Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Commercial Mullimeclia Technologies for Twenly-First Century Army BatIlefielcis A Technology Management Strategy Committee on Future Technologies for Army Multimedia Communications Boarcl on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. ~ 995

OCR for page R1
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of th is report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences, is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman. respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAH04-94-C-0050 between the U.S. Department of the Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 95-72007 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05378-1 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARMY MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATIONS STEWART D. PERSONICK, (Chairman), Bell Communications Research, Morristown, New Jersey DONA L. CRAWFORD, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California ROBERT G. GALLAGER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JEFFREY M. {AFFE, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Hawthorne, New York JAMES F. KUROSE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst DAVID G. LEEPER, Motorola, Chandler, Arizona CLARA F. MANDERS, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. BRIAN P. McCUNE, Callidus Technology Consulting, Palo Alto, California ALAN.J. McLAUGHLIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln LaboratoIy, Lexington, Massachusetts JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia LYNN A. STREETER, US WEST Advanced Technologies, Boulder, Colorado LEONARD P. WISHART, Burdeshaw Associates, Limited, Bethesda, Maryland BERNARD P. ZEIGLER, University of Arizona, Tucson Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison ALLEN C. WARD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Army Liaison ROBERT WASHBURN, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research, Development, and Acquisition ERIC HEILMAN, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research, Development, and Acquisition, 1994 Staff ROBERT J. LOVE, Study Director RANDOLPH R. DAVIS, Study Director, 1994 ALVERA GIRCYS, Senior Program Assistant ALLISON KNIGHT, Senior Program Assistant, 1994 NORMAN M. HAILER, Consultant . . .

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GENERAL GLEN K. OTIS (Chairman), U.S. Army (Retired), Fairfax, Virginia CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN ( Vice Chairman), General Motors Research Laboratories Warren, Michigan ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GARY L. BORMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison ALBERTO COLL, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island LAWRENCE l. DELANEY, BDM Europe, Berlin, Germany NAMES L. FLANAGAN, Center for Computer Aids in Industrial Productivity, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center, Chicago, Illinois THOMAS McNAUGHER, RAND Corporation, Washington, D.C. NORMAN F. PARKER, Varian Associates (Retired), Cardiff by the Sea, California KATHLEEN T. ROBERTSON, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Virginia JAY P. SANFORD, University of Southwestern Health Sciences Center at Dallas, Texas HARVEY W. SCHADLER, General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York JOYCE L. SHIELDS, Hay Management Consultants, Arlington, Virginia CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratory (Retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOfIN D. VENABLES, Venables & Associates, Towson, Maryland ALLEN C. WARD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Staff BRUCE A. BRAWN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Senior Program Officer E. VINCENT HOLAHAN, Senior Program Officer ROBERTS. LOVE, Senior Program Officer DONALD I. SIEBENALER, Senior Program Officer PATRICIA A. KIRCHNER, Administrative Associate MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Supervisor ALVERA V. GIRCYS, Senior Program Assistant JACQUELINE CAMPBELL-JOHNSON, Senior Program Assistant DEBORAH RANDALL, Project Assistant iv

OCR for page R1
Preface Our report responds to a request by the Army to have the National Research Council study the applicability of commercial multimedia technologies to Army command, control, communications, and intelligence needs on fu- ture battlefields. Our committee, known as the Commit- tee on Future Technologies for Army Multimedia Communications, was formed under the auspices of the Board on Army Science and Technology to carry out the study. Our first meeting was held in September 1994 at Fort Gordon, Georgia. Over the course of the study, three more meetings of our full committee took place. In addition, there were several data-gathering sessions at- tended by one or more of our members. (See the Appendix for a detailed listing of all meetings and the persons and groups that were involved.) The committee set up an electronic mail "exploder" after its first meeting at Fort Gordon, which allowed the committee to correspond collectively on an ongoing basis throughout the study. This was used by committee members to share ideas about the structure and content of the report, to exchange drafts of sections and com- ments on these drafts, and to propose changes in re- sponse to reviewers' comments. The committee also made use of multipoint teleconferencing throughout the study to discuss and resolve issues. Thus the committee made good use of some of the information technologies about which it was preparing to advise the Army. v We have structured our findings to be as useful as possible to the leaders, administrators, and managers who will take the Army into the twenty-first century. Our report shows that we believe the commercial multimedia technologies that now exist or are emerging can greatly benefit the Army of the future. The key to realizing these benefits will be for the Army to devise ways to accom- modate the very rapid pace of change that is taking place daily in the civilian world of information handling and processing. We were fortunate to have as members persons with strong representation from that part of the commercial sector involved in advanced telecommunications and computer-based applications. We were also fortunate to have members steeped in the ways of the Army and in military research and development. However, we could not have completed this study without the unfailing cooperation of the many Army personnel, from the Chief of Staff down, who explained the Army to us in ways that we all could grasp. To those Army representatives we are especially grateful. Stewart D. Personick / Chairman /

