Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$45.00



View/Hide Left Panel

Not Eating Enough, 1995

Pp. 437-464. Washington, D.C.

National Academy Press

C
Factors Related to Underconsumption—A Selected Bibliography

On the following pages is a selection of references dealing with the factors related to the underconsumption of military operational rations. This bibliography was compiled from the joint reference lists of the 22 chapters in this report, selected references from a limited literature search, and references recommended by the invited speakers as background reading for the workshop participants. As a result, references that are historical in nature are included in this listing with the most current studies on factors related to underconsumption.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Not Eating Enough, 1995 Pp. 437-464. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press C Factors Related to Underconsumption—A Selected Bibliography On the following pages is a selection of references dealing with the factors related to the underconsumption of military operational rations. This bibliography was compiled from the joint reference lists of the 22 chapters in this report, selected references from a limited literature search, and references recommended by the invited speakers as background reading for the workshop participants. As a result, references that are historical in nature are included in this listing with the most current studies on factors related to underconsumption.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Adair, J.G. 1973. The Human Subject: The Social Psychology of the Psychological Experiment. Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown. Adams, C.E., and K.J. Morgan 1981. Periodicity of eating: Implications for human food consumption. Nutr. Res. 1:525–550. Adleson, S.F. 1960. Some problems in collecting dietary data from individuals. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 36:453–461. Adolph, E.F., and J.H. Wills 1947. Thirst. Pp. 241–253 in Physiology of Man in the Desert, E.F. Adolph and Associates, eds. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc. Anderson, R.E. 1973. Consumer dissatisfaction: The effect of disconfirmed expectancy on perceived product performance. J. Marketing Res. 10:38–44. AR (Army Regulation) 40-25 1985. See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, 1985. Askew, E.W. 1993. Nutrition and performance at environmental extremes. Pp. 455–474 in Nutrition, Exercise and Sport, 2d ed., I. Wolinsky and J.F. Hickson, eds. Ann Arbor, Mich.: CRC Press. Askew, E.W., J.R. Claybaugh, S.A. Cucinell, A.J. Young, and E.G. Szeto 1986. Nutrient intakes and work performance of soldiers during seven days of exercise at 7,200 feet altitude consuming the Meal, Ready-to-Eat ration. Technical Report T3-87, AD A176 273. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Askew, E.W., I. Munro, M.A. Sharp, S. Siegel, R. Popper, M. Rose, R.W. Hoyt, J.W. Martin, K. Reynolds, H.R. Lieberman, D. Engell, and C.P. Shaw 1987. Nutritional status and physical and mental performance of special operations soldiers consuming the Ration, Lightweight, or the Meal, Ready-to-Eat military field ration during a 30-day field exercise. Technical Report T7-87, AD A179 553. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Bahr, R., P.K. Opstad, J.I. Medbo, and O.M. Sejersted 1991. Strenuous prolonged exercise elevates resting metabolic rate and causes reduced mechanical efficiency. Acta Physiol. Scand. 141:555–563. Baker, C.J., P.B. Rock, C.S. Fulco, L.A. Trad, and A. Cymerman 1989. High altitude-induced anorexia. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. 3(4):A987. Baker-Fulco, C.J., J.C. Buchbinder, S.A. Torri, and E.W. Askew 1992. Dietary status of Marine Corps officer candidates. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. 6(4):A1682. Baker-Fulco, C.J., S.A. Torri, J.E. Arsenault, and J.C. Buchbinder 1994. Impact of menu changes designed to promote a training diet [abstract]. J. Am. Diet. Assn. 94(suppl.):A9. Bandini, L.G., D.A. Schoeller, H.N. Cyr, and W.H. Dietz 1990. Validity of reported energy intake in obese and nonobese adolescents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52:421–425. Bazotte, R.B., R. Curi, and N.S. Hell 1989. Metabolic changes caused by irregular-feeding schedule as compared with meal-feeding. Physiol. Behav. 46:109–113. Bearden, W.O., and J.E. Teel 1983. Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reports. J. Marketing Res. 20:21–28.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Belk, R.W. 1975. Situational variables and consumer behavior. J. Consum. Res. 2:157–164. Bellisle, F. 1979. Human feeding behavior. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 3:163–169. Bemis, K.M. 1978. Current approaches to the etiology and treatment of anorexia nervosa. Psychol. Bull. 85:593–617. Bergstrom, J., and E. Hultman 1972. Nutrition for maximal sports performance. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 221:999–1006. Berry, S.L., W.W. Beatty, and R.C. Klesges 1985. Sensory and social influences on ice cream consumption by males and females in a laboratory setting. Appetite 6:41–45. Birch, L.L., D. Birch, D.W. Marlin, and L. Kramer 1982. Effects of instrumental consumption on children's food preference. Appetite 3:125–134. Birch, L.L., J. Billman, and S.S. Richards 1984. Time of day influences food acceptability. Appetite 5:109–116. Bistrian, B.R., G.L. Blackburn, N.S. Scrimshaw et al., and J-P. Flatta 1975. Cellular immunity in semi-starved states in hospitalized adults. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 28:1148–1155. Blackburn, G.L., J-P. Flatt, G.H.A. Clowes, T.F. O'Donnell, and T.E. Hensle 1973. Protein sparing therapy during periods of starvation with sepsis and trauma. Ann. Surg. 177:588–594. Blair, A.J. 1991. When are calories most fattening? Appetite 17:161. Block, G. 1982. A review of validations of dietary assessment methods. Am. J. Epidemiol. 115:492–505. Block, G., C.M. Dresser, A.M. Hartman, and M.D. Carroll 1985. Nutrient sources in the American diet: Quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. II: Macronutrients and fats. Am. J. Epidemiol. 122:27–40. Blundell, J.E., and A.J. Hill 1990. Serotonin, eating disorders and the satiety cascade. Pp. 125–129 in Serotonin-System-Related Syndromes (SRS)—Psychopathological and Therapeutic Links, G.B. Cassano and H.S. Akisal, eds. International Congress and Symposium Series No. 165. London: Royal Society of Medicine Services. Booth, D.A. 1985. Food conditioned eating preferences and aversions with interoceptive elements: Conditioned appetites and satieties. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 443:22–41. Booth, D.A. 1988. Mechanisms from models—Actual effects from real life: The zero-calorie drink-break option. Appetite 11(suppl.):94–102. Booth, D.A., J. Fuller, and V. Lewis 1981. Human control of body weight: Cognitive or physiological? Some energy-related perceptions and misperceptions. Pp. 305–314 in The Body Weight Regulatory System: Normal and Disturbed Mechanisms, L.A. Cioffi, W.P.T. James, and T.B. Van Itallie, eds. New York: Raven Press. Boulze, D., P. Montastruc, and M. Cabanac 1983. Water intake, pleasure and water temperature in humans. Physiol. Behav. 30:97–102. Boyer, S.J., and F. Duane Blume 1984. Weight loss and changes in body composition at high altitude. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 57:1580–1585.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Brewerton, T., E. Muller, H. Brandt, M. Lesem, A. Hegg, D. Murphy, and D. Jimerson 1989. Dysregulation of 5-HT function in bulimia nervosa. Pp. 500–502 in The Psychobiology of Human Eating Disorders, L.H. Schneider, S.J. Cooper, and K.A. Halmi, eds. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 575. Brown, J.E., T.M. Tharp, E.M. Dahlberg-Luby, D.A. Snowdon, S.K. Ostwald, I.M. Buzzard, S.D.M. Rysavy, and S.M.A. Wieser 1990. Videotape dietary assessment: Validity, reliability, and comparison of results with 24-hour dietary recalls from elderly women in a retirement home. