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Index

A

A Rations

application, 7-8

cholesterol levels, 249

described, 7-8, 117

energy balance, 46

field feeding, 32, 65, 66

nutrient intake, 139

preparation, 117

in training environment, 50

Aerobic capacity, 277

energy metabolism and, 268-273,

in ketogenic diet, 306

oxygen uptake, 14, 272

women and, 277

Aldosterone, 306, 308

Altitude-induced effects, 126, 128

Anemia, iron deficiency, 13

Animal studies

food variety as intake factor, 164

generalizability, 18

learning and consumption, 292

social facilitation of intake, 374-375, 384, 385

Anorexia nervosa

application to troop underconsumption, 400-401

clinical features, 398-399

comorbid disorders, 395, 399

cytokine-mediated, 313

dehydration-induced, 140

energy metabolism, 307

epidemiology, 399

hypohydration-induced, 41, 50

See also Eating disorders

Appetite

fluid intake and, 222, 223-224

situational cues and, 22

in stressful situations, 262, 401

Army Field Feeding System (AFFS)

deficiencies of current system, 69-70

evaluation and results, 50, 66

implementation, 66-69

potential application, 48-49



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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Index A A Rations application, 7-8 cholesterol levels, 249 described, 7-8, 117 energy balance, 46 field feeding, 32, 65, 66 nutrient intake, 139 preparation, 117 in training environment, 50 Aerobic capacity, 277 energy metabolism and, 268-273, in ketogenic diet, 306 oxygen uptake, 14, 272 women and, 277 Aldosterone, 306, 308 Altitude-induced effects, 126, 128 Anemia, iron deficiency, 13 Animal studies food variety as intake factor, 164 generalizability, 18 learning and consumption, 292 social facilitation of intake, 374-375, 384, 385 Anorexia nervosa application to troop underconsumption, 400-401 clinical features, 398-399 comorbid disorders, 395, 399 cytokine-mediated, 313 dehydration-induced, 140 energy metabolism, 307 epidemiology, 399 hypohydration-induced, 41, 50 See also Eating disorders Appetite fluid intake and, 222, 223-224 situational cues and, 22 in stressful situations, 262, 401 Army Field Feeding System (AFFS) deficiencies of current system, 69-70 evaluation and results, 50, 66 implementation, 66-69 potential application, 48-49

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Army Field Feeding System-Future (AFFS-F) advantages, 76 cook staff, 70-72 equipment, 72 evaluation trials, 66, 76 mobile kitchen trailer, 72, 74-75 operational design, 70-74 ration planning, 75-76 sanitation center, 72 status, 66 water storage, 75 Army Physical Fitness Research Institute (APFRI), 83 Artificial sweeteners, 51, 142 Aspirin, 369 Assimilation model, 26, 27, 188-189, 190-192, 197-198 Attitudes about food appropriateness, 24-25 behavior and, 353 commanders', as intake determinant, 23-24, 42 as focus of interventions to overcome underconsumption, 52 individual differences in intake, 43 mood, 287 perceived lack of meal choices, 330 role of commanders in shaping, 74 toward ration consumption, 325 toward weight loss in military settings, 10, 15 See also Food image and stereotypes B B Rations development and testing, 117 described, 7, 116-117 field feeding, 32, 65, 66 ingredients, 7 preparation, 7, 116-117 in training environment, 50 Baseline data cognitive performance, 288-289 consumption, 18, 255-256 Beverages accessibility, 29, 30, 222-226 227-228, 236-237 artificially sweetened, 51, 142 attributes of, as intake factor, 229-230 caloric intake and, 217-222, 230, 231-232 CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 CMNR recommendations regarding, 51 consumer behavior situational research, 343-344 determinants of intake, 29-30 dietary role, 217 energy-containing, food intake and, 27-28 factors affecting intake in field, 226-230 food interactions, 29, 30 hedonic qualities, 30 hot drink consumption in cold environments, 220 liquid diet, portion size as intake factor, 206-207 lubricating effect, 225 preparation requirements, 233 social factors affecting intake, 229 variety, 232

