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circadian chronome components of humans and rodents (Figures 19-1, 19-2, and 19-3).

MEAL TIMING IN TERMS OF CALORIES AND SEDENTARY LIMITED MOTOR ACTIVITY

It seems possible to better exploit what is being eaten by scheduling meals. Food consumption could be scheduled for a time when it is physiologically (Goetz et al., 1976; Halberg, 1983, 1989; Halberg et al., 1976, Hirsch et al., 1975; Jacobs et al., 1975) and logistically most useful for body weight maintenance. Specifically, as a countermeasure in the face of underconsumption of rations by workers in the field (such as soldiers), at least one meal should be timed by taking into account the studies carried out in Minnesota on meal timing (Goetz et al., 1976), some of them sponsored by the U.S. Army Institute of Environmental Medicine and the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC) (Hirsch et al., 1975; Jacobs et al., 1975). These investigations, which compare a single daily meal consumed as a breakfast versus one eaten as a dinner, clearly show a relative

FIGURE 19-1 Differential displacement of circadian hormonal timing as a result of changing a single daily meal from breakfast to dinner. Whereas the circadian rhythm of circulating cortisol is only slightly affected by the timing of a single daily meal, considerable phase-shifts are observed for the case of growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon. SOURCE: © Franz Halberg (1970), used with permission.



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