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NANCY C. ANDREASEN is Andrew H. Woods Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Iowa College of Medicine, and Director, Mental Health Clinical Research Center, University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics. She received B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Nebraska, an M.A. from Harvard University, and an M.D. degree from the University of Iowa. She was the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship to Oxford University. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine. She is Editor-in Chief of the American Journal of Psychiatry and has served as President of the American Psychopathological Association and the Psychiatric Research Society. She is the recipient of the Research Prize of the American Psychiatric Association and the Dean Award and the Distinguished Service Award of the American College of Psychiatry. Dr. Andreasen also served on the American Psychiatric Association's task force for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and chaired its Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders Work Group.

KATHLEEN M. CARROLL is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Director of Psychotherapy Research, Substance Abuse Center, Yale University School of Medicine. She received a B.S. degree from Duke University and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in clinical psychology from the University of Minnesota. Dr. Carroll's research interests center around substance abuse treatment outcome research, including addicted women. She is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Psychotherapy Research, and the Society for Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors. Dr. Carroll is a consulting editor for the journals Psychological Assessment and Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.

STERLING K. CLARREN is Robert A. Aldrich Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Congenital Defects, Children's Hospital and Medical Center, University of Washington. He is the director of the FAS Clinic at the Child Development and Mental Retardation Center, University of Washington and director of the State of Washington's FAS Clinical Network. He received a B.A. degree from Yale University and an M.D. degree from the University of Minnesota Medical School. At the University of Washington, Seattle, Dr. Clarren completed a pediatrics residency and received fellowships in biosciences, dysmorphology, and congenital defects. He has served as president of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Study Group of the Research Society on Alcoholism, on the Public Education Committee of the Teratology Society, and on the Executive Committee of the Children with Disabilities Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics. In 1992, he received the Outstanding Achievement Award for Scholarship from the Washington Council on Crime and Delinquency.

CLAIRE D. COLES is Associate Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine. She also serves as Director of Psychological Services for the Marcus Developmental Research Center in the



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