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 90:1675–1679. Brownell, K.B. 1991. Dieting and the search for the perfect body: Where physiology and culture collide. Behav. Ther. 22:1–12. Brozek, J., S. Wells, and A. Keys 1946. Medical aspects of semistarvation in Leningrad (Siege 1941–1942). Am. Rev. Sov. Med. 4:70–86. Bruch, H. 1973. Eating Disorders. New York: Basic Books. 1977. Psychological antecedents of anorexia nervosa. Pp. 1–10 in Anorexia Nervosa, R.A. Vigersky, ed. New York: Raven Press. 1986. Anorexia nervosa: The therapeutic task. Pp. 328–332 in Handbook of Eating Disorders: Physiology, Psychology, and Treatment of Obesity, Anorexia, and Bulimia, K.D. Brownell and J.P. Foreyt, eds. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Burger, G.C.E., J.C. Drummond, and H.R. Sanstead 1948. Malnutrition and Starvation in Western Netherlands, Part 1. The Hague, Netherlands: General State Printing Office. Burley, V.J., A.W. Paul, and J.E. Blundell 1993. Influence of a high-fibre food (myco-protein) on appetite: Effects on satiation (within meals) and satiety (following meals). Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 47:409–418. 1993. Sustained post-ingestive action of dietary fibre: Effects of a sugar-beet-fibre-supplemented breakfast on satiety. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 6:253–260. Butcher, J.N., T. Jeffrey, T.G. Cayton, S. Colligan, J.R. Devore, and R. Minegawa 1990. A study of active duty military personnel with the MMPI-2. Milit. Psychol. 2(1):47–61. Cabanac, M., and R. Duclaux 1970. Specificity of internal signals in producing satiety for taste stimuli. Nature 227:966–967. Cabanac, M., and E.F. Rabe 1976. Influence of a monotonous diet on body weight regulation in humans. Physiol. Behav. 17:675–678. Cahill, G.F., Jr. 1970. Starvation in man. N. Engl. J. Med. 282:668–675. Calloway, D.H. 1982. Functional consequences of malnutrition. Rev. Infect. Dis. 4:736–745. Cardello, A.V. 1994. Consumer expectations and their role in food acceptance. Pp. 253–297 in Measurement of Food Preferences, H.J.H. MacFie and D.M.H. Thomson, eds. Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional. Cardello, A.V., and O. Maller 1982. Acceptability of water, selected beverages and foods as a function of serving temperature. J. Food Sci. 47:1549–1552. Cardello, A.V., and F.M. Sawyer 1992. Effects of disconfirmed consumer expectations on food acceptability. J. Sensory Studies 7:253–277.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Cardello, A.V., O. Maller, H. Bloom Masor, C. Dubose, and B. Edelman 1985. Role of consumer expectancies in the acceptance of novel foods. J. Food Sci. 50:1707–1714, 1718. Carlsmith, J.M., and E. Aronson 1963. Some hedonic consequences of the confirmation and disconfirmation of expectancies. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 66(2):161. Carlson, D.E., T.B. Dugan, J.C. Buchbinder, J.D. Allegretto, and D.D. Schnakenberg 1987. Nutritional assessment of the Ft. Riley Non-Commissioned Officer Academy dining facility. Technical Report T14-87. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Carter, J.S., M.H. Ezell, W.R. Barfield, and L.H. Anderson 1992. Anthropometric, psychomotor, and hemodynamic changes during twenty-one continuous days of eating only Meals, Ready-to-Eat (MREs). Milit. Med. 157(10):536–539. Casper, R.C., E.D. Eckert, K.A. Halmi, S.C. Goldberg, and J.M. Davis 1980. Bulimia: Its incidence and clinical importance in patients with anorexia nervosa. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 37:1030–1035. Chao, E.S.M., and P.S. Vanderkooy 1989. An overview of breakfast nutrition. J. Can. Diet. Assoc. 50:225–228. Cody, D. 1990. Full metal meals. SKY April, pp. 80–89. Cohen, R.M., H. Weingartner, S. Smallberg, and D.C. Murphy 1982. Effort in cognitive process in depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 39:593–597. Collier, G. 1989. The economics of hunger, thirst, satiety and regulation. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 575:136–154. Conger, J.C., A.J. Conger, P.R. Costanzo, K.L. Wright, and J.A. Matter 1980. The effect of social cues on the eating behavior of obese and normal subjects. J. Pers. 48:258–271. Consolazio, C.F. 1983. Nutrition and performance. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci. 7(1–2):29–42. Consolazio, C.F., R.A. Nelson, and H.L. Johnson 1967. Metabolic aspects of acute starvation in normal humans: Performance and cardiovascular evaluation . Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 20:684–693. Consolazio, C.F., L.O. Matoush, H.L. Johnson, H.J. Krzywicki, G.J. Isaac, and N.F. Witt 1968. Metabolic aspects of calorie restriction: Hypohydration effects on body weight and blood parameters. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21:793–802. Consolazio, C.F., H.L. Johnson, R.A. Nelson, R. Dowdy, H.J. Krzywicki, T.A. Daws, L.K. Lowry, P.P. Waring, W.K. Calhoun, B.W. Schwenneker, and J.E. Canham 1979. The relationship of diet to the performance of the combat soldier. Minimal calorie intake during combat patrols in a hot humid environment (Panama). Report No. 76, AD A078 695. Presidio of San Francisco, Calif.: Letterman Army Institute of Research. Cornélissen, G., E. Halberg, F. Halberg, J. Halberg, M. Sampson, D. Hilman, W. Nelson, S. Sanchez de la Pena, J. Wu, P. Delmore, N. Marques, M.D. Marques, J.R. Fernandez, R.C. Hermida, F. Guillaume, and F. Carandente 1989. Chronobiology: A frontier in biology and medicine. Chronobiologia 16:383–408. Cornélissen, G., F. Halberg, P. Prikryl, E. Dankova, J. Siegelova, and J. Dusek 1991. International womb-to-tomb chronome group: Prophylactic aspirin treatment: The merits of timing. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 266:3128–3129. Cornélissen, G., G. Francesetti, M. Gecele, A. Meluzzi, G. Bartolomucci, and F. Halberg 1992. Metachronanalysis: Acetyl-L-carnitine advances circadian aspect of circulating cortisol chronome of elderly depressed patients. New Trends Exp. Clin. Psychiatry 8:95–101.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Cornélissen, G., P. Delmore, C. Bingham, G. Rutledge, Y. Kumagai, I. Kuwajima, Y. Suzuki, K. Kuramoto, K. Otsuka, P.T. Scarpelli, B. Tarquini, M. Cagnoni, L. Garcia, R.M. Zaslavskaya, E. Syutkina, F. Carandente, S.I. Rapoport, Y.A. Romanov, K. Tamura, E. Bakken, and F. Halberg 1993. A response to the health care crisis: A ''health start" from "womb to tomb." Chronobiologia 10:277–291. Cornélissen, G., E. Halberg, F. Halverg, R.M. Zaslavskaya, I. Logvinenko, A. Konkova, O. Shekhaeva, and G. Bartolomucci 1994. The cost-effective chronobiologic trial documented by the effects of L-carnitine. Chronobiologia 21:333–334. Cornell, C.E., J. Rodin, and H. Weingarten 1989. Stimulus induced eating when satiated. Physiol. Behav. 45:695–704. Costill, D.L., R. Bowers, G. Branam, and K. Sparks 1971. Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged exercise on successive days. J. Appl. Physiol. 31:834–838. Costill, D.L., M.G. Flynn, J.P. Kirwan, J.A. Houmard, J.B. Mitchell, R. Thomas, and S.H. Park 1988. Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 20:249–254. Cottrell, N.B., D.L. Wack, G.J. Sekerak, and R.H. Rittle 1968. Social facilitation of dominant responses by the presence of an audience and the mere presence of others. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 9:245–250. Crisp, A.H., and R.S. Kalucy 1974. Aspects of the perceptual disorder in anorexia nervosa. Br. J. Med. Psychol. 47:349–361. Crowdy, J.P., C.F. Consolazio, A.L. Forbes, M.F. Haisman, and D.E. Worsley 1982. The metabolic effects of a restricted food intake on men working in a tropical environment. Hum. Nutr. Appl. Nutr. 36A:325–344. Culotta, E. 1993. Curriculum reform: Project 2061 offers a benchmark. Science 262:498–499. Cureton, K.J. 1992. Effects of experimental alterations in excess weight on physiological responses to exercise and physical performance. Pp. 89–104 in Body Composition and Physical Performance, B.M. Marriott and J. Grumstrup-Scott, eds. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Daniels, W.L., J.A. Vogel, and B.H. Jones 1984. Comparison of aerobic power and dynamic lift capacity with performance during a 5-day sustained combat scenario. Technical Report T4-85, AD A160 618. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Davis, P.G., and S.D. Phinney 1990. Differential effects of two very low calorie diets and aerobic and anaerobic performance. J. Obes. 14:779–787. de Castro, J.M. 1987. Circadian rhythms of the spontaneous meal patterns, macronutrient intake, and mood of humans. Physiol. Behav. 40:437–446. 1987. Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in the spontaneous feeding behavior of humans. Physiol. Behav. 39:561–569. 1988. A microregulatory analysis of spontaneous fluid intake by humans: Evidence that the amount of liquid ingested and its timing is mainly governed by feeding. Physiol. Behav. 43:705–714.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations 1990. Social facilitation of duration and size but not rate of the spontaneous meal intake of humans. Physiol. Behav. 47:1129–1135. 1991. Seasonal rhythms of human nutrient intake and meal patterns. Physiol. Behav. 50(1):243–248. 1991. Social facilitation of the spontaneous meal size of humans occurs on both weekdays and weekends. Physiol. Behav. 49(6):1289–1291. 1991. Weekly rhythms of spontaneous nutrient intake and meal pattern of humans. Physiol. Behav. 50(4):729–738. 1992. Age related changes in natural spontaneous fluid ingestion and thirst in humans. J. Gerontol, 47(5):P321–P330. 1993. Age related changes in natural spontaneous food intake and hunger in humans. Appetite 21:255–272. 1993. The effects of spontaneous ingestion of particular foods or beverages on the meal pattern and overall nutrient intake of humans. Physiol. Behav. 53:1133–1144. 1994. Family and friends produce greater social facilitation of food intake than other companions. Physiol. Behav. 56(3):445–455. 1994. Social facilitation of food intake. Food Nutr. News 66:29–30. de Castro, J.M., and E.M. Brewer 1991. The amount eaten in meals by humans is a power function of the number of people present. Physiol. Behav. 51:121–125. de Castro, J.M., and E.S. de Castro 1989. Spontaneous meal patterns of humans: Influence of the presence of other people. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:237–247. de Castro J.M., and D.K. Elmore 1988. Subjective hunger relationships with meal patterns in the spontaneous feeding behavior of humans: Evidence for a causal connection. Physiol. Behav. 43:159–165. de Castro J.M., and S.N. Kreitzman 1985. A microregulatory analysis of spontaneous human feeding patterns. Physiol. Behav. 35:329–335. de Castro, J.M., J. McCormick, M. Pedersen, and S.N. Kreitzman 1986. Spontaneous human meal patterns are related to preprandial factors regardless of natural environmental constraints. Physiol. Behav. 38:25–29. de Castro, J.M., E.M. Brewer, D.K. Elmore, and S. Orozco 1990. Social facilitation of the spontaneous meal size of human is independent of time, place, alcohol, or snacks. Appetite 15:89–101. de Graaf, C., A. Schreurs, and Y.H. Blauw 1993. Short-term effects of different amounts of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrates on satiety and energy intake. Physiol. Behav. 54:833–843. De Luca, R.V., and M.N. Spigelman 1979. Effects of models on food intake of obese and nonobese female college students. Can. J. Behav. Sci. 11:124–129. Detke, J.J., S.E. Brandon, H.P. Weingarten, J. Rodin, and A.R. Wagner 1989. Modulation of behavioral and insulin responses by contextual stimuli paired with food. Psysiol. Behav. 45:845–851. Drewnowski, A. 1988. Fats and food acceptance: Sensory, hedonic and attitudinal aspects. Pp. 189–204 in Food Acceptance and Nutrition, J. Solms, D.A. Booth, R.M. Pangborn, and O. Raunhardt, eds. New York: Academic Press. Duncan, K.H., J.A. Bacon, and R.L. Weinsier 1983. The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37:763–767.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Durrant, M.L., and J.S. Garrow 1982. The effect of increasing the relative cost of palatable food with respect to ordinary food on total-energy intake of eight obese inpatients. Int. J. Obes. 6:153–164. Eckert, E.D. 1985. Characteristics of anorexia nervosa. Pp. 3–28 in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia, J.E. Mitchell, ed. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press. Edelman, B., D. Engell, P. Bronstein, and E. Hirsch 1986. Environmental effects on the intake of overweight and normal-weight men. Appetite 7:71–83. Edgerton, V.R., G.W. Gardner, Y. Ohira, K.A. Gunawardena, and B. Senewiratne 1979. Iron-deficiency anemia and its effect on worker productivity and activity patterns. Br. Med. J. 2:1546–1549. Edwards, J.S.A., D.E. Roberts, T.E. Morgan, and L.S. Lester 1989. An evaluation of the nutritional intake and acceptability of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat, with and without a supplemental pack in a cold environment. Technical Report T18-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Edwards, J.S.A., D.E. Roberts, S.H. Mutter, and R.J. Moore 1990. A comparison of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat VIII with supplemental pack and the Ration, Cold Weather consumed in an arctic environment. Technical Report T21-90. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Edwards, J.S.A., D.E. Roberts, J. Edinberg, and T.E. Morgan 1990. The Meal, Ready-to-Eat consumed in a cold environment. Technical Report T9-90. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Edwards, J.S.A., E.W. Askew, N. King, C.S. Fulco, R.W. Hoyt, and J.P. DeLany 1991. An assessment of the nutritional intake and energy expenditure of unacclimatized U.S. Army soldiers living and working at high altitude. Technical Report T10-91. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Engell, D. 1988. Interdependency of food and water intake in humans. Appetite 10:133–141. 1993. Effect of water intake on food palatability and intake [abstract]. Appetite 20:149. Engell, D., and E. Hirsch 1991. Environmental and sensory modulation of fluid intakes in humans. Pp. 382–390 in Thirst: Physiological and Psychological Aspects, D.J. Ramsay and D.A. Booth, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Engell, D., and R. Popper 1988. Evaluation of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat VIII at Market Square II. Technical Report Natick TR-88/078. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. Engell, D.B., D.E. Roberts, E.W. Askew, M.S. Rose, J. Buchbinder, and M.A. Sharp 1987. Evaluation of the Ration, Cold Weather during a 10-day cold weather field training exercise. Technical Report TR-87/030. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. Engell, D., F.M. Kramer, S. Luther, and S. Adams 1990. The effect of social influence on food intake. Paper presented at the Society for Nutrition Education Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif. Fabry, P., and J. Tepperman 1970. Meal frequency—a possible factor in human pathology. Am. J. Clin Nutr. 23:1059–1068. Finch, C.A., and H. Huebers 1982. Perspectives in iron metabolism. N. Engl. J. Med. 306:1520–1528.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Fink, W., D.L. Costill, P. Van Handel, and L. Getchell 1975. Leg muscle metabolism during exercise in the hot and cold. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 34:183–190. Fitzsimons, J.T., and J. Le Magnen 1969. Eating as a regulatory control of drinking in the rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 67:273–283. Fogelholm, G.M., R. Koskinen, J. Laakso, T. Rankinen, and I. Ruokonen 1993. Gradual and rapid weight loss: Effects on nutrition and performance in male athletes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25:371–377. Forbes, G. B. 1993. The companionship of lean and fat. Pp. 1–14 in Human Body Composition, K.J. Ellis and J.D. Eastman, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Foreyt, J.P., and J.K. McGavin 1989. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Pp. 529–558 in Treatment of Childhood Disorders, E.J. Mash and R.A. Barkley, eds. New York: Guilford Press. Forkman, B.A. 1991. Social facilitation is shown by gerbils when presented with novel but not with familiar food. Anim. Behav. 42:860–861. Fox, M., N. Wenkam, and E. Hirsch 1989. Acceptability studies of military ration: Meal, Ready-to-Eat. J. Foodserv. Systems 5:189–197. Francesconi, R.P., R.W. Hubbard, P.C. Szlyk, D. Schnakenberg, D. Carlson, N. Leva, I. Sils, L. Hubbard, V. Pease, J. Young, and D. Moore 1987. Urinary and hematologic indexes of hypohydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 62:1271–1276. Frank, J.D. 1944. Experimental studies of personal pressure and resistance: I. Experimental production of resistance. J. Gen. Psychol. 