(see p. 121). A partial enumeration of international funding for TOGA can be found in IGFA 1993. Figure 4 provides a bar chart of U.S. spending by year, which ranged from $15 million to $39 million. For comparison, the 1994 budget for the USGCRP was $1443 million (Subcommittee on Global Change Research 1995), of which $37.5 million was directly attributed to TOGA. The near-doubling of the budget from 1989 to 1992 reflects the buildup for the TOGA COARE field program (see p. 51) of 1992–93. These totals do not include the costs of aircraft time and ship time, which were budgeted separately.

The TOGA Program benefited from activities related to predicting seasonal-to-interannual climate variations that were not considered part of

Figure 4. Funding for U.S. TOGA. The bar chart shows total funding, by year, for U.S. efforts contributing to the TOGA Program. The pie chart shows U.S. funding, by program, for the last year of TOGA. See the text for descriptions of activities that were included or excluded from the totals, and for the program abbreviations. (Data courtesy of M. Patterson, NOAA.)



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