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations water intake in ration consumption, 60 water storage in AFFS-F, 75 See also Dehydration; Hypohydration Biodegradable components, 115 Biological/chemical warfare, ration packaging for, 112 Blood pressure, 369-370, 408 Bulimia nervosa, 395 See also Eating disorders C C Rations described, 98 replaced by MRE, 3, 31, 152 Calcium intake studies, 133-134 MRDA, 133 Carbohydrate metabolism dietary conceptualizations, 303-307 garrison studies, 123 glycogen function, 147, 148-149, 305 intake studies, 132, 147 low-carbohydrate diets, 19 mental functioning and, 293 in physical activity, 130-132, 250, 305 underconsumption and, 18-21, 141 Cardiac function, 259-260, 271 chronophysiologic monitoring, 369-370 early effects of caloric deprivation, 308 high-fat diet and, 306 Cholesterol, 249 Chronobiology. See Circadian rhythms Circadian rhythms on consumption, effect of, 21 in consumption interventions, 368-369 during deployment, 324 exercise effects, 366 general health applications, 369-370 meal timing and, 30, 327, 361-371 troop relocation effects, 406-407 CMNR. See Committee on Military Nutrition Research Coffee, 113, 114, 190 Cognitive performance baseline data, 288-289 CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 control group data for field research, 289 dehydration effects, 15 effects of underconsumption, 15-18, 43, 47, 292-294, 298-299 environmental factors in field-ration studies, 290 glycogen metabolism in, 132 individual differences, 291 investigator bias, 292 learning, 292 motivational factors, 290-291 obstacles to assessment of, 15, 18, 47, 172, 289-290 obstacles to field research, 289-292, 298 operational measures, 287 psychomotor performance vs., 287 ration as force multiplier, 111 research methodology, 287-292 research needs, 298, 299

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations severe deficits, 294 underconsumption combined with stress and, 293 Cold environments effect on food, 128 energy metabolism, 9 fluid intake, 220 food intake in, 128-130 high-fat diet in, 140 intake in, 140 macronutrient consumption, 18-19 MRE testing, 105 T Ration arctic module, 116 Combat Field Feeding System development of, 100 field testing of, 101-102, 104, 122, 126, 264 role of CMNR in evaluating testing of, 101, 104 Commanders in AFFS-F implementation, 74 in AFFS-F structure, 73 attitudes of, regarding field feeding, 23-24, 42, 59 exemplary beverage consumption by, 233 field feeding decisions, 32, 66, 80-81 field feeding guide for, 51 in group performance motivation, 291 as intake variable, 140-141 in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 45, 48, 51 monitoring of troop weight loss, 141 perceived responsibility for feeding soldiers, 80-81 survey of attitudes and knowledge about feeding, 77-83 Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) Army questions to, 5 answer to Army questions, 41-45 conclusions of, 45-49 in developing military nutritional standards, role of, 91, 92, 94 emphasis on labeling, 31, 45, 118 in evaluating ration testing, role of, 3, 99, 101, 104 identifying research needs, 52-53 previous reports of, 11, 19-20, 118, 257 recommendations of, 49-52 task from the Army, 4-5, 57, 122 workshop convened by, 6, 62 Constipation, 81 Cooks in AFFS, 68, 69 in AFFS-F, 70-72 in Combat Field Feeding System, 100 future policy for field feeding, 33 Cytokine-mediated underconsumption CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 ibuprofen and, 14, 53 as result of trauma and sickness, 307 D Dehydration cognitive functioning and, 15 criteria for monitoring, 106 in deployment, 324

