technology used in military versus commercial shipbuilding would be invaluable. Finally, a significant effort in process simulation at the level of the entire yard, including suppliers, material handling, fabrication, erection, and outfitting, would provide the least-cost approach needed for U.S. shipbuilders to reenter the market.

Recommendations for NA&ME Schools

Recommendation 7. NA&ME schools must become more involved with the U.S. shipbuilding industry through research in business-process, system, and ship-production technologies, as well as through soliciting support for these and other kinds of research. The schools should continue concentrating on subjects traditionally taught but should turn much greater attention to the economic health of the industry. The future of NA&ME faculties depends very much on the health of the industry for the next decade or two, yet the schools appear to have few efforts under way to ensure the industry's health. Universities, with their multiple disciplines, led by the naval architects and marine engineers who justifiably lay claim to being good systems thinkers, should be able to seize the problem that U.S. shipbuilders face, understand what it will take to create a healthy industry, and reach as far afield as needed to understand the cultures, political motivations, and economic infrastructures of international competitors. The committee hopes that this talented group of academicians will take the initiative.

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