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION. Background, 9 Statement of Task, 9 Study Approach, 10 References, 11 REVIEW OF ARMY REQUIREMENTS Milestone Desert Storm, 12 Army Modernization Program, 12 Winning the Information War, 13 Army Battle Command Priorities, 13 Additional Insights, 16 Operations Other Than War, 16 A Word of Caution, 16 Summary, 17 References, 17 ................................... 12 3 REVIEW OF RELEVANT COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES . . .. . . . . . 18 Multimedia Architecture, 18 Building Block Technologies (Layer I Physical Platforms), 19 Lightweight, Rugged, Portable Appliances and Terminals, 19 Storage Systems for Multimedia Information, 22 Communications Platforms That Support People on the Move, 23 Information Capture Technologies, 24 Building Block Technologies (Layer II System Software), 25 Protocols and Related Functionality to Support Communications, 25 Distributed Computing Environments and Operating Systems, 27 Building Block Technologies (Layer III Middleware), 29 Information Filtering Systems, 29 Multimedia Database Management Systems, 30 User-Friendly Multimedia User Interfaces, 31 Multimedia Information Analysis and Processing Building Blocks and Middleware Services, 32 Building Block Technologies (Layer IV Generic Applications/Enablers), 32 Multimedia Information Access Capabilities, 32 Decision Support Tools, Groupware, Multimedia Teleconferencing, 33 Multimedia Messaging Capabilities, 33 Building Block Technologies (Layer V Specific Applications), 34 General Observations, 34 Simulation: Systems and Applications, 35 vi1

OCR for page R1
. . . V111 COILS Building Block Technologies (Layer VI Management/Security), 37 Security Technologies, 37 Network Management Systems, 38 General Purpose Languages, Tools, Development Environments, 38 Systems, 39 Cellular and Wireless Telecommunications Systems, 39 Electronic Commerce, 40 Intelligent Transportation Systems, 40 Residential Information Services, 41 Lessons Learned in the Commercial World, 41 Architecture, 41 Standards, 42 Vertical Versus Horizontal Industry Structures, 43 Leveraging Commercial Off-the-Shelf Technology, 43 How Business Meets Special Technology Requirements, 44 Leveraging Legacy Investments and Fostering Rapid Acceptance of Information Technology, 44 Adopting a Spiral Model, 45 Summary, 46 References, 46 4 MEETING ARMY NEEDS WITH COMMERCIAL MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIES Mapping Army Needs to Building Block Technologies, 48 Architecture, 49 Applicability of Commercial Technology to Army Needs, 51 Recommendations (Layer I Physical Platforms), 52 Lightweight, Rugged, Portable Appliances and Terminals, 54 Storage Systems for Multimedia Information, 54 Communication Platforms That Support People on the Move, 54 Information Capture Technologies, 55 Recommendations (Layer II- System Software), 56 Protocols and Related Functionality to Support Communications, 56 Distributed Computing Environments and Operating Systems, 56 Recommendations (Layer IIIMiddleware), 57 Information Filtering Systems, 57 Multimedia Database Management Systems, 57 User-Friendly Multimedia User Interfaces, 57 Multimedia Information Analysis and Processing Building Blocks and Middleware Services, 58 Recommendations (Layer IV Generic Applications/Enablers), 58 Multimedia Information Access Capabilities, 58 Decision Support Tools, Groupware, Multimedia Teleconferencing, 59 Multimedia Messaging Capabilities, 59 Recommendation (Layer V Specific Applications), 59 General Observations, 59 Simulation: Systems and Applications, 60 Recommendations (Layer VI Management/Security), 60 Security Technologies, 60 Network Management Systems, 61 General Purpose Languages, Tools, Development Environments, 62 An Operational Example, 62 Battle Command in the Twenty-First Century, 62 Army Commanders, the Battlefield, and Multimedia Technology, 63 .. 48

