Rationale: Advocacy on behalf of communities and other groups (class advocacy) can be very different from advocacy on behalf of individual patients (case advocacy), and nurses must have some grounding in basic class advocacy skills.

Strategies for Achieving Recommendation 3.5:

  1. Nursing faculty and other nursing leaders must demonstrate that advocacy activities are within the realm of professional practice through formal education of nurses and by serving as role models.

  2. Experts from other fields should be called upon to assist nurses in developing and building skills in advocacy practice (see Appendix F).

  3. Educational resources and experiences should include interactions with expert practitioners from other disciplines, for example, social work.

  4. Knowledge and skills basic to advocacy, such as group process, conflict resolution, and political and regulatory process, must be incorporated into nursing education and practice.


Recommendation 3.6: Conduct research regarding the ethical implications of occupational and environmental health hazards and incorporate findings into curricula and practice.

Rationale: Little research has addressed ethical issues related to occupational and environmental health hazards and how those issues are treated in nursing practice.

Strategies for Achieving Recommendation 3.6:

  1. Identify common problems in occupational and environmental health practice that have implications for the ethical treatment of patients and communities (e.g., confidentiality of worker health information, exposure to occupational and health hazards, and informed consent).

  2. Include occupational and environmental health content related to ethical issues in nursing and public health curricula.

  3. Address the ethical implications of occupational and environmental health hazards and their consequences in both public and private policy documents.

  4. Include consideration of ethical principles related to occupational and environmental health in professional codes of ethical conduct.

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