunction, 33, 35 L Layoffs, 55 Lead and lead poisoning, 3, 15, 16, 33, 34, 36, 39, 147, 214-215 Legislation and regulation knowledge and promotion of, 5, 62, 132, 143, 144, 145, 146, 246 nursing education, 72, 94 restricting nursing practice, 50, 75 Licensed practical nurses (LPNs), 134, 138 Licensure of nurses, 50, 53, 64 examinations, 10, 18-19, 53, 73, 78, 95, 99 and required continuing education, 86, 95 Lifting hazards, 138 List servers, 203-204 Liver dysfunction, 33, 35 Local environmental agencies, 64, 65, 94 Local health agencies, 64, 65, 94

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Locality development, 256, 257 Long-term care, 72, 134, 135, 138, 140 Love Canal, 17 Lungs, see Respiratory function and diseases M Master's degree programs, 19, 71, 72, 74, 76, 113 Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 93 Mechanical hazards, 25, 26 Mediation, 6, 254, 256 MEDLINE database, 106, 206 Melanomas, 31 Men, workplace injuries, 29 Mercury, 28, 36, 137, 214-215 Methemoglobinemia, 32, 57, 60, 61 Methoxyflurane, 137 Model program development, 78-86, 99 Multidisciplinary approach, see Interdisciplinary approaches Multimedia educational methods, 87-88, 99 N National Advisory Council for Nurse Education and Practice (NACNEP) , 92 National Association of County Health Officials Environmental Health Project, 150 National Board for Certification of School Nurses, Inc. (NBCSN), 53, 54, 193 National Center for Environmental Health, 94, 154 National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX), 18-19, 53, 73, 78, 95 National Council of State Boards of Licensing (NCSBN), 99, 194 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 6, 34, 47, 107, 109, 117, 137, 150, 154-155 Educational Resources Center (ERC) programs, 77, 94, 114, 118, 155-158 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), 107, 116, 118, 158-160 National Institute of Mental Health, 93 National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), 93, 104, 107, 109, 115, 116-117, 160 National Institute on Aging, 93 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 93-94, 117, 160 National League for Nursing (NLN), 48, 50, 71, 72, 73, 89, 99, 194-195 National Library of Medicine (NLM) databases, 205-207 National Research Service Award (NRSA), 116 NCLEX, see National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Needlestick injuries, 135, 136 Neighborhoods, see Community settings Neoplasms, see Cancer and carcinogens Networking, 259 Neurotoxicity, 35, 147, 234-235 Nightingale, Florence, 13, 49, 103 NIOSH, see National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nitrates, 60, 61 Noise, 13 North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), 42 Notes on Nursing, 13 Nurse anesthetists, 74 Nurse-midwives, 74 Nurse practitioners (NPs), 19, 34, 42, 74, 75, 76-77, 94 Nurses' aides, 29, 138

