predicting, and in conducting the process studies needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge—were greatly aided by these national and international structures. These structures worked well, both individually and cooperatively.
The TOGA Program in the United States expanded the basic tripartite structure of advice, resources, and administration into the structure shown in Figure 14. Advice was provided primarily by the NRC, relying on its TOGA Panel. The resources were gathered in an interagency collaboration between NOAA, NSF, and NASA. The TOGA Project Office was housed within its lead agency, NOAA, and resided at NOAA's Office of Global Programs.
While the structure shown in Figure 14 is interrelated in intricate ways, it is perhaps simplest to start with the advisory mechanism. The advice and review provided to the TOGA Project Office was provided by the NRC. The NRC relied on the efforts of its Advisory Panel for the TOGA Program (TOGA Panel), which is under the Climate Research Committee (CRC). The task statement for the Panel was written in 1983. It ordered the following:
Under the oversight of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, through its Climate Research Committee, and the Board on Ocean Science and Policy, the Panel will:
Provide regular guidance on scientific policy and priorities to the U.S. TOGA Program Office and involved agencies on behalf of the Climate Re