OCR for page R1
CONTENTS ix Analysis of the Scenario, 65 SummaIy, 66 References, 67 5 CORPORATE REINVENTION IN THE INFORMATION AGE . Introduction, 68 Reinvention, 68 Chapter Overview, 68 The Productivity Paradox, 69 Successful Reinventions: Case Studies, 70 Citicorp, 70 Federal Express, 71 Ford, 71 The Dark Side of Reinvention, 72 Not Every Business Process is a Candidate for Reengineering, 72 Start Small and Build from Success, 73 Inexperienced Staff and Managers Need Not Apply, 73 Cultural Changes and Support for the Change, 73 Implications for the Army, 74 Digitizing the Battlefield, 74 Effects of Reinvention on the Army, 74 Summary, 76 References, 76 6 TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 78 Introduction, 78 Be a Hunter-Gatherer of Technologies, 78 Targeting Innovation, 79 Balanced Procurement Process, 79 Establish and Enforce an Architecture, 80 Interoperability, 80 Reuse of Building Blocks, Modules, and Objects, 81 Insertion of New Technologies, 81 Facilitation of Ad Hoc Modifications, 81 Management Issues, 81 Relationships with Commercial Organizations, 82 Respond to the Need for Reinvention, 83 Adopt a Spiral Model; Emphasize Simulation, Modeling, and Experimentation, 83 Measuring Progress, 84 Other Recommendations, 84 Putting Low-Cost Multimedia and Wireless Appliances Into the Hands of Squad-Level Soldiers, 84 Encouraging Innovation, 85 Summary, 86 References, 86 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Conclusions, 87 Recommendations, 87 APPENDIX: MEETINGS AND ACTIVITIES .... 07 ...... OX 91

OCR for page R1
Tables and Figures TABLES ES-1 ES-2 ES-3 3-1 3-2 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 FIGURES 3-1 3-2 4-1 Summary of the Army Operational Needs, Including Simulation, and Functional Requirements, 2 Summary of Army Operational Needs, Including Simulation, and Functional Requirements and Their Most Relevant Enabling Building Block Technologies, 5 Recommendations for Commercial, Modified, or Army-Specific Products in Each of the Building Block Technology Areas, 6 Summary of the Army Operational Needs, Including Simulation, and Functional Requirements, 15 Comparison of Storage Requirements, 22 Simulation Support, 36 Building Block Technologies, 48 Summary of Army Operational Needs, Including Simulation, and Functional Requirements and Their Most Relevant Enabling Building Block Technologies, 49 Building Block Technologies and the Associated Army Functional Requirements They Enable, 50 Recommendations for Commercial, Modified, or Army-Specific Products in Each of the Building Block Technology Areas, 53 ES-1 Generic architecture for multimedia communications, 3 ES-2 Building block technologies in the generic multimedia architecture, 3 Generic architecture for multimedia communications, 18 Building block technologies in the generic multimedia architecture, 19 Common Operating Environment (COE) architecture, 51 x

OCR for page R1
Acronyms AMLCD Active matrix liquid crystal display AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service ANSI American National Standards Institute ARDIS Advanced Radio Data Information Service ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ATM Asynchronous transfer mode C3I Command, control, communications, and intelligence CCD Charge-coupled device CDMA Code division multiple access COE Common Operating Environment CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture COTS Commercial off-the-shelf CPU Central processing unit DBS Direct Broadcast Services DCE Distributed Computing Environment DES Digital Encryption Standard DIS Distributed Interactive Simulation DoD Department of Defense DRAM Dynamic random access memory EDI Electronic data interchange EMP Electomagnetic pulse GPS Global Positioning System GSM Global System for Mobile Communications GUI Graphical user interface HDTV High definition television HER Home Location Register IEEE Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IP Internet Protocol IS Interim Standard ISO International Standards Organization ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group STARS Joint surveillance and target attack radar system LAN Local area network LCD Liquid crystal display X1

OCR for page R1
. . X11 ACROIVYMS LED Low probability of detection LPI Low probability of intercept MIPS Millions of instructions per second MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group NSF National Science Foundation OLE Object Linking and Embedding OMG Object Management Group OODBMS Object-oriented database management systems OSF Open Software Foundation OSI Open Systems Interconnection PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association PDA Personal digital assistant POTS Plain old telephone service RDBMS Relational database management system R&D Research and development SKI Software Engineering Institute SMR Specialized mobile radio TAFIM Technical Architecture for Information Management TCP Transmission Control Protocol TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command TRM Technical Reference Model UDP User datagram protocol VLR Visited Location Register WACS Wireless Access Communications System WWW World Wide Web