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Nursing education, 6-7, 14, 18-20, 55, 69-72, 246, 247-249 accreditation of programs, 18, 72, 99 advocacy practice, 6, 49, 66, 67, 97, 143, 258 basic, 7, 19, 66, 71, 72-74, 77-79, 80-82, 98, 146, 147 for community settings, 19-20, 47, 66, 71, 146 competencies in environmental health, 6, 69, 71-72, 78-79, 80-82, 84-85, 98, 142-147 continuing, 7, 11, 19, 64, 66, 86-88, 95, 98, 100, 101, 132 course recommendations, 80-82, 83, 84-85 degree levels, 19-20, 72, 73, 98 environmental health content, 6, 7, 10, 18-19, 53, 70-71, 75-78, 79-85, 98-99, 143-145 environmental health history-taking, 143, 146 ethics, 53, 80 evaluation of, 95-97 faculty development, 77, 89-92, 96, 98, 99, 119 federal support and research, 6, 92-94, 117 graduate, 19, 71, 74-75, 76-77, 78, 97, 146-147 on hazards in nursing, 138, 147 interdisciplinary approaches, 5, 11, 50, 65-66, 88-89, 90, 99-100 and licensing examination, 53, 94, 97 model program development, 78-86, 99 prerequisites, 79, 83 and professional associations, 6, 11, 51, 73, 100, 101 resources and references, 6, 64-65, 80-82, 83, 84-85, 86, 93, 100 state regulation, 72, 94 on violence, 140 workplace hazards, 30, 138, 140 Nursing Education's Agenda for the 21st Century, 71 Nursing homes, see Long-term care Nursing practice, 4-6, 13-14, 40-41 advocacy role, 5-6, 10, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47-48, 49, 51-52, 61, 62, 63, 66-67, 80, 132-133, 242, 253-259 and changes in health care delivery, 19, 54-56, 63 competencies in environmental health, 4, 5, 62, 131-133 educator and information provider roles, 16, 28-29, 31, 40, 41, 42 , 43, 46-47, 52, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 132, 242, 254 environmental health as core of, 10, 13, 15-16, 39, 64 environmental health history-taking, 41, 43, 44-45, 55, 64, 263-270 ethics, 5, 10, 51-52, 62, 63, 64, 67, 240, 258 as first contact point for health care, 1, 15, 16 hazards of, 29, 44, 46, 55, 134-140, 147 interdisciplinary approaches, 4-5, 10, 19, 44, 45-46, 48, 50, 62, 65-66 investigative role, 40, 41, 43-46, 63 reimbursement mechanisms, 14, 56, 75 see also Advanced practice nurses; Assessment and referral; Diagnosis; Evaluation; Intervention; Licensed practical nurses; Licensure of nurses; Nurse practitioners; Nursing process; Planning; Professional associations; Registered nurses Nursing process, 40, 41-43 Nursing research, 7-9, 14, 19, 44, 103-105, 133 dissemination of, 11, 120 ethics, 10, 53, 67

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health funding sources, 8, 106-108, 115-117, 118, 119 interdisciplinary approach, 11, 65, 105-106, 113-114, 118, 119, 120, 256 principle investigators, 8-9, 106, 108, 109, 111, 119 professional development in, 11, 81, 85, 112-115, 116-117, 118-119 program evaluation, 256 study design and priorities, 9, 11, 110, 111-112, 119-120 Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform, 70 O Obstetrics and gynecology, 16, 137 Occupational hazards, see Workplace environment and hazards Occupational health nursing, 4, 16, 17, 50, 54 education in, 19, 76 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 161 Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, 94, 135, 136 research support, 109, 110 standards for health settings, 135, 136, 137, 139 Older persons, see Elderly population Oncology nursing, 16, 147 Oncology Nursing Society, 107, 115 Organizations and foundations listing, 173-197 and nursing education, 11, 92, 100, 101 and nursing research, 8, 106, 107, 109 policy advocacy, 262 see also Professional associations; and under names of specific organizations Outpatient facilities, 135, 136 Ozone depletion, 4, 30-31 P Parent-child courses, 80, 146, 147 Particulates, 3, 15, 34 Pathways of exposure, 24 see also Air quality and contamination; Soil contamination; Water quality and contamination Pediatric nursing, 15, 34, 54, 80, 135, 140, 146 Pesticides, 3, 26, 28, 29, 34, 147, 226-229 Pew Commission, 71, 92 Physical hazards, 2, 14, 25, 26 see also Mechanical hazards; Radiation Planning, 39, 41, 42, 256, 257 Poison control centers, 175-179 Policy-level (class) advocacy, 5-6, 10, 48, 49, 51-52, 63, 66-67, 132-133, 253-262 Pollution, see Air quality and contamination; Soil contamination; Water quality and contamination Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 28, 36, 222-223 Population-based practice, 17-19, 45, 74, 89 Practice, see Nursing practice Prenatal care, 17, 31, 146, 147 Prenursing education, 79, 83 Prevention and preventive care, 13, 14, 18, 39, 40, 42, 55, 56, 58-60 education in, 70, 74 and nursing research, 8, 105 workplace violence, 30, 140 Prisons, 135, 136 Professional associations, 40, 63, 64, 65 and interdisciplinary approaches, 48, 50, 65 listing, 173-197 passim and nursing education, 6, 11, 51, 73, 100, 101 state, 55, 65 toxic substance handling guidelines, 136 see also under names of specific organizations

