Engine noise and vibrations associated with the propulsion system can be added to a ship-bridge simulator in various ways. For example, a low-frequency speaker can be mounted under the bridge deck of the simulator. The sounds and vibrations that are produced need to be correlated with the RPM indicators.


Summary of Findings

In the application of simulation to training requirements, it should be recognized that there are differences in the levels of simulator component capabilities. Ship-bridge simulators can usually simulate a variety of ship types—from coastwise tugs to very large crude carriers. Each element of a simulation—the equipment simulated, the visual scene, and the motion—is important, but the relative importance of each element depends on the training objectives defined through application of the instructional design process. The creation of the illusion and the treatment of the simulation environment as being a real ship-bridge are important elements in training effectiveness.

Research Needs

In applying simulator components to objectives defined through the instructional design process, the committee identified many areas where existing research and analysis do not provide sufficient information for the committee to extend its own analysis.

The committee could find no quantitative data that address the question of how much realism (fidelity) is actually necessary to enable effective learning using simulators and simulations. Research in this area should look both at functional (how it works) and physical (how it looks) fidelity.

There is little information on the degree to which motion platforms contribute to vessel simulation. The committee agrees that motion platforms could potentially be applied for specialized training situations, but it believes that the usefulness of motion platforms will depend greatly on the trainees' experience and expertise and the accurate correlation of motion and visual cues.


Gray, D.L., J.H. de Jong, and J.T. Bringloe. 1994. Prince William Sound Disabled Tanker Towing Study, Part 2. Report File No. 9282. Prepared by the Glosten Associates and the Maritime Simulation Centre Netherlands for the Disabled Tanker Towing Study Group,Anchorage, Alaska. Seattle, Washington: The Glosten Associates.

Hammell, T.J., K.E. Williams, J.A. Grasso, and W. Evans. 1980. Simulators for Mariner Training and Licensing. Phase 1: The Role of Simulators in the Mariner Training and Licensing Process (2 volumes). Report Nos. CAORF 50–7810–01 and USCG-D-12-80. Kings Point, New York Computer Aided Operations Research Facility, National Maritime Research Center.

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