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investigation of the differences in expression and specificity of behavioral and cognitive deficits in FAS and ARND;

research to identify potential structural or functional brain abnormalities and other neurobiological indices that may be associated with, or distinguish, FAS, ARBD, or ARND, and to relate these abnormalities and indices to cognitive and behavioral correlates;

further clinical research, as well as research using animal models, to examine the adverse developmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and to develop more specific biologic markers for diagnosis (e.g., biomarkers to confirm maternal alcohol exposure, endocrine signals, imaging techniques); and

consideration of the potential role of fetal alcohol exposure, as appropriate, in developmental disability studies in general.

REFERENCES

Aase JM, Jones KL, Clarren SK. Do We Need the Term ''FAE"? Pediatrics 1995; 95:428-430.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 3rd Edition. Washington, DC. 1980.

Clarren SK, Smith DW. The fetal alcohol syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 1978; 298:1063-1067.

Jones KL, Smith DW. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet 1973; 2:999-1001.

Lemoine P, Harouseau H, Borteryu JT, Menuet JC. Les enfants des parents alcooliques: Anomalies observees apropos de 127 cas. Ouest Medical 1968; 21:476-482.

Rosett HL. A clinical perspective of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 1980; 4:119-122.

Sokol RJ, Clarren SK. Guidelines for use of terminology describing the impact of prenatal alcohol on the offspring. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 1989; 13:597-598.

West JR, Pierce DR. Perinatal alcohol exposure and neuronal damage. Alcohol and Brain Development. J.R. West, (ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Wolf H, Oosting H, Treffers PE. Second-trimester placental volume measurement by ultrasound: Prediction of fetal outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989; 160:121-126.



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