30:23–41. Frederick II, King of Prussia 1966. Frederick the Great on the Art of War. New York: Free Press. Friedl, K.E. 1992. Body composition and military performance: Origins of the Army standards. Pp. 31–56 in Body Composition and Physical Performance, B.M. Marriott and J. Grumstrup-Scott, eds. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Friedl, K.E., L.J. Marchitelli, D.E. Sherman, and R. Tulley 1990. Nutritional assessment of cadets at the U.S. Military Academy: Part 1. Anthropometric and biochemical measures. Technical Report T4-91, AD A231 918. Natick, Mass.: Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Friedl, K.E., R.J. Moore, L.E. Martinez-Lopez, J.A. Vogel, E.W. Askew, L.J. Marchitelli, R.W. Hoyt, and C.C. Gordon 1994. Lower limit of body fat in healthy active men. J. Appl. Physiol. 77(2):933–940. Frykman, P.N., B.C. Nindl, K.E. Friedl, E.A. Harman, and R.L. Shippee 1993. Effects of extended physical training and caloric deficit on power output of young healthy males [abstract]. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 25(suppl.):S58. Fulco, C.S., A. Cymerman, N.A. Pimental, A.J. Young, and J.T. Maher 1985. Anthropometric changes at high altitude. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 56:220–224. Gardner, G.W., V.R. Edgerton, B. Senewiratne, R.J. Barnard, and Y. Ohira 1977. Physical work capacity and metabolic stress in subjects with iron deficiency anemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:910–917. Garfinkel, P.E., and D.M. Garner 1982. Anorexia Nervosa—A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. New York: Guilford Press.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Garfinkel, P.E., and A.S. Kaplan 1986. Anorexia nervosa: Diagnostic conceptualizations. Pp. 266–282 in Handbook of Eating Disorders: Physiology, Psychology, and Treatment of Obesity, Anorexia, and Bulimia, K.D. Brownell and J.P. Foreyt, eds. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Garfinkel, P.E., H. Moldofsky, and D.M. Garner 1980. The heterogeneity of anorexia nervosa: Bulimia as a distinct subgroup. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 37:1036–1040. Garner, D.M., P.E. Garfinkel, and K.M. Bemis 1982. A multidimensional psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa. Int. J. Eat. Disord. 1:3–46. Gersovitz, M., J.P. Madden, and H. Smicikalas-Wright 1978. Validity of the 24-hour dietary recall and seven-day record for group comparisons. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 73:48–55. Goetz, F.C., J. Bishop, F. Halberg, R.B. Sothern, R. Brunning, B. Senske, B. Greenberg, D. Minors, P. Stoney, I.D. Smith, G.D. Rosen, D. Cressey, E. Haus, and M. Apfelbaum 1976. Timing of single daily meal influences relations among human circadian rhythms in urinary cyclic AMP and hemic glucagon, insulin and iron. Experientia (Basel) 32:1081–1084. Goldman, S.J., C.P. Herman, and J. Polivy 1991. Is the effect of a social model on eating attenuated by hunger? Appetite 17:129–140. Gorsky, R.D., and D.H. Calloway 1983. Activity pattern changes with decrease in food energy intake. Hum. Biol. 55:577–586. Graeber, R.C., R. Gatty, F. Halberg, and H. Levine 1978. Human eating behavior: Preferences, consumption patterns, and biorhythms. Food Science Laboratories Technical Report DAAK03-74-C-023. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research and Development Command. Graham, G.G. 1993. Starvation in the modern world. N. Engl. J. Med. 328(14):1058–1061. Grande, F. 1986. Impact of food restriction on physical performance. Pp. 81–98 in Predicting Decrements in Military Performance Due to Inadequate Nutrition. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Grande, F., J.T. Anderson, and A. Keys 1958. Changes of basal metabolic rate in man in semistarvation and refeeding. J. Appl. Physiol. 12:230–238. Green, M.W., P.J. Rogers, N.A. Elliman, and S.J. Gatenby 1994. Impairment of cognitive performance associated with dieting and high levels of dietary restraint. Physiol. Behav. 55(3):447–452. Haisman, M.F. 1970. The energy expenditure of jungle patrols. Report RR-1/70, AD 881 642. Farnborough, England: Army Personnel Research Establishment. Halberg, F. 1983. Chronobiology and nutrition. Contemp. Nutr. 8 (9):2 pp. (unpaginated). 1989. Some aspects of the chronobiology of nutrition: More work is needed on "when to eat." J. Nutr. 119(3):333–343. Halberg, F., E. Halberg, and F. Carandente 1976. Chronobiology and metabolism in the broader context of timely intervention and timed treatment. Symposia Medica Hoeschst 12. Diabetes Research Today. Meeting of the Minkowski Prize-Winners. April 13–15, Capri, Italy.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Halberg, F., E. Haus, E. Halberg, G. Cornélissen, P. Scarpelli, B. Tarquini, M. Cagnoni, D. Wilson, K. Griffiths, H. Simpson, E. Balestra, and L. Reale 1986. Chronobiologic challenges in social medicine: Illustrative tasks in cardiology and oncology. Pp. 13–42 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Medico-Social Aspects of Chronobiology, F. Halberg, L. Reale, and B. Tarquini, eds. Rome: Instituto Italiano di Medicina Sociale. Halberg, F., S. Sánchez, and W. Nelson 1986. Rhythm scrambling and tumorigenesis in CD2F1 mice. Pp. 59–61 in III International Symposium, Social Diseases and Chronobiology, B. Tarquini and R. Vergassola, eds., Florence: Centro Stampa Palogi. Halberg, F., G. Cornélissen, E. Halberg, J. Halberg, P. Delmore, M. Shinoda, and E. Bakken 1988. Chronobiology of Human Blood Pressure. Medtronic Continuing Medical Education Seminars, 4th ed. Minneapolis: Medtronic, Inc. Halberg, F., K. Tamura, and G. Cornélissen 1994. Chronobioengineering toward a cost-effective quality health care. Frontiers Med. Biol. Engng. 6(2):83–102. Harlow, H.F. 1932. Social facilitation of feeding in the albino rat. J. Genet. Psychol. 43:211–221. Harlow, H.F., and H.C. Yudin 1933. Social behavior of primates 1. Social facilitation of feeding in the monkey and its relation to attitudes of ascendance and submission. J. Comp. Psychol. 16:171–185. Harman, E.A., M.T. Rosenstein, P.N. Frykman, R.M. Rosenstein, and W.J. Kraemer 1991. Estimation of human power output from vertical jump. J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res. 5:116–120. Hartling, O. 1975. The effect of the first three months of military service on the physical work capacity of conscripts. Forsvarsmedicin Swed. J. Defense Med. 11:213–218. Hashim, S.A., and T.B. Van Itallie 1965. Studies in normal and obese subjects with a monitored food dispensing device. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 131:654–661. Heady, J.A. 1961. Diets of bank clerks: Development of a method of classifying the diets of individuals for use in epidemiological studies. J. R. Stat. Soc. (Series A), pt. 3, 124:336–361. Hehir, P. 1922. Effects of chronic starvation during the siege of Kut. Br. Med. J. 1:865–869. Henriksson, J. 1990. The possible role of skeletal muscle in the adaptation to periods of energy deficiency. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 44(suppl. 1):55–64. Henschel, A., H.L. Taylor, and A. Keys 1954. Performance capacity in acute starvation with hard work. J. Appl. Physiol. 6:624–633. Hickner, R.C., C.A. Horswill, J.M. Welker, J. Scott, J.N. Roemmich, and D.L. Costill 1991. Test development for the study of physical performance in wrestlers following weight loss. Int. J. Sports Med. 12:557–562. Hirsch, E., and F.M. Kramer 1993. Situational influences on food intake. Pp. 215–243 in Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments, B.M. Marriott, ed. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Moore, R.J., K.E. Friedl, T.R. Kramer, L.E. Martinez-Lopez, R.W. Hoyt, R.T. Tulley, J.P. DeLany, E.W. Askew, and J.A. Vogel 1992. Changes in soldier nutritional status and immune function during the Ranger training course. Technical Report T13-92, AD A257 437. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Moore, R.J., K.E. Friedl, R.T. Tulley, and E.W. Askew 1993. Maintenance of iron status in healthy men during an extended period of stress and physical activity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 58:923–927. Moore-Ede, M.C. 1986. Physiology of the circadian timing system: Predictive versus reactive homeostasis. Am. J. Physiol. 250:735–752. Moore-Ede, M.C., and G.S. Richardson 1985. Medical implications of shift-work. Ann. Rev. Med. 36:607–617. Morgan, T.E., L.A. Hodges, D. Schilling, R.W. Hoyt, E.J. Iwanyk, G. McAninch, T.C. Wells, and E.W. Askew 1988. A comparison of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat, Ration, Cold Weather, and Ration, Lightweight nutrient intakes during moderate altitude cold weather field training operations. Technical Report T5-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Mori, D., S. Chalken, and P. Pliner 1987. ''Eating lightly" and the self-presentation of femininity. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 53:693–702. Moskowitz, H.R. 1979. Mind, body, and pleasure: An analysis of factors which influence sensory hedonics. Pp. 131–148 in Preference Behavior and Chemoreception, J.H.A. Kroeze, ed. London: Information Retrieval. Motrynczuk, P. 1991. The Army family of rations—The right meal, at the right place and at the right time. Quartermaster Professional Bull. Autumn:23–26. Mullenbach, V., L.H. Kushl, C. Jacobson, O. Gomez-Martin, R.J. Prineas, L. Roth-Yousey, and A.R. Sinaiko 1992. Comparison of 3-day food record and 24-hour recall by telephone for dietary evaluation in adolescents. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 92(6):743–745. Murlin, J.R., and C.W. Miller 1919. Preliminary results of nutritional surveys in United States Army Camps. Am. J. Public Health 9(6):401–413. Murphy, M.M., J.J. Knapik, J.A. Vogel, and F.R. Drews 1984. Relationship of anaerobic power capacity to performance during a 5-day sustained combat scenario. Technical Report T5/84, AD A181 444. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Myers, R.J., R.C. Kresges, L.H. Eck, C.L. Hanson, and M.L. Klem 1988. Accuracy of self-reports of food intake in obese and normal-weight individuals: Effects of obesity on self-reports of dietary intake in adult females. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 48:1248–1251. Nelson, W., and F. Halberg 1986. Meal-timing, circadian rhythms and lifespan of mice. J. Nutr. 116:2244–2253. 1986. Schedule-shifts, circadian rhythms and lifespan of freely-feeding and meal-fed mice. Physiol. Behav. 38:781–788. NIH (National Institutes of Health) Technology Assessment Conference Panel 1992. Methods for voluntary weight loss and control. Ann Intern. Med. 116:942–949.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Nisbett, R.E., and M.D. Storms 1972. Cognitive and social determinants of food intake. Pp. 190–208 in Thought and Feeling: Cognitive Alteration of Feeling States, H. London and R.E. Nisbett, eds. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co. Norton, P., G. Falciglia, and D. Gist 1993. Physiologic control of food intake by neural and chemical mechanisms. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 93:450–457. NRC (National Research Council) 1941. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. 1986. Cognitive Testing Methodology. Proceedings of a workshop held on June 11–12, 1984. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1989. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. A report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. A report of the Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Nygaard, E. 1985. Energy supply and utilization during exercise in women and men—A comparison. Pp. 249–258 in Metabolic Complications of Human Obesities. Proceedings of the 6th International Meeting of Endocrinology, May 30–June 1, Marseille. International Congress Series No. 682. New York: Elsevier Science Publishers. Oektedalen, O., P.K. Opstad, O.B. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O. Fausa, and O. Flaten 1983. Basal hyperchlorhydria and its relation to the plasma concentrations of secretin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and gastrin during prolonged strain. Regul. Pept. 5:235–244. Oliver, R.L. 1977. Effect of expectation and disconfirmation on postexposure product evaluations: An alternative interpretation. J. Appl. Psychol. 62(4):480–486. Olshavsky, R.W., and J.A. Miller 1972. Consumer expectation, product performance, and perceived product quality. J. Marketing Res. 9:19–21. Olson, J.C., and P. Dover 1976. Effects of expectation creation and disconfirmation on belief elements of cognitive structure. Pp. 168–175 in Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 3, B.B. Anderson, ed. Atlanta: Association for Consumer Research. Opstad, P.K., and A. Aakvaag 1981. The effect of a high calory diet on hormonal changes in young men during prolonged physical strain and sleep deprivation. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 46:31–39. Opstad, P.K., R. Ekanger, M. Numestad, and N. Raabe 1978. Performance, mood, and clinical symptoms in men exposed to prolonged, severe physical work and sleep deprivation. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 49:1065–1073. Patton, J.F., J.A. Vogel, A.I. Damokosh, and R.P. Mello 1989. Effects of continuous military operations on physical fitness capacity and physical performance. Work and Stress 3:69–77. Peryam, D.R., and F.J. Pilgrim 1957. Hedonic scale method of measuring food preferences. Food Technol. 11(suppl.):9–14. Phillips, P.A., B.J. Rolls, J.C.G. Ledingham, and J.J. Morton 1984. Body fluid changes, thirst, and drinking in man during free access to water. Physiol. Behav. 33:357–363.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Phinney, S.D., E.S. Horton, E.A.H. Sims, J.S. Hanson, E. Danforth, Jr., and B.M. LaGrange 1980. Capacity for moderate exercise in obese subjects after adaptation to a hypocaloric, ketogenic diet. J. Clin. Invest. 66:1152–1161. Phinney, S.D., B.R. Bistrian, W.J. Evans, and G.L. Blackburn 1983. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: Preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Metabolism 32:769–776. Phinney, S.D., B.M. LaGrange, M. O'Connell, and E. Danforth, Jr. 1988. Effects of aerobic exercise on energy expenditure and nitrogen balance during very low calorie dieting. Metabolism 37(8):758–765. Pilgrim, F.J. 1961. What foods do people accept or reject? J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 38:439. Pitts, G.C., R.E. Johnson, and F.C. Consolazio 1944. Work in the heat as affected by intake of water, salt and glucose. Am. J. Physiol. 142:253–259. Pleban, R.J., P.J. Valentine, D.M. Penetar, D.P. Redmond, and G.L. Belenke 1990. Characterization of sleep and body composition changes during Ranger training. Milit. Psychol. 2(3)145–156. Pliner, P., J. Polivy, C.P. Herman, and I. Zakalusny 1980. Short-term intake of overweight individuals and normal weight dieters and non-dieters with and without choice among a variety of foods. Appetite 1:203–213. Polivy, J., C.P. Herman, J.C. Younger, and B. Erskine 1979. Effects of a model on eating behavior: The induction of a restrained eating style. J. Pers. 47:100–117. Popper, R., E.S. Hirsch, L. Lesher, D. Engell, B. Jezior, B. Bell, and W.T. Matthew 1987. Field evaluation of Improved MRE, MRE VII, and MRE IV. Technical Report TR-87/027. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. Popper, R., G. Smits, H.L Meiselman, and E. Hirsch 1989. Eating in combat: A survey of U.S. Marines. Milit. Med. 154:619–623. Porikos, K.P., and T.B. Van Itallie 1984. Efficacy of low-calorie sweeteners in reducing food intake: Studies with aspartame. Pp. 296–312 in Aspartame, L.D. Stegink and L.J. Filer, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker. Porikos, K.P., G. Booth, and T.B. Van Itallie 1977. Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: A pilot study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:1638–1644. Porikos, K.P., M.F. Hesser, and T.B. Van Itallie 1982. Caloric regulation in normal-weight men maintained on a palatable diet of conventional foods. Physiol. Behav. 29:293–300. Portela, A., G. Cornélissen, M. Blank, Y. Kumagai, C. Bingham, G. Bartolomucci, and F. Halberg 1993. Circadian stage-dependence of acetyl-L-carnitine effects on blood pressure and heart rate of clinically healthy subjects. Chronobiologia 20:63–76. Powley, T.L., and H.R. Berthoud 1985. Diet and cephalic phase insulin responses. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 42:991–1002. Prentice, A.M., A.E. Black, W.A. Coward, H.L. Davies, R.R. Goldberg, P.R. Murgatroyd, J. Ashford, M. Sawyer, and R.G. Whitehead 1986. High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. Br. Med. J. 292:983–987. Prewitt, T.E., D. Schmeisser, P.E. Bowen, P. Aye, T.A. Dolecek, P. Langenberg, T. Cole, and L. Brace 1991. Changes in body weight, body composition, and energy intake in women fed high- and low-fat diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54(2):304–310.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Prikryl, P., J. Siegelova, G. Cornélissen, J. Dusek, E. Dankova, B. Fiser, J. Vacha, S. Ferrazzani, A. Tocci, A. Caruso, G. Rao, H. Fink, F. Halberg, and International Womb-to-Tomb Chronome Initiative Group 1991. Chronotherapeutic treatment—daily low-dose aspirin. University of Minnesota/Medtronic Chronobiology Seminar Series, no. 3. Minneapolis: Medtronic, Inc. QMC&S (U.S. Army Quartermaster Center and School) 1994. Executive Review of the Army Field Feeding System Future Concept Evaluation Program Data Collection Effort Field Trials. May, 1994. Ft. Lee, Va.: U.S. Quartermaster Center and School. Rajecki, D.W., R.F. Kidd, D.A. Wilder, and J. Jaeger 1975. Social factors in the facilitation of feeding in chickens: Effects of imitation, arousal or disinhibition? J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 52:510–518. Redd, M., and J.M. de Castro 1992. Social facilitation of eating: Effects of social instruction on food intake. Physiol. Behav. 52:749–754. Renwick, A.G. 1994. Intense sweeteners, food intake, and the weight of a body of evidence. Physiol. Behav. 55:139–143. Retzlaff, P., M. Butler, and R. Vanderploeg 1992. Neuropsychological battery choice and theoretical orientation: A multivariate analysis. J. Clin. Psychol. 48(5):666–672. Roberts, D.E., E.W. Askew, M.S. Rose, M.A. Sharp, S. Bruttig, J.C. Buchbinder, and D.B. Engell 1987. Nutritional and hydration status of special forces soldiers consuming the Ration, Cold Weather or the Meal, Ready-to-Eat ration during a 10-day cold weather field training exercise. Technical Report T8-87, AD A179 886. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Roberts, D.E., B.J. McGuire, D.B. Engell, C.A. Salter, and M.S. Rose 1989. Role of water consumption on consumption of the Ration, Cold Weather. Technical Report T13-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Rodin, J. 1985. Insulin levels, hunger, and food intake: An example of feedback loops in body weight regulation. Health Psychol. 4:1–24. Rogers, P.J., and M.W. Green 1993. Dieting, dietary restraint and cognitive performance. Brit. J. Clin. Psychol. 32:113–116. Rogers, P.J., S. Edwards, M.W. Green, and P. Jas 1992. Nutritional influences on mood and cognitive performance: The menstrual cycle, caffeine, and dieting. Proc. Nutri. Soci. 51:343–351. Rognum, T.O., K. Rodahl, and P.K. Opstad 1982. Regional differences in the lipolytic response of the subcutaneous fat depots to prolonged exercise and severe energy deficiency. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 49:410–408. Rognum, T.O., F. Vartdal, K. Rodahl, P.K. Opstad, O. Knudsen-Baas, E. Kindt, and W.R. Withey 1986. Physical and mental performance of soldiers on high- and low-energy diets during prolonged heavy exercise combined with sleep deprivation. Ergonomics 29:859–867. Rolls, B.J. 1986. Sensory-specific satiety. Nutr. Rev. 44:93–101. 1990. Determinants of food intake and selection. Pp. 63–73 in Nutrition in the '90s: Current Controversies and Analysis, G.E. Gaull, F.N. Kotsonis, and M.A. Mackey, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations 1990. The role of sensory-specific satiety in food intake and food selection. Pp. 197–209 in Taste, Experience and Feeding, E.D. Capaldi and T.L. Powley, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Rolls, B.J., and M. Hetherington 1989. The role of variety in eating and body weight regulation. Pp. 57–84 in Handbook of the Psychophysiology of Human Eating, R. Shepherd, ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Rolls, B.J., and D.J. Shide 1992. The influence of dietary fat on food intake and body weight. Nutr. Rev. 50:283–290. Rolls, B.J., E.A. Rowe, and R.C. Tunner 1980. Persistent obesity in rats following a period of consumption of a mixed, high energy diet. J. Physiol. 298:415–427. Rolls, B.J., R.J. Wood, and E.T. Rolls 1980. Thirst: The initiation, maintenance, and termination of drinking. Pp. 263–321 in Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology, vol. 9, J.M. Sprague and A.N. Epstein, eds. New York: Academic Press. Rolls, B.J., E.A. Rowe, E.T. Rolls, B. Kingston, A. Megson, and R. Gunary 1981. Variety in a meal enhances food intake in man. Physiol. Behav. 26:215–221. Rolls, B.J., E.A. Rowe, and E.T. Rolls 1982. How sensory properties of foods affect human feeding behavior. Physiol. Behav. 29:409–417. Rolls, B.J., P.M. van Duijvenvoorde, and E.T. Rolls 1984. Pleasantness changes and food intake in a varied four-course meal. Appetite 5:337–348. Rolls, B.J., M. Hetherington, V.J. Burley, and P.M. van Duijvenvoorde 1986. Changing hedonic responses to foods during and after a meal. Pp. 247–268 in Interaction of the Chemical Senses with Nutrition, M.R. Kare and J.G. Brand, eds. New York: Academic Press. Rolls, B.J., M. Hetherington, and V.J. Burley 1988. The specificity of satiety: The influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety. Physiol. Behav. 43(a):145–153. Rolls, B.J., I.C. Fedoroff, J. Guthrie, and L.J. Laster 1990. Foods with different satiating effects in humans. Appetite 15:115–126. Rolls, B.J., S. Kim, and I.C. Fedoroff 1990. Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men. Phyisol. Behav. 48:19–26. Rolls, B.J., D.J. Shide, N. Hoeymans, P. Jas, and A. Nichols 1992. Information about fat content of preloads influences energy intake in women [abstract]. Appetite 19:213. Rose, M.S 1989. Between-meal food intake for reservists training in the field. Technical Report T15-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Rose, M.S., and D.E. Carlson 1986. Effects of A Ration meals on body weight during sustained field operations. Technical Report T2-87. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Rose, M.S., P.C. Szlyk, R.P. Francesconi, L.S. Lester, L. Armstrong, W. Matthew, A.V. Cardello, R.D. Popper, I. Sils, G. Thomas, D. Schilling, and R. Whang 1989. Effectiveness and acceptability of nutrient solutions in enhancing fluid intake in the heat. Technical Report T10-89. Natick Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Rose, R.W., C.J. Baker, C. Salter, W. Wisnaskas, J.S.A. Edwards, and M.S. Rose 1989. Dietary assessment of U.S. Army basic trainees at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Technical Report T6-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Russell, D. McR., P.M. Walker, L.A. Leiter, A. Sima, W.K. Tanner, D.A.G. Mickle, J. Whitwell, E.B. Marliss, and K.N. Jeejeebhoy 1984. Metabolic and structural changes in skeletal muscle during hypocaloric dieting. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39:503–513. Salter, C.A., D. Sherman, S. Adams, and K. Rock 1990. Feeding concept, military vs. civilian system. Technical Report TR-91/011. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. Salter, C.A., D. Engell, F.M. Kramer, L.S. Lester, J. Kalick, K.L. Rock, L.L. Lesher, S.L. Dewey, and D. Caretti 1991. The relative acceptability and consumption of the current and proposed versions of the T. Ration. Technical Report TR-91/031. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center. Saltin, B. 1964. Aerobic and anaerobic work capacity after dehydration. J. Appl. Physiol. 19:1114–1118. Saltin, B., and J. Karlsson 1971. Muscle glycogen utilization during work of different intensities. Pp. 289–300 in Muscle Metabolism During Exercise, B. Pernow and B. Saltin, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Samuels, J.P., R.P. McDevitt, M.C. Bollman, W. Maclinn, L.M. Richardson, and L.G. Voss 1947. A Report on Wartime Problems in Subsistence Research and Development, Vol. 12, Ration Development. Chicago, Ill.: Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces. Sandick, B.L., D.B. Engell, and O. Maller 1984. Perception of drinking water temperature and effects for humans after exercise. Physiol. Behav. 