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations field monitoring, 51 in weight loss, 12, 46, 140 See also Hypohydration Deployment process, 323-325, 406-407 Desert Shield/Storm anecdotal evidence of feeding patterns, 4, 81 feedback on weight loss during, 52 field feeding, 32, 65 regarding labeling, feedback from, 31 troop weight loss, 147 use of MREs during, 7 Detraining effects, 270 Development and evaluation of feeding systems acceptance measures, 358 AFFS, 50, 66, 76 B Rations, 117 beverage components, 218-222, 232 challenges in, 110-112, 119 dehydration criteria, 106 future developments, 118-119 KCLFF-E, 53 MFM, 115 MRE, 3-4, 31, 58, 60, 98-100, 104-105, 112-115, 128, 152-159 novelty of new rations as consumption variable, 148, 159 nutritional criteria, 97-98 nutritional labeling, 118 responsibility, 109-110 T Ration, 116, 159-162 UGR, 117-118 weight loss criteria, 49, 106 See also Intake studies Diarrhea, 147 Disease. See Trauma and sickness E Eating disorders assessment, 394 biological factors, 395-396 clinical features, 394-395 cognitive factors, 397 cognitive treatments, 406 comorbidity, 395, 396 epidemiology, 393 family risk factors, 395 personality characteristics, 396, 397 prevalence in military, 405 risk factors, 393-394 social factors, 397-398, 405 symptoms, 393 See also Anorexia nervosa; Binge eating disorder; Bulimia nervosa Education and training for AFFS-F, 74 CMNR recommendations regarding, 50, 51 for commanders, 24, 51 to increase food intake, 45 need for, 82, 83 Energy metabolism aerobic capacity and, 268-273 in anorexia of illness or injury, 307 baseline data, 255-256 between-meal foods and fluids in, 126 calculations, 20 carbohydrate intake and, 148-149 criteria for evaluation, 49 effects of deficits in, 308-309 effects of ration modifications on, 10 fat consumption and, 205 field monitoring, 53 field studies, 125-128

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations fluid intake and, 217, 220-222 garrison studies, 123-124 immune function and, 309 macronutrient intake and, 20-21 mental functioning and, 293 during military exercise, 8-10 MRE field testing, 99-100, 104 partial consumption of ration and, 135 performance decrements, research in, 254 protein intake and, 312-313 rate of weight loss, 12-13, 47 requirements of field feeding doctrine, 49 in short-term high-intensity activity, 273-276, 314-315 sources of caloric restriction, 307 in starvation/semistarvation, 260, 308 strength and, 265-268 underconsumption of MREs and, 3-4, 46 utilization of A Rations, 46 weight loss and, 11-12, 45, 138-139 women intake studies, 130 work capacity and, 259-262 Energy source energy density, satiation and, 27, 204 fluids as, 29 wastage, 10 Environmental factors challenges for military feeding, 110-111 in cognitive performance studies, 290 in food intake, 42, 140, 412 in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 44-45, 48, 51 in MRE intake, 153 See also Cold environments; Hot environments; Situational factors; Temperate environments Evaluation and testing. See Development and evaluation of feeding systems Expectancies assimilation model, 188-189, 190-192 commander's role in determining, 196-197 commercial vs. military packaging, 194-196 consumption and, 194 food acceptance, 26, 178-181 food quality, 178, 181-183 informational variables in food acceptance, 187-188 models of disconfirmed expectations, 188-189 sensory, 343 troop survey, 178 F Fat, dietary contradictory messages to soldiers, 247, 248 eucaloric ketogenic diet, 305-306 flavor effects, 246 high-fat diets, 19-20, 44, 140, 203-205, 206, 213, 304, 306-307, 309 normal, 255 omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturates in, 306-307 physical activity and, 250 physical exertion and acceptance of, 246, 247-248 satiety and, 27, 204-206

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations underconsumption and, 18-21 women, 258 Fiber, 27, 28, 206, 213 Field feeding doctrine CMNR recommendations regarding, 49-51, 53 development of, 44, 48 Flameless ration heater development of, 113 MRE and, 70, 73, 114 Fluids. See Beverages Water Folate, 134, 148 Focus groups CMNR recommendations regarding, 52 women and veterans in, 52, 53 Food acceptance appropriateness of food and, 24-25, 42-43, 357-358 assimilation-contrast model, 189 assimilation model, 26, 27, 188-189, 190-192, 197-198 challenges for military feeding, 110 CMNR identifies research needs for, 52 consumption modeling, 63-64 contrast model, 189, 192 effects of ration modifications on, 10-11 energy density of food as factor in, 27, 204 fiber content of food as factor in, 27 food industry research, 240, 246 food intake and, 163, 165 food quality and, 26, 27-28 food stereotypes and, 25-27, 45 form of food and, 207-208, 236 generalized negativity model, 189 informational variables in, 187-188, 194 lack of choice and, 329-330 long-term monotony effects, 164-165, 211 military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 187-188, 194-196 monotony effects, 10 in MRE developmental testing, 99, 154-156 MRE performance, 48 MRE supplement pack, 157 palatability as factor in, 27, 28 portion size as factor in, 27, 28 rating scales, 168, 169-170 ration-related determinants, 42, 47 reintroduction of food item, 168 replacement vs. variety, 163 sensory cues and, 328 situational factors in, 170-171 T Rations, 160 troop expectations, 178-181 within-meal variety, 208-210 Food appropriateness categorization, 346-353 elements of, 342 laboratory studies, 354-355 meal timing and, 42, 327, 354 situational factors, 25 Food image and stereotypes characteristics and sources, 183-187 commander's role in determining, 196-197 current understanding, 197-198 expectations among military, 25, 178-183, 185-187 fat in food, 247, 248 general public and media, 25, 178 improving, CMNR recommendations regarding, 45, 52