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Project EPOCH-Envi, 150, 155 Promotive nursing practices, 40, 56, 144, 254 Psychosocial hazards, 2, 15, 25, 26, 146, 240. See also Violence Public health, 17-18, 39, 45-46, 50, 56, 94 education in, 19, 71, 72, 78, 89, 147 funding, 55-56, 63 Public Health in America, 56 Q Quality of care standards, 55, 56, 64 R Radiation, 28 and cancer, 29, 31, 112-113, 138 nursing hazards, 138-139 see also Radon; Ultraviolet (UV) radiation Radon, 2, 3, 14, 34 state contacts, 162-167 Referral, 5, 62, 64, 75, 77, 81, 143 Registered nurses (RNs), 1, 2, 14, 53, 55, 134 education and training, 7, 18-20, 66, 73, 98 injuries, 138 Repetitive motion injury, 3, 15, 29 Reproductive health hazards, 16, 35, 146, 147 Research, see Nursing research Resources, see Information resources and references Respiratory function and diseases, 30, 33, 35, 233-234 Restorative nursing practices, 40 Right to know, 52 Risk communication, 5, 10, 46-47, 62, 66, 75, 77, 80, 143, 256 RNs, see Registered nurses Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 92 Routes of exposure, 24, 36-37, 143 S Satellite-based telecommunication, 87 School clinics, 94 Seafood, 16, 28-29 Secondary care, 8, 42, 58, 60, 105 Sentinel health events, 45, 62, 112, 143, 144 Shifts and work schedules, 139 Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), 107, 109, 115, 196 Skin exposure and dermal absorption, 24, 36, 37 and aging, 33 cancer, 29, 31 Smoking, see Tobacco smoke and smoking Social action, 256-257 Social planning, 256, 257 Soil contamination, 16, 24, 25, 147 Specialty courses and certification, 4, 19, 97, 146-147 State boards of nursing, 72, 94, 99 State Cooperative Agreements, 150 State environmental agencies, 64, 65, 93, 94 listing, 167-173 State health agencies, 64, 65 listing, 162-167 nurse employment, 94 Sterilization procedures and chemicals, 135, 136, 137 Stress, 55, 139 Superfund sites, 3, 25 Supportive nursing practices, 40, 254 Susceptibility, see Vulnerability and susceptibility T Teleconferencing, 87 Tertiary care, 8, 19, 42, 58, 60, 105 Tobacco smoke and smoking, 3, 15, 34, 139, 147 Toxicology, 83, 88, 90, 143, 146

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Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health Toxic substances, see Chemicals and chemical hazards Training, see Nursing education Trauma nursing, 16, 147 Tuberculosis, 135-136, 230 U Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 2-3, 4, 14, 31 Unlicensed assistant personnel (UAPs), 55 V Vegetables, 28, 29 Violence, 15, 28 in health care settings, 140 in workplace, 29, 30, 140 Vulnerability and susceptibility, 31-34 age as factor, 31, 33 genetic factors, 31, 32 W Water quality and contamination, 16, 24, 25-26, 27, 28-29, 60, 61, 147 Women health courses, 147 workplace injuries and deaths, 29, 30 Workplace environment and hazards cancer and carcinogens, 18, 29, 231-232 exposure limits and standards, 26, 137 infectious agents, 230-231 listing, 230-238 for nurses, 29, 44, 46, 55, 134-140, 147 violence, 29, 30, 140