32:851–855. Schantz, P., J. Henriksson, and E. Jansson 1983. Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to endurance training of long duration. Clin. Physiol. 3:141–151. Schiele, B.C., and J. Brozek 1948. "Experimental neurosis" resulting from semistarvation in man. Psychosom. Med. 10(1):31–50. Schoeller, D.A., and E. van Santen 1982. Measurement of energy expenditure in humans by doubly labeled water method. J. Appl. Physiol. 53:955–959. Schulz, G., D.P. Leitch, and S. Holgate 1992. United States: Armed forces food research and development. Pp. 2619–2622 in Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, vol. 3. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Schulz, G.L., A. Meyer, I. Taub, D. Berkowitz, A. Cardello, E. Hirsch, C.P. Dunne, A. Narayan, B. Atwood, W. Porter, and G. Silverman 1992. Military food. Pp. 1778–1789 in Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, vol. 3. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Schutz, H.G. 1988. Beyond preference: Appropriateness as a measure of contextual acceptance of food. Pp. 115–134 in Food Acceptability, D.M.H. Thomson, ed. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Schutz, H.G., and F.J. Pilgrim 1958. A field study of food monotony. Psych. Rep. 4:559–565.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Schutz, H.G., M.H. Rucker, and G.F. Russell 1975. Food and food-use classification systems. Food Technol. 29(3):50–56, 60–64. Seaton, R.W., and D.H. Peryam 1970. Hunger, food preference, and consumption. Human Factors 12(6):515. Seligman, M.E.P. 1975. Helplessness. San Francisco, Calif.: W.H. Freeman and Co. Sharp, M.A. and J.A. Vogel 1992. Maximal lifting strength in military personnel. Pp. 1261–1267 in Advances in Industrial Ergonomics and Safety IV, S. Kumar, ed. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis. Sharp, M.A., J.J. Knapik, and A.W. Schopper 1992. Energy cost and post-exercise effects of a prolonged high rate of fire, howitzer simulator training exercise. Technical Report T9-92, AD A255 428. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Sharp, M.A., B.C. Nindl, K.A. Westphal, and K.E. Friedl 1994. The physical performance of female Army basic trainees who pass and fail the Army body weight and percent body fat standards. Pp. 743–750 in Advances in Industrial Ergonomics and Safety VI, E. Agazadeh, ed. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Francis. Shaw, J. 1973. The Influence of Type of Food and Method of Presentation on Human Eating Behavior. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Sheperd, R., H. Schutz, and P. Sparks 1992. Prediction of frequency of food consumption from use, attitude, and demographic variables. Rose Marie Panborn Memorial Symposium. August 2–6, Jarvenpaa, Finland. Sherif, M., and C.I. Hovland 1961. Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Shippee, R., K. Friedl, T. Kramer, M. Mays, K. Popp, E.W. Askew, B. Fairbrother, R. Hoyt, J. Vogel, L. Marchitelli, P. Frykman, L. Martinez-Lopez, E. Bernton, M. Kramer, R. Tulley, J. Rood, J. DeLany, D. Jezior, and J. Arsenault 1994. Nutritional and immunological assessment of Ranger students with increased caloric intake. Technical Report T95-5. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Sidel, J.L., H. Stone, A. Woolsey, and J.M. Mecredy 1972. Correlation between hedonic ratings and consumption of beer. J. Food Sci. 37:335. Siegal, P.S., and F.J. Pilgrim 1958. The effect of monotony on the acceptance of food. Am. J. Psychol. 71:756–759. Siegal, S.F, P.M. Poole, E.W. Askew, M.A. Kinney, C. Shaw, J. Aylward, and S. Hunter 1985. Twelve-day field test of Ration, Lightweight, 30-day at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas. Technical Report TR-87/032. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Center. Siegelova, J., P. Prikryl, G. Cornélissen J. Moore, and F. Halberg 1993. Chronobiologic approach to therapeutic efficacy overriding sole tolerance consideration. Pp. 118–120 in Chronocardiology and Chronomedicine: Humans in Time and Cosmos, K. Otsuka, G. Cornélissen, and F. Halberg, eds. Tokyo: Life Science Publishing. Sigler, M.H. 1975. The mechanism of the natriuresis of fasting. J. Clin. Invest. 55:377–387. Smoak, B.L., A. Singh, B.A. Day, J.P. Norton, S.B. Kyle, S.J. Pepper, and P.A. Deuster 1988. Changes in nutrient intakes of conditioned men during a 5-day period of increased physical activity and other stresses. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 58:245–251.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Smutz, E.R., H.L. Jacobs, D. Waterman, and M. Caldwell 1974. Small sample studies of food habits: 1. The relationship between food preference and food choice in naval enlisted personnel at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Davisville, Rhode Island . Technical Report TR-75-52-FSL. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command. Sperl, T.C., M.J. Ree, and K.W. Steuck 1992. Armed services vocational aptitude battery and air force officer qualifying test: Analyses of common attributes. Milit. Psychol. 4(3):175–188. Spitzer, L., and J. Rodin 1981. Human eating behavior: A critical review of studies in normal weight and overweight individuals. Appetite 2:293–329. Spurr, G.B. 1986. Physical work performance under conditions of prolonged hypocaloria. Pp. 99–135 in Predicting Decrements in Military Performance Due to Inadequate Nutrition. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. 1990. Physical activity and energy expenditure in undernutrition. Prog. Food. Nutr. Sci. 14:139–192. Spurr, G.B., and J.C. Reina 1988. Influence of dietary intervention on artificially increased activity in marginally undernourished Columbian boys. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 42:835–846. Stackpole, E.A., ed. 1965. The Long Arctic Search. The Narrative of Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka. Mystic, Conn.: The Marine Historical Society. Staten, M.A. 1991. The effect of exercise on food intake in men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53:27–31. Stevens, J. 1988. Does dietary fiber affect food intake and body weight? J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 88:939–945. St. Jeor, S.T., H.A. Guthrie, and M.B. Jones 1983. Variability on nutrient intake in a 28 day period. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 83:155–162. Strober, M. 1986. Anorexia nervosa: History and psychological concepts. Pp. 231–246 in Handbook of Eating Disorders: Physiology, Psychology, and Treatment of Obesity, Anorexia, and Bulimia, K.D. Brownell and J.P. Foreyt, eds. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Sullins, W.R., Jr., L.E. Symington, J.R. Siebold, and J.G. Rogers 1977. Food preference, acceptance, and consumption in a simulated, isolated-duty station. Technical Report TR-78-027. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command. Szeto, E.G., D.E. Carlson, TB. Dugan, and J.C. Buchbinder 1987. A comparison of nutrient intakes between a Ft. Riley contractor-operated and a Ft. Lewis military-operated garrison dining facility. Technical Report T2-88 . Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Szeto, E.G., T.B. Dugan, and J.A. Gallo 1988. Nutrient intakes of habitual diners in a military-operated garrison dining facility. Ft. Devens I. Technical Report T3-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Szeto, E.G., J.A. Gallo, and K.W. Samonds 1989. Passive nutrition intervention in a military-operated garrison dining facility. Ft. Devens II. Technical Report T7-89. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Szlyk, P.C., I.V. Sils, R.P. Francesconi, and R.W. Hubbard 1990. Patterns of human drinking: Effects of exercise, water temperature, and food consumption. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. January:43–48. Szmukler, G.I., D. Andrewes, K. Kingston, L. Chen, R. Stargatt, and R. Stanley 1992. Neuropsychological impairment in anorexia nervosa: Before and after refeeding. J. Clin. Exper. Neuropsychol. 