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations informational variables in food acceptance and consumption, 187-188, 194 intake and, 208 models of disconfirmed expectations, 26, 27, 188-189 program for improving, 198 See also Food appropriateness Food quality current state, 44 food acceptance and, 26, 27-28 in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 47 military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 183 in models of disconfirmed expectations, 189 shelf life, 111 troop expectations, 178, 181-183 See also Palatability Future developments CMNR identifies research needs for, 52-53 field feeding concepts, 118-119 field feeding, 33 MRE beverages, 219 ration design, 31 self-heating group meal, 119 self-heating individual meal, 118-119 G Gastrointestinal functioning, 81, 147, 152, 153 Glycogen, 132, 147, 148, 305, 308 Grazing, 359 Group interaction, 23, 48, 331, 374-375, 387-388 H High-altitude environments, 9 High-fat diets CMNR identifies research needs for, 44 in cold environments, 140 high-fiber diet vs., 213 high-carbohydrate diet vs., 304 omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturates in, 306-307 satiety value of, 205, 206 use of carbohydrate to prevent ketosis in, 19-20 Hot environments conducting field studies in, 53 energy intake, 9 food intake in, 140 heat-stable chocolate, 113 hypohydration in, 217 weight loss in, 12 Hot meals access to ration heating as intake factor, 329 advantages of, 49, 125 in AFFS, 32, 33 in AFSS-F, 32, 33, 72, 73, 75 food acceptance and, 69-70 nutrient intake and, 139 possibilities with KCLFF-E, 72 self-heating group meal, 119 self-heating individual meal, 118-119 Hypohydration anorexia induced by, 41, 50 CMNR recommendations regarding, 50, 53 in food intake studies, 222-226, 230 in hot environments, 217 indicators of, 222, 225-226 reduced food intake as a result of, 21, 41 See also Dehydration

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations I Ibuprofen CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 cytokine-mediated underconsumption and, 14, 53 Immune function, 309, 313 Individual differences attitudes toward rations, 325 cognitive performance, 291 in eating disorders, 396 self-selected ration components, 135, 211 weight loss and physical performance, 47 Intake studies access to water as factor in, 222-226 beverage consumption in, 218-222, 226-230 calcium, 133-134 carbohydrate metabolism, 130-132 cognitive factors in food behavior, 346-357 cold environment training, 128-130 commander's attitude as variable in, 196-197 energy metabolism, 138-139 field studies, 125-128 folate, 134 food quality variables, 203-206 food waste in, 135 form of food as variable in, 207-208 in garrison, 123-124 intentional weight loss, 130, 256-257 labeling as variable, 208 long-term effects of monotony/variety, 164-165, 211 methodological issues, 122-123, 167-168, 169 portion size as variable in, 206-207 protein metabolism, 132-133 ration changes as factor in, 162-165 self-reports, 377-378 sensory-specific satiety in, 208-212 single meal per day, 362-365 social facilitation of food consumption, 374-383 variety as variable in, 135-138 women, 130 Interleukin-1, 307, 313 Interventions to overcome underconsumption anorexia nervosa model, 400-402 beverage-related, 30, 44, 212-213, 231-233 changes in MRE design, 154-159 changes in T Ration design, 159-162 CMNR identifies research needs for, 48, 52-53 CMNR recommendations regarding, 50-52 education and training, 24, 45 emotional factors, 48 environmental factors in, 44-45, 48, 412-413 field feeding doctrine, 44, 48, 49 food appropriateness as element of, 25, 47 food image and stereotypes as focus of, 198 food variety, 135-137, 212 hot meals, 49 implementation, 411, 413

