BOX 1-1 Selected Definitions

Bridge resource management is a means of organizing the maritime bridge watch to use all resources effectively, including elimination of traditional vertical and horizontal barriers to coordination, communication, and integration.

Bridge team management training includes passage planning and team management training that provides participants an opportunity to analyze various navigation scenarios and to demonstrate organizational procedures to assist in the safe conduct of the ship.

An integrated bridge has centralized ship control and navigation systems. Navigational, control, and environmental data from differing sources are collected, processed, analyzed, and displayed to facilitate the navigation and control of the ship.

Marine certification and marine licensing include the qualification requirements for the issuance of marine certificates of competency (e.g., marine licenses), the process by which these qualifications are fulfilled, examinations of knowledge and demonstrations of competence, administration of licensing programs by cognizant marine licensing authorities, and, by implication, official accountability for performance. For this report, the term marine certification is applied to the international process, and marine licensing is applied to the U.S. Coast Guard program.

Navigation is the process of directing the movement of a ship from one point to another.

A pilot, also referred to as a marine or maritime pilot, is an individual who operates from an organized pilot association or group and is licensed by a government authority (federal, state, or local authority empowered by a state) to provide pilotage services over specific waters or routes.

Piloting refers to specialized work done by pilots. It is the act of directing and controlling the navigation and maneuvering of a vessel in pilotage waters.

Shiphandling is very special, close-quarters work done primarily by pilots. It is the control and navigation of a ship by use of engines, rudder, thrusters, and tugs, as needed, taking into account environmental factors such as tide, current, wind, and weather.

Ship maneuvering is changes in course in open water, usually to avoid other ship traffic.

mariner group consists of two major subgroups—deck officers, who are a part of a vessel's complement, and marine pilots( see Box 1-1, Selected Definitions), who are independent of the vessel. Deck officers can be further subdivided into masters, chief mates, mates, and individuals in these three subgroups with federal pilot endorsements on their U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) license.

Unlicensed seamen are generally able-bodied seamen, some of whom may be working their way up to licensed status through personal study, sea service,

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