14(2):347–352. Taylor, H.L., A. Henschel, O. Mickelsen, and A. Keys 1954. Some effects of acute starvation with hard work on body weight, body fluids and metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 6:613–623. Taylor, H.L., E.R. Buskirk, J. Brozek, J.T. Anderson, and F. Grande 1957. Performance capacity and effects of caloric restriction with hard physical work on young men. J. Appl. Physiol. 10:421–429. Tepas, D.I. 1990. Do eating and drinking schedules interact with work schedule variables? Work and Stress 4:203–211. Teves, M.A., J.A. Vogel, D.E. Carlson, and D.D. Schnakenberg 1986. Body composition and muscle performance aspects of the 1985 CFFS test. Technical Report T12-86, AD A172 752. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Thomas, C.D., C.J. Baker-Fulco, T.E. Jones, N. King, D.A. Jezior, B.N. Fairbrother, and E.W. Askew 1993. Nutrition for health and performance: Nutritional guidance for military field operations in temperature and extreme environments. Technical Note 93-3, AD 261 392. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Thomas, C.D., K.E. Friedl, M.Z. Mays, S.H. Mutter, R.J. Moore, D.A. Jezior , C.J. Baker-Fulco, L.J. Marchitelli, R.T. Tulley, and E.W. Askew 1995. Nutrient intakes and nutritional status of soldiers consuming the Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE XII) during a 30-day field training exercise. Technical Report T6-95. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Tolman, C.W. 1964. Social facilitation of feeding behavior in the domestic chick. Anim. Behav. 12:245–251. 1968. The role of tie companion in social facilitation of animal behaviour. Pp. 33–54 in Social Facilitation and Imitative Behaviour, E.C. Simmel, R.A. Hoppe, and G.A. Milton, eds. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Tolman, C.W., and G.F. Wilson 1965. Social feeding in domestic chicks. Anim. Behav. 13:134–142. Tordoff, M.G., and A.M. Alleva 1990. Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51:963–969. Tournier, A., and J. Louis-Sylvestre 1991. Effects of the physical state of food on subsequent intake in human subjects. Appetite 16:17–24. Tuorila, H., A.V. Cardello, and L.L. Lesher 1994. Antecedents and consequences of expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat foods. Appetite 23:247–263. Turconi, G., R. Bazzano, R. Caramella, R. Crovetti, and M. Porrini 1993. High-calorie fibre-rich breakfast: Its effect on satiety. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 6:245–252. Turnbull, W.H., J. Walton, and A.R. Leeds 1993. Acute effects of mycoprotein on subsequent energy intake and appetite variables. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 58:507–512.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Ulm, R.R., J.R. Volpicelli, R. Cerpa, and K. McIntyre 1987. Weight gain in postweaned rats as a function of predictable and unpredictable feeding schedules. Physiol. Behav. 40:287–289. Ur, E., and A. Grossman 1992. Corticotropin-releasing hormone in health and disease: An update. Acta Endocrinol. 127(3):193–199. USACDEC/USARIEM (U. S. Army Combat Developments Experimentation Center and U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine) 1986. Combat Field Feeding System-Force Development Test and Experimentation (CFFS-FDTE). Technical Report CDEC-TR-85-006A. Vol. 1, Basic Report; vol. 2, Appendix A; vol. 3, Appendixes B through L. Fort Ord, Calif.: U.S. Army Combat Developments Experimentation Center. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) 1986. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Men 19–50 years, 1 day. NFCS, CSFII Report No 85-3. Hyattsville, Md.: Nutrition Monitoring Division, Human Nutrition Information Service. 1987. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Women 19–50 Years and Their Children 1–5 Years, 4 days. NFCS, CSFII Report No. 85-4. Hyattsville, Md.: Nutrition Monitoring Division, Human Nutrition Information Service. 1988. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Women 19–50 Years and Their Children 1–5 Years, 4 days. NFCS, CSFII Report No. 86-3. Hyattsville, Md.: Nutrition Monitoring Division, Human Nutrition Information Service. U.S. Department of the Army 1945. Army Regulation 40–250. "Nutrition." Washington, D.C. 1974. Rations. Technical Manual 8–250. Washington, D.C. 1987. Army Regulation 600-63. "Army Health Promotion." November 17. Washington, D.C. U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force 1985. Army Regulation 40-25/Naval Command Medical Instruction 10110.1/Air Force Regulation 160-95. "Nutritional Allowances, Standards and Education." May 15. Washington, D.C. U.S. War Department 1944. Nutrition. War Department Circular No. 98. Washington, D.C. Valle, F.P. 1981. Detrimental effects of irregular meals on rats' ability to adjust to meal feeding . Am. J. Physiol. 94:3–11. Vogel, J.A. 1994. Evaluation of physical performance. Pp. 113–126 in Food Components to Enhance Performance, B.M. Marriott, ed. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. Vogel, J.A., J.E. Wright, J.F. Patton, J. Dawson, and M.P. Eschenback 1980. A system for establishing occupationally-related gender-free physical fitness standards. Technical Report T5-80, AD A094 518. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Ward, M.P., J.S. Milledge, and J.B. West 1989. Nutrition and intestinal function. Pp. 283–292 in High Altitude Medicine and Physiology, M.P. Ward, J.S. Milledge, and J.B. West, eds. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

OCR for page 437
Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Warwick, Z.S., W.G. Hall, T.N. Pappas, and S.S. Schiffman 1993. Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and high-fat meal in humans. Physiol. Behav. 53:553–563. Webb, W.B., ed. 1982. Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Performance. Chichester, England: Wiley. Weingarten, H.P. 1984. Meal initiation controlled by learned cues: Basic behavioral properties. Appetite 5:147–158. Welker, R.L., J. Garber, and F. Brooks 1977. Stress as a function of irregular feeding of food-deprived rats. Physiol. Behav. 18:639–645. Welty, J.C. 1934. Experiments in group behavior of fishes. Physiol. Zool. 7:85–128. Wenkam, N.S., M. Fox, M.N. Thiele, and I. Lichton 1989. Energy and nutrient intakes of soldiers consuming MRE operational rations: Physiological correlates. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 89:407–409. Westphal, K.A., K.E. Friedl, T.R. Kramer, N. King, M.A. Sharp, and K.L. Reynolds 1994. Health and performance of female soldiers during U.S. Army basic training [abstract] Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. 8:A168. Westphal, K.A., L.J. Marchitelli, K.E. Friedl, and M.A. Sharp 1995. Relationship between iron status and physical performance in female soldiers during U.S. Army basic combat training [abstract]. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. J. 9:A361. Wilkie, W.W. 1990. Consumer Behavior, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Williams, M.H. 1988. Carbohydrates—The main energy food. Pp. 50–75 in Nutrition for Fitness and Sport, 2d ed., M.H. Williams, ed. Dubuque, Ia.: William C. Brown Publishers. Wilson, G.T. 1991. The addiction model of eating disorders: A critical analysis. Adv. Behav. Res. Ther. 13:27–72. Woo, R., and F.X. Pi-Sunyer 1985. Effect of increased physical activity on voluntary intake in lean women. Metabolism 34:836–841. Woods, S.C. 1991. The eating paradox: How we tolerate food. Psychol. Rev. 98(4):488–505. Woods, S.C., J.R. Vaselli, E. Kaestner, G.A. Szakmary, P. Milburn, and M.V. Vitello 1977. Conditioned insulin secretion and meal feedings in rats. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 91:128–133. Wyant, K.W., H.L. Meiselman, and D. Waterman 1979. U.S. Air Force food habits study: Part I, Method and overview. Technical Report TR-79-041. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Natick Research and Development Command. Zajonc, R.B. 1965. Social facilitation. Science 149:269–274. 1980. Compresence. Pp. 35–60 in Psychology of Group Influence, P.B. Paulus, ed. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erblaum Press. Zellner, D.A., W.F. Stewart, P. Rozin, and J.M. Brown 1988. Effect of temperature and expectations on liking for beverages. Physiol. Behav. 44:61–68.