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations implications of assimilation model, 192 improving food image, 26-27, 47 improving food quality, 28, 47, 212 informational variables in, 194 labeling, 212 leadership issues, 48 long-term plans, 414-415 manipulation of situational factors, 22, 23, 34, 44, 47, 332-333 marketing concepts for, 62 packaging-related, 194-196 portion size, 212 presentation, 212 ration-related, 412-413 research design, 33-34 short-term plans, 413-414 social facilitation of intake, 48, 387-388 use of circadian rhythms in, 368-369 Iron, 13, 258-259 J Jet lag, 406 K K Ration, 31 KCLFF. See Kitchen Company Level Field Feeding KCLFF-E. See Kitchen Company Level Field Feeding-Enhanced Ketones, 306 Ketosis dietary prevention, 20 in high-fat diet, use of carbohydrate to prevent, 19-20 in low-carbohydrate diets, 19 physical capacity during, 305-306 Kitchen Company Level Field Feeding (KCLFF), 68 Kitchen Company Level Field Feeding-Enhanced (KCLFF-E) CMNR evaluation of, 53 command structure, 73 equipment and capabilities, 33, 72-73 tactical flexibility, 73-74 Kitchen in a Carton, 31, 119 Korean War, 31 L Labeling CMNR emphasis on, 31, 45 CMNR recommendations regarding, 51 current developments, 118 feedback from Operation Desert Shield/Storm regarding, 31 intake and, 208 military vs. commercial, food acceptance and, 187-188 survey of commanders' knowledge of, 79 Liquid diet, 206-207 Liquids. See Beverages Water Logistics package, 68 Long Range Patrol Food Packet, 30 Low-fat diets, 205, 213, 303-304 M Magnesium, 306 Marketing concepts, 62 See also Food image and stereotypes

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Meal, Combat Individual. See C Ration Meal, defined, 6 Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE) advantages, 3, 32 applications, 7, 48, 49, 70, 112 beverage interactions, 29 calories, 3, 79 carbohydrate content, 132 CMNR recommendations regarding, 51 cold environments testing, 105 commercial items in, 115 commercial-like packaging, 194-196 described, 7, 112 development, 3, 4, 31, 60, 98, 112-115, 152 duration of field use, 3, 4, 31, 113, 152-153 ease of opening, 329 effects of ration modifications, 10 energy metabolism in field, 9, 10, 45-46, 58 field feeding, 65 field tests, 3, 58, 112-113, 152 flameless ration heater and, 70, 73, 113, 114 fluid intake studies, 218-222 Improved version, 154, 155-156 individual selection, 120, 247 intake studies, 128 macronutrient consumption, 46 menus, 7, 10-11, 112, 113, 114, 115, 329 modifications, 154-159 nutritional balance, 7, 112 nutritional testing, 98-100, 104-105 in Operation Desert Shield/Storm, use of, 7 packaging, 7, 112, 115 portion size, 330 prolonged feeding studies, 152-153 role of CMNR in evaluating testing of, 99 short-term applications, evaluation of, 50 Soldier Enhancement Pack, 157-159, 219, 220-221 supplement pack, 156-157 in training environment, 50 underconsumption, 3-4 wastage of, CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 weight, 7 weight loss in field study, 9 Meal size, social mediation of, 378-382 Meal timing in AFFS, 68-69 circadian rhythms and, 30, 327, 361-370 CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 duration of meal, 326, 386, 387-388 in field operations, 325 frequency, 326 perceived appropriateness, 354 physical performance and, 366 regularity and predictability, 326-327 Menu cycle CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 current standard, 112 defined, 160 n.3 food monotony study, 164-165 logistical constraints, 111-112 T Rations, 160 Menus CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 food appropriateness considerations, 24-25

