WCRP 1995), especially its seasonal-to-interannual component, the Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (GOALS, see WCRP 1995 and NRC 1994b), is designed to address these problems. We re-emphasize the words in NRC 1994b:
The ultimate scientific objectives of the GOALS Program would be to:
understand global climate variability on seasonal-to-interannual time scales;
determine the spatial and temporal extent to which this variability is predictable;
develop the observational, theoretical, and computational means to predict this variability; and
make enhanced climate predictions on seasonal-to-interannual time scales.
The focus of the GOALS program is an assessment of the global interannual climate variation that can be understood, simulated and predicted….
It is proposed that the GOALS program be an important component of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) program, which is a broader new initiative of the World Climate Research Program[me] (WCRP) addressing the variability and predictability of the coupled climate system.
TOGA opened the way to the future of seasonal-to-interannual climate prediction. These follow-on programs will further develop the means of predicting the climate for the ultimate benefit of humankind.