extend the database of ship maneuvering coefficients. ATTC and ITTC should be encouraged to investigate possible development of procedures that would allow the exploitation of existing proprietary data without source disclosure. Where data are not available from these sources, funds should be allocated to perform new tests, especially in very shallow water and in close proximity to channel boundaries or other vessels.

Improvement in Mathematical Models

The current practice for developing mathematical models for simulators is based on extrapolation of hydrodynamic coefficients from towing-tank tests for a restricted set of hull shapes. This practice may result in a degradation of the validity of the information when applied to conditions of loading and trim or to ships that differ from the model tests. In addition, the simulation of towed vessels is severely limited by the absences of systematic test data.

The conduct of full-scale real-ship experiments would significantly advance the state of practice in the development of mathematical models. These experiments could supplement the limited information available for shallow and restricted water, slow speed, and reverse propeller operational information. Vessels currently part of the U.S. Maritime Administration's Ready Reserve Fleet and some vessels in the Navy's Military Sealift Command fleet represent a possible resource for data to validate and improve mathematical models. In general, computational methods for determining the pertinent hydrodynamic parameters based on theories offer the possibility of more general and accurate simulations, particularly for ship operations in restricted waters and ship-to-ship interactions.

Recommendation 21: The U.S. Department of Transportation should develop standards for the simulation of ship maneuvering. The fidelity of the models should be validated through a structured, objective process. Standard models should be selected and tested in towing tanks and the results compared to selected full-scale real-ship trials of the same ships to provide benchmark data for validation and testing of simulators.

Recommendation 22: The U.S. Department of Transportation should initiate research to integrate computational hydrodynamic analysis with simulators in real time.

Finding Simulator-Based Training and Licensing

Specialized training on manned-model and computer-based simulators is not affordable to most individual mariners. The improvements in mariner competence and professional development possible through the application of simulator-based training are discussed throughout this report. Professional development is a shared responsibility among mariners, shipping companies, unions,



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