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations KCLFF-E flexibility, 73-74 MFM, 115 MRE, 7, 10-11, 112, 113, 114, 115, 329 ration changes as intake factor, 162-165 ration types, 7-8 T Ration, 116, 160-162 variety, 10-11, 27, 28-29, 53 vegetarian, 115 Military Nutrition Division (MND), 5 Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs) calcium, 133 carbohydrate, 132 cold environment training, 128-130 Combat Field Feeding System, 104 folate, 134 historical development, 30-31, 59-60, 91-94 intake studies in garrison, 123 MRE conformity, 3 MRE testing, 98-100, 104-105 nutritional criteria for testing, 97-98 protein, 132 ration formulations excepted from, 30 role of, 30 T Rations, 160 for women, 130, 273 Minerals deficits in women, 258-259 immune function and, 309 in ketogenic diets, 306 long-term effects of deficits, 141 See also Calcium Mission, Energy, Troops, Terrain, and Time (METT-T) field decision making, 32 in field feeding, 66 ration choice and, 6 MND. See Military Nutrition Division Mobile kitchen trailer, 72, 74-75 Modularity, 111 Morale, 99 MRE. See Meal, Ready-to-Eat Multi-Faith Meal (MFM), described, 115 N Nibbling. See Snacking behavior Nitrogen metabolism, 308, 309, 311 Norepinephrine, 396 NRDEC. See U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center Nutrition. See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowances adaptation to macronutrient changes, 19 circadian rhythms and, 327 commanders' understanding of, 24 energy-density of foods, 27, 204 importance in military setting, 121 initial status and response to energy deficit, 255-256 ketogenic diets, 305-307 long-term effects of deficits, 141 Military Nutrition Division test methods, 122-123 MRE, 112 status of women, 258-259 survey of commanders' knowledge of, 78-80

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations underconsumption and, 18-21 weight loss and, 287 O Odor research, 243 Officers. See Commanders Omega-3/omega-6 polyunsaturates in high-fat diets, 306-307 Operational rations current types, 6-7, 110, 125 defined, 6 design considerations, 31, 44, 110-112 Overconsumption, 84-85, 124, 212, 256-257 Oxygen uptake aerobic capacity, 268-273, 277, 306 performance effects, 272 in physical performance measurement, 14 P Packaging against biochemical threats, 112 camouflage considerations, 244 challenges for military feeding, 112 CMNR recommendations regarding, 45, 51 commercial-like, 26, 115 commercial vs. military, consumption and, 194-196 on consumption, effects of, 27, 29, 42, 194 ease of opening, 329, 333 food industry research, 244 MRE, 7, 112, 115 for operational rations, 31 product name, 244 storage of unused portions, 370 Palatability as determinant of intake, 203-204 food interactions during meal, 208-210 long-terms effect, 211 micronutrients and, 210 military vs. commercial food, 183 physical exertion and, 243, 249 role of fat, 246 sensory cues and, 328 Pemmican, 18-19, 304-305 Physical performance aerobic capacity, 268-273, 277 body temperature in exertion, 260 carbohydrate metabolism and, 130-132 CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 effects of underconsumption on, 43, 46-47 energy metabolism and, 254, 259-262 fat loss as enhancer of, 257 glycogen function in, 305 during ketogenic diets, 305-306 macronutrient requirements, 18-21 meal timing and, 366 measurement strategies, 13-14, 61, 262-265 oxygen uptake, 14, 272 physical training test data, 147, 171-173 psychological factors, 264-265, 272-273 ration as force multiplier, 111 short-term high-intensity, 273-276, 314-315 strength, 265-268, 276-277

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations weight loss and, 11-14, 251, 253-254 women with nutritional deficits, 258-259 Platoon sergeants, 45 Pogey bait, 81 Portion size acceptance and, 27, 28 consumer lack of control over, 330 design considerations, 243 intake and, 206-207 liquid diets and, 206-207 wastage related to, 139 Potassium, 306, 308 Preparation of rations access to ration heating, 329 accessibility of food, 328-329 in AFFS, 68-70 in AFFS-F, 72-75 A Rations, 7-8, 117 B Rations, 7, 116-117 field challenges, 32 flameless ration heaters and, 70, 73, 113, 114 future developments, 31 future policy for field feeding, 33 in harsh environments, 128, 140 as intake factor, 27, 28 military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 183 MREs, 7 odor effects, 242-243 self-heating rations, 31, 111 sensory cues in, 327-328 strategies to increase food intake, 44-45 T Rations, 7 UGR, 8 use of prepared foods, 75 use of sauces, 75-76 Presentation intake and, 194, 207 See also Meal timing Private sector research amount of consumption, 243 consumer choices, 241-242, 344-346 food acceptance, 240 food behavior, 240-241 observation techniques, 242 packaging, 244 physiological data, 242-243 vs. academic research, 239-240 Product name, 244 Protein metabolism energy needs, 20 garrison studies, 123 intake studies, 132-133 mental functioning and, 293 partial consumption of ration and, 135 underconsumption and, 18-21 weight loss and, 20 Psychological factors adaptation to deployment, 325 eating disorder model of troop underconsumption, 400-401 economic modeling of behavior, 319-321, 333 in etiology of eating disorders, 394, 395, 396-397 evidence for social mediation of food intake, 374-377, 378-383, 388 , 392 meal regularity and predictability, 326-327 performance motivation, 290-291 physical performance and, 264-265, 272-273 situational cues, 21-22 social behavior, 373-374

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations theoretical models for social mediation of food intake, 383-387 See also Attitude; Cognitive performance Psychomotor performance, 286 Public opinion, 26, 27, 178 R Race/ethnicity, 110, 244 Rate of weight loss energy metabolism and, 12-13, 47 health risk, 12 Ration, Cold Weather (RCW), 132 Ration, defined, 6 Ration, Lightweight (RLW), 30 Religious observances. See Multi-Faith Meal Restricted rations, 30 Retort pouch, 327 n.2 Retort processing application, 112 n.2 process, 7 n.1 in self-heating group meal, 119 S Salt in ketogenic diets, 306 Sanitation center, 72 Satiety dietary fat and, 27, 204-206 dietary fiber and, 206 energy density and, 27, 204 intake and, 203-204 liquid vs. solid foods, 236 motivation to eat, 341 sensory-specific, 164, 208-212 social effects, 385-386 variety and, 164 Sauces, 75-76 Seasonings CMNR identifies research needs for, 44 food industry practice, 29 preference for, 244-245 Self-heating rations, 31, 111 group meal, 118-119 individual meal, 118-119 Self-selection food intake and135, 211, 241-242, 330 Sensory cues expectancies, 343 on food intake, effects of, 21-22, 327-328 nonsensory cues, 330-331 Sensory-specific satiety defined, 164 variety and, 208-212 Serotonin, 396 Shelf life, 111 Situational factors acceptance modeling, 63-64 CMNR identifies research needs for, 53 cognitive functioning in field exercises, 15 consumer behavior research, 343-346 deployment process, 323-325 economic modeling of behavior, 319-321, 333 expectations of food acceptance, 179-181 expectations of food quality, 181-183 field research methodology, 28 field research vs. multifactorial modeling, 33-34 in fluid intake, 29, 226-229, 232-233

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations in food acceptance, 170-171 food accessibility, 357 food appropriateness, 25, 357 general field conditions, 323 in interventions to overcome underconsumption, 47 meal timing, 30, 44, 125, 325-327 nonsensory cues, 330-331 physical setting, 21-22 research models, 319-323 sensory cues, 21-22, 327-328 social environment, 22-23, 331 in underconsumption, 11, 15, 41-42, 286, 288, 343 See also Environmental factors Snacking behavior, CMNR recommendations regarding, 51 grazing, 359 on nutrient intake, impact of, 10, 29, 45, 241-242, 338-339 social effects, 376 Social environment beverage intake and, 229 as disinhibiting, 386-387, 408 eating disorder risk, 397-398, 405 emotional response, 384-385 enhanced consumption in, 48 evidence for mediation of food intake, 374-377, 378-383, 388, 392 food intake and, 22-23, 42, 331 food stereotypes, 25-27 individual behavior and, 373-374 snacking behavior and, 376 theoretical models for mediation of food intake, 383-387 use of, to facilitate intake, 387-388 Sodium in ketogenic diets, 306 Somalia, 147 Soup, 204, 236 Special Forces, 273-276, 325 Storage shelf life, 111 of unused ration portion, 370 water, 75 Stress appetite and, 262, 401 in cognitive performance-underconsumption relationship, 293 combat anxiety, 22 ibuprofen and cytokine-mediated, 14, 53 meal regularity and, 326 in training environment, 50 underconsumption as response to, 14 Supply logistics AFFS, 66-69 food delivery and, 32-33, 41-42 menu cycle constraint, 111-112 Survival General Purpose, Food Packet, 30 Survival ration, 30 T T Rations. See Tray rations Temperate environments, conducting field studies in, 53 Testing. See Development and evaluation of feeding systems Trauma and sickness anorexia related to, 307 immune function, 308, 309 nitrogen balance in, 308, 309 resulting in cytokine-mediated undersonsumption, 307 weight loss in, 11, 14

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations Tray Ration (T Ration) acceptance, 160 applications, 7, 70, 160 arctic module, 116 in Combat Field Feeding System, 100, 104 contents, 7, 116, 159-160 described, 7, 116 development and testing, 116, 159-162 effects of ration modifications, 10 field feeding, 32, 65, 160 menus, 7, 116, 160 nutritional balance, 7, 116, 160 short-term applications, evaluation of, 50 Tumor necrosis factor, 307, 313 U Underconsumption baseline data, 18, 255-256 clinical context, 62 commanders' attitudes and, 23-24, 140-141 contributors to, 9-10, 41-43, 44, 139-141, 177, 341-342 cytokine-mediated, 14, 53, 307, 313 defined, 6, 45 dehydration as a factor in, 12, 15, 17, 44, 46, 51 effects in women, 258 effects on cognitive performance, 15-18, 43, 46, 47, 49-50, 292-294, 298-299 effects on physical performance, 43, 46-47, 49-50, 253-254 energy expenditures and work capacity, 259-262 food attributes as factor in, 25-30 food waste as measure of, 135 lack of appetite in, 14 macronutrient metabolism and, 18-21 MRE field tests, 3-4 physical eating situation and, 21-22 physiological effects, 254, 307-309 ration modification and, 11 ration-related variables, 11, 47, 412 research procedure, 8-9, 33-34 in short-term high-intensity activity, 273-276 situational factors, 11, 15, 21-23, 47, 139-140, 286, 288, 343 social environment as factor in, 22-23, 331 systemic factors, 32 in training environment, 49-50, 139-140 weight loss as indicator of, 10, 11-14, 15, 18, 21, 34, 42, 43, 45 -47, 49, 50, 51, 52 See also Interventions to overcome underconsumption Unitized Group Ration (UGR) in AFFS-F, 75-76 application, 8, 31, 117 described, 8, 117 development and testing, 117-118 features, 8, 31, 75, 115 USARIEM. See U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC), 5 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 5

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations V Variety beverages, 232 body weight and, 212 current menu cycle, 112 intake studies, 135-138 within meal, 208-210 military vs. commercial food, perceptions of, 183 ration changes as intake factor, 162-165 replacement vs., 163 sensory-specific satiety and, 164, 208-212 Vegetarian menus, 115 Veterans, in focus groups, 52 W Water access to, and food intake, 222-226, 228-229 access to, as intake determinant, 227-228, 233 carbohydrate supplements in, 148 food intake in extreme environments and, 140 temperature of, 225, 232, 249 See also Beverages; Dehydration; Hypohydration Weight loss baseline data, 255-256 CMNR identifies research needs for, 52-53 CMNR recommendations regarding, 45-47, 49-52 cognitive performance and, 15-18, 251, 292-294, 298 criteria for evaluation, 49, 106, 141 in deployment, 324 early effects of caloric deprivation, 308, 309 effects on physical performance, 11-14, 43, 46-47, 251, 253-254, 312 energy metabolism and, 138-139 fat consumption and, 205-206 field intake studies, 126-128 field monitoring for, 51, 53, 141 fluid intake and, 29, 223 food variety and, 212 forms of, 11-12 as indicator of underconsumption, 10, 11-14, 15, 18, 21, 34, 42,43, 45-47, 49, 50, 51, 52 individual differences, 291 initial nutritional status and, 255-256 intentional, 130, 256-257, 305 ketogenic diets, 305 military attitudes toward, 10, 15 MRE field studies, 9, 58, 99-100, 128 during Operation Desert Sheild/Storm, feedback on, 52 physiological effects, 11-12 protein intake and, 20 rate of, 12, 47 recent operational data, 147, 171-172 in short-term high-intensity activity, 274, 275 strength effects, 265-268, 276-277 vs. nutritional loss, 287 Women aerobic capacity and, 277 calcium intake, 104, 133-134, 141 carbohydrate intake, 19

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Not Eating Enough: Overcoming Underconsumption of Military Operational Rations CMNR recommendations regarding, 52, 53 in focus groups, 52 folate intake, 134, 141 intake studies, 130, 149, 277 nutrition standards, 93 nutritional status and physical performance, 258-259 protein intake, 20, 132 reduced hemoglobin concentration, 258, 259 World War II, 31, 93